bims-mricoa Biomed News
on MRI contrast agents
Issue of 2021‒09‒12
ten papers selected by
Merve Yavuz
Bilkent University

  1. Front Microbiol. 2021 ;12 718232
      Nanotechnological developments, including fabrication and use of magnetic nanomaterials, are growing at a fast pace. Magnetic nanoparticles are exciting tools for use in healthcare, biological sensors, and environmental remediation. Due to better control over final-product characteristics and cleaner production, biogenic nanomagnets are preferable over synthetic ones for technological use. In this sense, the technical requirements and economic factors for setting up industrial production of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB)-derived nanomagnets were studied in the present work. Magnetite fabrication costs in a single-stage fed-batch and a semicontinuous process were US$ 10,372 and US$ 11,169 per kilogram, respectively. Depending on the variations of the production process, the minimum selling price for biogenic nanomagnets ranged between US$ 21 and US$ 120 per gram. Because these prices are consistently below commercial values for synthetic nanoparticles, we suggest that microbial production is competitive and constitutes an attractive alternative for a greener manufacturing of magnetic nanoparticles nanotools with versatile applicability.
    Keywords:  biominerals; clean production; magnetic nanoparticles; magnetosomes; magnetotactic bacteria; process simulation; techno-economic analysis
  2. Polymers (Basel). 2021 Sep 03. pii: 2989. [Epub ahead of print]13(17):
      Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world, which is why it is so important to make an early and very precise diagnosis to obtain a good prognosis. Thanks to the combination of several imaging modalities in the form of the multimodal molecular imaging (MI) strategy, a great advance has been made in early diagnosis, in more targeted and personalized therapy, and in the prediction of the results that will be obtained once the anticancer treatment is applied. In this context, magnetic nanoparticles have been positioned as strong candidates for diagnostic agents as they provide very good imaging performance. Furthermore, thanks to their high versatility, when combined with other molecular agents (for example, fluorescent molecules or radioisotopes), they highlight the advantages of several imaging techniques at the same time. These hybrid nanosystems can be also used as multifunctional and/or theranostic systems as they can provide images of the tumor area while they administer drugs and act as therapeutic agents. Therefore, in this review, we selected and identified more than 160 recent articles and reviews and offer a broad overview of the most important concepts that support the synthesis and application of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles as molecular agents in advanced cancer detection based on the multimodal molecular imaging approach.
    Keywords:  MRI; cancer; magnetic nanoparticles; multimodal molecular imaging; nanobiotechnology; theranosis
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 27. pii: 9268. [Epub ahead of print]22(17):
      Hybrid materials composed of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and lipid self-assemblies possess considerable applicative potential in the biomedical field, specifically, for drug/nutrient delivery. Recently, we showed that SPIONs-doped lipid cubic liquid crystals undergo a cubic-to-hexagonal phase transition under the action of temperature or of an alternating magnetic field (AMF). This transition triggers the release of drugs embedded in the lipid scaffold or in the water channels. In this contribution, we address this phenomenon in depth, to fully elucidate the structural details and optimize the design of hybrid multifunctional carriers for drug delivery. Combining small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a magnetic characterization, we find that, in bulk lipid cubic phases, the cubic-to-hexagonal transition determines the magnetic response of SPIONs. We then extend the investigation from bulk liquid-crystalline phases to colloidal dispersions, i.e., to lipid/SPIONs nanoparticles with cubic internal structure ("magnetocubosomes"). Through Synchrotron SAXS, we monitor the structural response of magnetocubosomes while exposed to an AMF: the magnetic energy, converted into heat by SPIONs, activates the cubic-to-hexagonal transition, and can thus be used as a remote stimulus to spike drug release "on-demand". In addition, we show that the AMF-induced phase transition in magnetocubosomes steers the realignment of SPIONs into linear string assemblies and connect this effect with the change in their magnetic properties, observed at the bulk level. Finally, we assess the internalization ability and cytotoxicity of magnetocubosomes in vitro on HT29 adenocarcinoma cancer cells, in order to test the applicability of these smart carriers in drug delivery applications.
