bims-netuvo Biomed News
on Nerves in tumours of visceral organs
Issue of 2021‒12‒26
three papers selected by
Maksym V. Kopanitsa
The Francis Crick Institute

  1. Cancer Med. 2021 Dec 24.
      Studies published in the last two decades have clearly demonstrated that the nervous system plays a significant role in carcinogenesis, the progression of cancer, and the development of metastases. These studies, combining oncological and neuroscientific approaches, created the basis for the emergence of a new field in oncology research, the so-called "neurobiology of cancer." The concept of the neurobiology of cancer is based on several facts: (a) psychosocial factors influence the incidence and progression of cancer diseases; (b) the nervous system affects DNA mutations and oncogene-related signaling; (c) the nervous system modulates tumor-related immune responses; (d) tumor tissues are innervated; (e) neurotransmitters released from nerves innervating tumor tissues affect tumor growth and metastasis; (f) alterations or modulation of nervous system activity affects the incidence and progression of cancers; (g) tumor tissue affects the nervous system. The aim of this review is to characterize the pillars that create the basis of cancer neurobiology, to describe recent research advances of the nervous system's role in cancer diseases, and to depict potential clinical implications for oncology.
    Keywords:  adrenergic signaling; epinephrine; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis; innervation; neurobiology of cancer; norepinephrine; propranolol; psychoneuroimmunology; stress; sympathoadrenal system; β-blockers
  2. Cells. 2021 Dec 10. pii: 3491. [Epub ahead of print]10(12):
      Dense tumor innervation is associated with enhanced cancer progression and poor prognosis. We observed innervation in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, liver, ovarian, and colon cancers. Defining innervation in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) was a focus since sensory innervation was observed whereas the normal tissue contains predominantly sympathetic input. The origin, specific nerve type, and the mechanisms promoting innervation and driving nerve-cancer cell communications in ovarian cancer remain largely unknown. The technique of neuro-tracing enhances the study of tumor innervation by offering a means for identification and mapping of nerve sources that may directly and indirectly affect the tumor microenvironment. Here, we establish a murine model of HGSOC and utilize image-guided microinjections of retrograde neuro-tracer to label tumor-infiltrating peripheral neurons, mapping their source and circuitry. We show that regional sensory neurons innervate HGSOC tumors. Interestingly, the axons within the tumor trace back to local dorsal root ganglia as well as jugular-nodose ganglia. Further manipulations of these tumor projecting neurons may define the neuronal contributions in tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and responses to therapeutics.
    Keywords:  innervation; nerve-tracing; ovarian cancer; ultrasound
  3. Noro Psikiyatr Ars. 2021 ;58(4): 278-282
      Introduction: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are rare neurological conditions and they are mostly triggered by autoimmune mechanisms. Cancer-related retinopathies (CAR) are even rarer and commonly related with breast tumor in woman. This limits our knowledge about pathophysiology of CAR. In this study, we question the association between histopathological findings and onconeural antibodies in breast cancer.Method: Thirty-two patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer admitted to the oncology outpatient clinic were included in the study. None of the participants have visual complaints. After the neurological examination of the patients, two tubes of 5 cc venous blood were obtained by screening onconeuronal antibodies. Samples were investigated in ASDETAE (İstanbul University Experimental Medicine Research Institute).
    Results: Patients included in the study included one patinet (3.1%) with grade 1, 14 patients (43.8%) with grade 2 and 17 patients (53.1%) with grade 3 invasive breast cancer. Perineural invasion was detected in 5 (15.6%) patients. Progesterone receptor positivity was found in 26 (81.2%) patients and estrogen receptor positivity was found in 27 (84.4%) patients. In 7 (21.9%) patients, CERBB2 was positive and in 25 (78.1%) patients, Ki 67 was positive. A total of 12 (37.5%) patients had onconeuroneal antibody positivity. Antibody positivity was significantly higher in patients with high grade tumor (p=0.008).
    Conclusion: There may be a relationship between tumor grade and the presence of onconeuronal antibodies in breast cancer patients. By the detection of new biochemical markers, significant contribution can be made to the early diagnosis and treatment of underlying cancer.
    Keywords:  Paraneoplastic disorders; breast tumor; cancer-associated retinopathy; recoverin antibody