bims-mricoa Biomed News
on MRI contrast agents
Issue of 2021‒09‒26
five papers selected by
Merve Yavuz
Bilkent University

  1. Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2021 Sep 19.
      The most challenging task in targeting the brain is trespassing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which restricts the movement of about 98% small molecules. Targeting the central nervous system using magnetic nanoparticles may deliver the drug to the target site along with a contrast imaging property. The use of magnetic nanoparticles can become non-invasive drug targeting and a bio-imaging method for brain cancer. The strategy to apply polymeric nanoparticles as a carrier of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can be a promising tool as a multitherapeutic drug delivery approach involving delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs with a magnetic targeting approach, imaging, and hyperthermia. This review will highlight the existing difficulties/barriers in crossing the BBB, types of magnetic materials, polymeric carriers for functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles, and targeting strategies as therapeutic and imaging modalities. Utilization of polymeric magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient targeting platform for better drug delivery and imaging for brain cancer and future prospects are also discussed. Polymeric magnetic nanoparticles as a drug delivery and bio-imaging vehicle for brain cancer.
    Keywords:  Brain cancer therapy; Drug delivery; Hyperthermia; Magnetic nanoparticles; Polymeric nanoparticles
  2. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2021 Aug 01. 17(8): 1510-1524
      Fenton reaction, a typical inorganic reaction, is broadly utilized in the field of wastewater treatment. Recently In case of its ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cells, it has been frequently reported in cancer treatment. Using the unique tumor microenvironment in cancer cells, many iron-based nanoparticles have been developed to release iron ions in cancer cells to induce Fenton reaction. In this mini review, we outline several different types of iron-based nanoparticles and several main means to enhance Fenton reaction in cancer cells. Finally, we discussed the advantages and disadvantages of iron-based nanoparticles for cancer therapy, prospected the future development of iron-based nanoparticles. It is believed that iron-based nanoparticles can make certain contribution to the cause of human cancer in the future.
  3. Curr Protoc. 2021 Sep;1(9): e249
      Biologically derived nanoparticles such as extracellular vesicles are promising candidates for therapeutic applications. In vivo toxicity of biological nanoparticles can result in tissue or organ damage, immunological perturbations, or developmental effects but cannot be readily predicted from in vitro studies. Therefore, an essential component of the preclinical assessment of these particles for their use as therapeutics requires screening for adverse effects and detailed characterization of their toxicity in vivo. However, there are no standardized, comprehensive methods to evaluate the toxicity profile of nanoparticle treatment in a preclinical model. Here, we first describe a method to prepare bovine milk-derived nanovesicles (MNVs). These MNVs are inexpensive to isolate, have a scalable production platform, and can be modified to achieve a desired biological effect. We also describe two vertebrate animal models, mice and zebrafish, that can be employed to evaluate the toxicity profile of biologically derived nanoparticles, using MNVs as an example. Treatment-induced organ toxicity and immunological effects can be assessed in mice receiving systemic injections of MNVs, and developmental toxicity can be assessed in zebrafish embryos exposed to MNVs in embryo water. Utilizing these animal models provides opportunities to analyze the toxicity profiles of therapeutic extracellular vesicles in vivo. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Preparation of milk-derived nanovesicles Basic Protocol 2: In vivo screening for organ toxicity and immune cell profiling using mice Basic Protocol 3: In vivo developmental toxicity screening using zebrafish.
    Keywords:  biological nanoparticles; developmental toxicity; nanotherapeutics; safety; zebrafish
  4. FEBS J. 2021 Sep 20.
      Iron is an essential element for all organisms. Iron-containing proteins play critical roles in cellular functions. The biological importance of iron is largely attributable to its chemical properties as a transitional metal. However, an excess of "free" reactive iron damages the macromolecular components of cells and cellular DNA through the production of harmful free radicals. On the other hand, most of the body's excess iron is stored in the liver. Not only hereditary haemochromatosis but also some liver diseases with mild to moderate hepatic iron accumulation, such as chronic hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, are associated with a high risk for liver cancer development. These findings have attracted attention to the causative and promotive roles of iron in the development of liver cancer. In the last decade, accumulating evidence regarding molecules regulating iron metabolism or iron-related cell death programmes such as ferroptosis has shed light on the relationship between hepatic iron accumulation and hepatocarcinogenesis. In this review, we briefly present the current molecular understanding of iron regulation in the liver. Next, we describe the mechanisms underlying dysregulated iron metabolism depending on the aetiology of liver diseases. Finally, we discuss the causative and promotive roles of iron in cancer development.
    Keywords:  Nrf2; ferroptosis; hepatocellular carcinoma; hepcidin; mitochondria; p53
  5. Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 18. pii: S1471-4922(21)00208-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      The skin microbiota plays an essential role in the protection against pathogens. It is our skin microbiota that makes us smell different from each other, rendering us more or less attractive to mosquitoes. Mosquitoes exploit skin bacterial odours to locate their hosts and are vectors of pathogens that can cause severe diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. A novel solution for long-lasting protection against insect vectors of disease could be attained by manipulating the bacterial commensals on human skin. The current options for protection against biting insects usually require topical application of repellents that evaporate within hours. We discuss possible routes for the use of commensal bacteria to create a microbial-based repellent.
    Keywords:  disease; mosquitoes; odours; probiotic; repellent; skin microbiome