bims-mricoa Biomed News
on MRI contrast agents
Issue of 2021‒08‒01
four papers selected by
Merve Yavuz
Bilkent University

  1. Biomater Sci. 2021 Jul 27.
      In recent years, cancer therapy strategies utilizing live tumor-targeting bacteria have presented unique advantages. Engineered bacteria have the particular ability to distinguish tumors from normal tissues with less toxicity. Live bacteria are naturally capable of homing to tumors, resulting in high levels of local colonization because of insufficient oxygen and low pH in the tumor microenvironment. Bacteria initiate their antitumor effects by directly killing the tumor or by activating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses. The bacterial vectors can be reprogrammed following advanced DNA synthesis, sophisticated genetic bioengineering, and biosensors to engineer microorganisms with complex functions, and then produce and deliver anticancer agents based on clinical needs. However, because of the lack of knowledge on the mechanisms and side effects of microbial cancer therapy, developing such smart microorganisms to treat or prevent cancer remains a significant challenge. In this review, we summarized the potential, status, opportunities and challenges of this growing field. We illustrated the mechanism of tumor regression induced by engineered bacteria and discussed the recent advances in the application of bacteria-mediated cancer therapy to improve efficacy, safety and drug delivery. Finally, we shared our insights into the future directions of tumor-targeting bacteria in cancer therapy.
  2. Front Chem. 2021 ;9 629054
      Diverse applications of nanoparticles (NPs) have revolutionized various sectors in society. In the recent decade, particularly magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have gained enormous interest owing to their applications in specialized areas such as medicine, cancer theranostics, biosensing, catalysis, agriculture, and the environment. Controlled surface engineering for the design of multi-functional MNPs is vital for achieving desired application. The MNPs have demonstrated great efficacy as thermoelectric materials, imaging agents, drug delivery vehicles, and biosensors. In the present review, first we have briefly discussed main synthetic methods of MNPs, followed by their characterizations and composition. Then we have discussed the potential applications of MNPs in different with representative examples. At the end, we gave an overview on the current challenges and future prospects of MNPs. This comprehensive review not only provides the mechanistic insight into the synthesis, functionalization, and application of MNPs but also outlines the limits and potential prospects.
    Keywords:  applications; characterization; composition; magnetic nanoparticles; synthesis
  3. Langmuir. 2021 Jul 26.
      In this study, Fe3O4 nanospheres with different levels of hollowness were successfully prepared by the solvent thermal method. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanospheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry, and Image-Pro software was used to analyze the hollowness of the Fe3O4 nanospheres for the first time. It was found that excess reactants could lead to the disappearance of the hollow structure of the Fe3O4 nanospheres, and the reason for this phenomenon was discussed as due to entropy increase theory. Furthermore, the influence of the hollowness and size distribution on the magnetic properties of the Fe3O4 nanospheres was evaluated. The magnetic properties of a Fe3O4 nanosphere with a hollowness of 10.48% showed a relatively high saturation magnetization of 103 emu/g and a rather low coercivity (54 Oe). The as-prepared Fe3O4 nanospheres are expected to be useful in a wide range of fields such as drug-delivery and energy applications.
  4. Anal Methods. 2021 Jul 27.
      The fast-advancing progress in the research of nanomedicine and microneedle applications in the past two decades has suggested that the combination of the two concepts could help to overcome some of the challenges we are facing in healthcare. They include poor patient compliance with medication and the lack of appropriate administration forms that enable the optimal dose to reach the target site. Nanoparticles as drug vesicles can protect their cargo and deliver it to the target site, while evading the body's defence mechanisms. Unfortunately, despite intense research on nanomedicine in the past 20 years, we still haven't answered some crucial questions, e.g. about their colloidal stability in solution and their optimal formulation, which makes the translation of this exciting technology from the lab bench to a viable product difficult. Dissolvable microneedles could be an effective way to maintain and stabilise nano-sized formulations, whilst enhancing the ability of nanoparticles to penetrate the stratum corneum barrier. Both concepts have been individually investigated fairly well and many analytical techniques for tracking the fate of nanomaterials with their precious cargo, both in vitro and in vivo, have been established. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive overview of the analytical tools encompassing the concepts of microneedles and nanoparticles with specific and successful examples is missing. In this review, we have attempted to briefly analyse the challenges associated with nanomedicine itself, but crucially we provide an easy-to-navigate scheme of methods, suitable for characterisation and imaging the physico-chemical properties of the material matrix.