bims-netuvo Biomed News
on Nerves in tumours of visceral organs
Issue of 2021‒10‒10
four papers selected by
Maksym V. Kopanitsa
The Francis Crick Institute

  1. Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 05. 11(1): 19770
      Postoperative adjuvant therapy has been indicated by advanced T classification for T3-4 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the significance of perineural invasion (PNI) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in treatment for T3-4 OSCC remains unclear. Ninety-eight cumulative patients with T3-4 OSCC who underwent curative surgery between Jan 2002 and Dec 2010 were recruited and analyzed. Twenty-seven (27.6%) patients were PNI/LVI double positive. PNI/LVI double positive demonstrated independent predictive values for higher neck metastasis (LN+), higher distant metastasis (DM) and low 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates (p < 0.001, p = 0.017, and p < 0.001, respectively) after controlling for other pathologic features of the primary tumors. A high DM rate of 33.3% was noted in PNI/LVI double-positive patients. Among the PNI/LVI double negative, single positive to double positive subgroups, increasing LN+, DM rates and decreasing DSS rate were observed. Among the 44 LN+ patients, PNI/LVI double positive remained associated with a markedly high DM rate of 42.9% and a poor 5-year DSS of 27.7%. PNI/LVI double positive plays important roles in prognostication and potential clinical application for T3-4 OSCC by independently predicting LN+, DM, and poor DSS, and can be used as a good marker to select DM high-risk patients for novel adjuvant therapy trials.
  2. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2021 Oct 07. 25(10): 63
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has become an increasingly widespread treatment tool for various chronic pain syndromes within the last two decades with the majority of publications on the topic coming after 2006. Not only are clinicians using RFA to treat more peripheral nerve pain syndromes but the technology itself is evolving quickly to the point that it is nearly impossible to stay abreast on the complexity of such a diversely utilized instrument. This review summarizes studies that focus on the use of RFA for peripheral nerve neurotomy and anatomical studies regarding RFA published between 2015 and 2020.RECENT FINDINGS: Topics in this review include anatomical regions or nerves of the body published since 2015. Significant findings are summarized in each section. Peripheral nerve RFA is rapidly changing. Many studies have been performed over the last 5 years showing the usefulness of RFA.
    Keywords:  Chronic pain treatment; Neuroablation; Neurotomy; Peripheral nerve; Pulsed radiofrequency; Radiofrequency ablation
  3. J Surg Oncol. 2021 Oct 07.
      BACKGROUND: Patients with distal cholangiocarcinoma (DCC) are prone to relapse even after radical pancreaticoduodenectomy. In this study, we sought to create an online nomogram calculator to accurately predict the recurrence risk of DCC.METHODS: A total of 184 patients were included. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent prognosis factors for recurrence-free survival and overall survival. A nomogram was constructed according to the prognostic factors in the training cohort and then tested in the validation cohort.
    RESULTS: Multivariate Cox analysis showed preoperative carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (p < 0.001), maximum tumor size (p = 0.076), perineural invasion (p = 0.044), and N stage (p = 0.076) were independent prognostic factors for DCC relapse. We then constructed a nomogram with these four factors. The consistency index (C-index) of the nomogram in the training and validation cohorts were 0.703 and 0.665, respectively. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic and decision curve analyses revealed that the nomogram provided higher diagnostic power and net benefit compared with other staging systems.
    CONCLUSION: In this study, we developed an online nomogram calculator that can accurately predict the recurrence risk of DCC and identify patients with a high risk of recurrence in a simple and convenient manner.
    Keywords:  distal cholangiocarcinoma; nomogram; online calculator; pancreaticoduodenectomy; recurrence risk
  4. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Oct 01. 4(10): e2128217
      Importance: Few studies have examined the clinicopathological characteristics and prognoses of patients with hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS).Objective: To explore the clinicopathological characteristics and prognoses of patients with HAS and develop a nomogram to predict overall survival (OS).
    Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study involved a retrospective analysis of data from 315 patients who received a diagnosis of primary HAS between April 1, 2004, and December 31, 2019, at 14 centers in China.
    Main Outcomes and Measures: OS and prognostic factors. Patients were randomly assigned to a derivation cohort (n = 220) and a validation cohort (n = 95). A nomogram was developed based on independent prognostic factors identified through a multivariable Cox mixed-effects model.
    Results: Among 315 patients with HAS (mean [SD] age, 61.9 [10.2] years; 240 men [76.2%]), 137 patients had simple HAS (defined as the presence of histologically contained hepatoid differentiation areas only), and 178 patients had mixed HAS (defined as the presence of hepatoid differentiation areas plus common adenocarcinoma areas). Patients with simple HAS had a higher median preoperative α-fetoprotein level than those with mixed HAS (195.9 ng/mL vs 48.9 ng/mL, respectively; P < .001) and a higher rate of preoperative liver metastasis (23 of 137 patients [16.8%] vs 11 of 178 patients [6.2%]; P = .003). The 3-year OS rates of patients with simple vs mixed HAS were comparable (56.0% vs 60.0%; log-rank P = .98). A multivariable Cox analysis of the derivation cohort found that the presence of perineural invasion (hazard ratio [HR], 2.13; 95% CI, 1.27-3.55; P = .009), preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen levels of 5 ng/mL or greater (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.08-2.74; P = .03), and pathological node category 3b (HR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.34-10.32; P = .01) were independent risk factors for worse OS. Based on these factors, a nomogram to predict postoperative OS was developed. The concordance indices of the nomogram (derivation cohort: 0.72 [95% CI, 0.66-0.78]; validation cohort: 0.72 [95% CI, 0.63-0.81]; whole cohort: 0.71 [95% CI, 0.66-0.76]) were higher than those derived using the American Joint Committee on Cancer's AJCC Cancer Staging Manual (8th edition) pathological tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) staging system (derivation cohort: 0.63 [95% CI, 0.57-0.69]; validation cohort: 0.65 [95% CI, 0.56-0.75]; whole cohort: 0.64 [95% CI, 0.59-0.69]) and those derived using a clinical model that included pTNM stage and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (derivation cohort: 0.64 [95% CI, 0.58-0.69]; validation cohort: 0.65 [95% CI, 0.56-0.75]; whole cohort: 0.64 [95% CI, 0.59-0.69]). Based on the nomogram cutoff of 10 points, the whole cohort was divided into high-risk and low-risk groups. The 3-year OS rate of patients in the high-risk group was significantly lower than that of patients in the low-risk group (29.7% vs 75.9%, respectively; log-rank P < .001), and the 3-year prognosis of high-risk and low-risk groups could be further distinguished into pTNM stage I to II (33.3% vs 80.2%; exact log-rank P = .15), stage III (34.3% vs 71.3%; log-rank P < .001), and stage IV (15.5% vs 70.3%; log-rank P = .009).
    Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that perineural invasion, preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen levels of 5 ng/mL or greater, and pathological node category 3b were independent risk factors associated with worse OS. An individualized nomogram was developed to predict OS among patients with HAS. This nomogram had good prognostic value and may be useful as a supplement to the current American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system.