    Keywords:  SPIONs; cubic phases; cubosomes; drug delivery; lyotropic liquid crystals; magnetic properties; nanoparticles; phase transition
  4. Cancer Cell Int. 2021 Sep 06. 21(1): 470
      Understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer biology introduces targeted therapy as a complementary method along with other conventional therapies. Recombinant immunotoxins are tumor specific antibodies that their recognizing fragment is utilized for delivering modified toxins into tumor cells. These molecules have been considered as a targeted strategy in the treatment of human cancers. HER2 tumor biomarker is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that can be used for targeted therapies in the forms of anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates and immunotoxins. There have been many studies on HER2-based immunotoxins in recent years, however, little progress has been made in the clinical field which demanded more improvements. Here, we summarized the HER2 signaling and it's targeting using immunotherapeutic agents in human cancers. Then, we specifically reviewed anti-HER2 immunotoxins, and their strengths and drawbacks to highlight their promising clinical impact.
    Keywords:  Cytolytic fusion protein; ImmunoRNase; Immunoapoptin; Monoclonal antibody; Recombinant immunotoxin
  5. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Sep 06. 37(10): 168
      With the ongoing depletion of fossil fuel resources and emerging environmental issues, increasing research effort is being dedicated to producing biofuels from renewable substrates. With its advantages over ethanol in terms of energy density, octane number, and hygroscopicity, isobutanol is considered a potential alternative to traditional gasoline. However, as wild-type microorganisms cannot achieve the production of isobutanol with high titers and yields, rational genetic engineering has been employed to enhance its production. Herein, we review the latest developments in the metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of isobutanol, including those related to the utilization of diverse carbon sources, balancing the redox state, improving isobutanol tolerance, and application of synthetic biology circuits and tools.
    Keywords:  Escherichia coli; Isobutanol; Metabolic engineering; Synthetic biology
  6. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2021 Aug 24. pii: S0021-9797(21)01376-X. [Epub ahead of print]606(Pt 2): 1737-1744
      A protein corona forms around nanoparticles when they are intravenously injected into the bloodstream. The composition of the protein corona dictates the interactions between nanoparticles and the biological systems thus their immune evasion, blood circulation, and biodistribution. Here, we report for the first time the impact of nanoparticle stiffness on protein corona formation using a unique emulsion core silica shell nanocapsules library with a wide range of mechanical properties over four magnitudes (700 kPa to 10 GPa). The nanocapsules with different stiffness showed distinct proteomic fingerprints. The protein corona of the stiffest nanocapsules contained the highest amount of complement protein (Complement C3) and immunoglobulin proteins, which contributed to their high macrophage uptake, confirming the important role of nanocapsules stiffness in controlling the protein corona formation thus their in vitro and in vivo behaviors.
    Keywords:  Cell uptake; Drug delivery; Mechanical property; Nanomedicine; Nanoparticle; Protein adsorption; Protein corona; Silica; Stiffness
  7. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2021 Sep 06.
      Skin penetration of active molecules for treatment of diverse diseases is a major field of research owing to the advantages associated with skin like easy accessibility, reduced systemic derived side effects and increased therapeutic efficacy. Despite these advantages, dermal drug delivery is generally challenging due to the low skin permeability of therapeutics. Although various methods have been developed to improve skin penetration and permeation of therapeutics, they are usually aggressive and could lead to irreversible damage to the stratum corneum. Nanosized carrier systems represent an alternative approach for current technologies with minimal damage to the natural barrier function of skin. In this review, the use of nanoparticles to deliver drug molecules, genetic material and vaccines into the skin is discussed. In addition, nanotoxicology studies and recent clinical development on nanoparticles are highlighted to shed light on their potential to undergo market translation.
