bims-mricoa Biomed News
on MRI contrast agents
Issue of 2022‒02‒06
four papers selected by
Merve Yavuz
Bilkent University

  1. Mol Biotechnol. 2022 Jan 31.
      Despite iron-based nanoparticles gaining huge attraction in various field of sciences and technology, their application rises ecological concerns due to lack of studies on their interaction with microbial cells populations and communities, such as biofilms. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris cells were employed as a model of aquatic microalgae to investigate the impacts of L-lysine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (lys@IONPs) on microalgal growth and biofilm formation. In this regard, C. vulgaris cells were exposed to different concentrations of lys@IONPs and the growth of cells was evaluated by OD600 and biofilm formation was analyzed using crystal violet staining throughout 12 days. It was revealed that low concentration of nanoparticles (< 400 µg/mL) can promote cell growth and biofilm formation. However, higher concentrations have an adverse effect on microalgal communities. It is interesting that microalgal growth and biofilm are concentration- and exposure time-dependent to lys@IONPs. Over long period (~ 12 days) exposure to high concentrations of nanoparticles, cells can adapt with the condition, so growth was raised and biofilm started to develop. Results of the present study could be considered in ecological issues and also bioprocesses using microalgal cells.
    Keywords:  Aquatic environments; Crystal violet; Fe3O4; Magnetic nanoparticles; Magnetite nanoparticles
  2. Chem Rev. 2022 Feb 01.
      In conventional classification, soft robots feature mechanical compliance as the main distinguishing factor from traditional robots made of rigid materials. Recent advances in functional soft materials have facilitated the emergence of a new class of soft robots capable of tether-free actuation in response to external stimuli such as heat, light, solvent, or electric or magnetic field. Among the various types of stimuli-responsive materials, magnetic soft materials have shown remarkable progress in their design and fabrication, leading to the development of magnetic soft robots with unique advantages and potential for many important applications. However, the field of magnetic soft robots is still in its infancy and requires further advancements in terms of design principles, fabrication methods, control mechanisms, and sensing modalities. Successful future development of magnetic soft robots would require a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental principle of magnetic actuation, as well as the physical properties and behavior of magnetic soft materials. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the design and fabrication, modeling and simulation, and actuation and control of magnetic soft materials and robots. We then give a set of design guidelines for optimal actuation performance of magnetic soft materials. Lastly, we summarize potential biomedical applications of magnetic soft robots and provide our perspectives on next-generation magnetic soft robots.
  3. Small. 2022 Feb 04. e2107902
      Considerable research efforts into the promises of electrogenic bacteria and the commercial opportunities they present are attempting to identify potential feasible applications. Metabolic electrons from the bacteria enable electricity generation sufficient to power portable or small-scale applications, while the quantifiable electric signal in a miniaturized device platform can be sensitive enough to monitor and respond to changes in environmental conditions. Nanomaterials produced by the electrogenic bacteria can offer an innovative bottom-up biosynthetic approach to synergize bacterial electron transfer and create an effective coupling at the cell-electrode interface. Furthermore, electrogenic bacteria can revolutionize the field of bioelectronics by effectively interfacing electronics with microbes through extracellular electron transfer. Here, these new directions for the electrogenic bacteria and their recent integration with micro- and nanosystems are comprehensively discussed with specific attention toward distinct applications in the field of powering, sensing, and synthesizing. Furthermore, challenges of individual applications and strategies toward potential solutions are provided to offer valuable guidelines for practical implementation. Finally, the perspective and view on how the use of electrogenic bacteria can hold immeasurable promise for the development of future electronics and their applications are presented.
    Keywords:  bioelectronics; electrogenic bacteria; extracellular electron transfer; micro-bio-photovoltaics; microscale microbial fuel cells
  4. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 774957
      Ferroptosis, a newly discovered form of regulatory cell death (RCD), has been demonstrated to be distinct from other types of RCD, such as apoptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy. Ferroptosis is characterized by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation and oxidative perturbation, and is inhibited by iron chelators and lipophilic antioxidants. This process is regulated by specific pathways and is implicated in diverse biological contexts, mainly including iron homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. A large body of evidence suggests that ferroptosis is interrelated with various physiological and pathological processes, including tumor progression (neuro)degenerative diseases, and hepatic and renal failure. There is an urgent need for the discovery of novel effective ferroptosis-modulating compounds, even though some experimental reagents and approved clinical drugs have been well documented to have anti- or pro-ferroptotic properties. This review outlines recent advances in molecular mechanisms of the ferroptotic death process and discusses its multiple roles in diverse pathophysiological contexts. Furthermore, we summarize chemical compounds and natural products, that act as inducers or inhibitors of ferroptosis in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Herein, it is particularly highlighted that natural products show promising prospects in ferroptosis-associated (adjuvant) therapy with unique advantages of having multiple components, multiple biotargets and slight side effects.
    Keywords:  cancer; iron homeostasis; lipid peroxidation; natural products; neurodegenerative diseases; redox signaling