    Keywords:  Gene expression; Skin penetration; Transdermal Vaccination; drug delivery; nanoparticles
  8. J Med Radiat Sci. 2021 Sep 09.
      Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been traditionally regarded as a safe imaging modality due to the absence of ionising radiation. However, MRI is a source of potential hazards with a variety of risks including, but not limited to, those associated with the various electromagnetic fields used for imaging. All MRI technologists (radiographers) require sound knowledge of the physical principles of the MRI scanner and must understand the associated safety risks and how to avoid adverse events from occurring. MRI technologists now assume more responsibility in clinical decision-making, and their knowledge base has consequently had to expand significantly. In addition, rapid advancements in MRI technology and other correlated areas such as medical implant technology, and the associated increase in MRI safety issues, place increasing demands on the MRI technologist to constantly keep abreast of current and future developments. This article reviews current and emerging MRI safety issues relevant to the three MRI electromagnetic fields and highlights the key information that all MRI technologists should be fully cognisant of to ensure competent and safe practice within the MRI environment.
    Keywords:  Adverse Events < General; Contraindications < General; Magnetic Resonance Imaging < Discipline; Medical Imaging < General; Patient care < General; Radiographer < Medical Imaging; Research - review < General
  9. J Control Release. 2021 Sep 01. pii: S0168-3659(21)00468-5. [Epub ahead of print]338 394-409
      Microneedles are unique, novel and an effective approach designed to deliver therapeutic agents and immunobiologicals in several diseases. These tiny needle patches are designed to load vaccine, small or large drug molecule, heavy molecular weighted proteins, genes, antibodies, nanoparticles and many more. These nanoparticles loaded microneedles deliver drugs deep within the skin near underlying neutrophils, langerhans and dendritic cells and induces required immunological response. With the drawbacks associated with conventional methods of cancer chemotherapy, the focus was shifted towards use of microneedles in not just anti-cancer vaccine/drug delivery but also for their early diagnosis. This delivery device is also suited for synergistic approaches such as chemotherapy or gene therapy combined with photothermal or photodynamic therapy. The painless self-administrative device offers an alternative over traditional routes of drug delivery including systemic administration via hypodermic needles. Additionally, these microneedles can be fabricated and altered in shape, size and geometry and the material polymer can be chosen depending on use and release mechanism. This review consolidates positive results obtained from studies done for different type of microneedle array in several tumor cell lines and animal models. It further highlights the use of biodegradable polymers such as hydrogel or any dissolving polymer that can be utilized for sustained codelivery of drug/vaccine to shun the need of multiple dosing. It covers the existing limitations that still needs to be resolved and further highlights on the future aspects of their use in cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Chemotherapy; Hydrogels; Immunotherapy; Microneedles; Photodynamic therapy; Photothermal therapy; Vaccines
  10. Materials (Basel). 2021 Aug 31. pii: 4982. [Epub ahead of print]14(17):
      Applications of natural hyaluronic acid (HYH) for the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites for biomedical applications are described. Such composites combine unique functional properties of HYH with functional properties of hydroxyapatite, various bioceramics, bioglass, biocements, metal nanoparticles, and quantum dots. Functional properties of advanced composite gels, scaffold materials, cements, particles, films, and coatings are described. Benefiting from the synergy of properties of HYH and inorganic components, advanced composites provide a platform for the development of new drug delivery materials. Many advanced properties of composites are attributed to the ability of HYH to promote biomineralization. Properties of HYH are a key factor for the development of colloidal and electrochemical methods for the fabrication of films and protective coatings for surface modification of biomedical implants and the development of advanced biosensors. Overcoming limitations of traditional materials, HYH is used as a biocompatible capping, dispersing, and structure-directing agent for the synthesis of functional inorganic materials and composites. Gel-forming properties of HYH enable a facile and straightforward approach to the fabrication of antimicrobial materials in different forms. Of particular interest are applications of HYH for the fabrication of biosensors. This review summarizes manufacturing strategies and mechanisms and outlines future trends in the development of functional biocomposites.
    Keywords:  biocement; bioglass; composite; drug; gel; hyaluronic acid; hydroxyapatite