bims-mricoa Biomed News
on MRI contrast agents
Issue of 2021‒07‒18
six papers selected by
Merve Yavuz
Bilkent University

  1. Adv Mater. 2021 Jul 16. e2005944
      Cell-based living materials, including single cells, cell-laden fibers, cell sheets, organoids, and organs, have attracted intensive interests owing to their widespread applications in cancer therapy, regenerative medicine, drug development, and so on. Significant progress in materials, microfabrication, and cell biology have promoted the development of numerous promising microfluidic platforms for programming these cell-based living materials with a high-throughput, scalable, and efficient manner. In this review, the recent progress of novel microfluidic platforms for programming cell-based living materials is presented. First, the unique features, categories, and materials and related fabrication methods of microfluidic platforms are briefly introduced. From the viewpoint of the design principles of the microfluidic platforms, the recent significant advances of programming single cells, cell-laden fibers, cell sheets, organoids, and organs in turns are then highlighted. Last, by providing personal perspectives on challenges and future trends, this review aims to motivate researchers from the fields of materials and engineering to work together with biologists and physicians to promote the development of cell-based living materials for human healthcare-related applications.
    Keywords:  cells; delivery; microfluidics; organ chips; organoids
  2. Artif Organs. 2021 Jul 09.
      Nanoscience has been considered as one of the most substantial research in modern science. The utilization of nanoparticle (NP) materials provides numerous advantages in biomedical applications due to their unique properties. Among various types of nanoparticles, the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of iron oxide possess intrinsic features, which have been efficiently exploited for biomedical purposes including drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, Magnetic-activated cell sorting, nanobiosensors, hyperthermia, and tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The size and shape of nanostructures are the main factors affecting the physicochemical features of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which play an important role in the improvement of MNP properties, and can be controlled by appropriate synthesis strategies. On the other hand, the proper modification and functionalization of the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles have significant effects on the improvement of physicochemical and mechanical features, biocompatibility, stability, and surface activity of MNPs. This review focuses on popular methods of fabrication, beneficial surface coatings with regard to the main required features for their biomedical use, as well as new applications.
    Keywords:  biomedical applications; magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; properties; surface functionalization; synthesis
  3. Nanoscale Adv. 2021 Jun 30. 3(13): 3799-3815
      Magnetosomes represent biogenic, magnetic nanoparticles biosynthesized by magnetotactic bacteria. Subtle biological control on each step of biomineralization generates core-shell nanoparticles of high crystallinity, strong magnetization and uniform shape and size. These features make magnetosomes a promising alternative to chemically synthesized nanoparticles for many applications in the biotechnological and biomedical field, such as their usage as biosensors in medical diagnostics, as drug-delivery agents, or as contrast agents for magnetic imaging techniques. Thereby, the particles are directly applied to mammalian cells or even injected into the body. In the present work, we provide a comprehensive characterization of isolated magnetosomes as potential cytotoxic effects and particle uptake have not been well studied so far. Different cell lines including cancer cells and primary cells are incubated with increasing particle amounts, and effects on cell viability are investigated. Obtained data suggest a concentration-dependent biocompatibility of isolated magnetosomes for all tested cell lines. Furthermore, magnetosome accumulation in endolysosomal structures around the nuclei is observed. Proliferation rates are affected in the presence of increasing particle amounts; however, viability is not affected and doubling times can be restored by reducing the magnetosome concentration. In addition, we evidence magnetosome-cell interactions that are strong enough to allow for magnetic cell sorting. Overall, our study not only assesses the biocompatibility of isolated magnetosomes, but also evaluates effects on cell proliferation and the fate of internalized magnetosomes, thereby providing prerequisites for their future in vivo application as biomedical agents.
  4. J Nanobiotechnology. 2021 Jul 10. 19(1): 206
      Electrodynamic therapy (EDT) has recently emerged as a potential external field responsive approach for tumor treatment. While it presents a number of clear superiorities, EDT inherits the intrinsic challenges of current reactive oxygen species (ROS) based therapeutic treatments owing to the complex tumor microenvironment, including glutathione (GSH) overexpression, acidity and others. Herein for the first time, iron oxide nanoparticles are decorated using platinum nanocrystals (Fe3O4@Pt NPs) to integrate the current EDT with chemodynamic phenomenon and GSH depletion. Fe3O4@Pt NPs can effectively induce ROS generation based on the catalytic reaction on the surface of Pt nanoparticles triggered by electric field (E), and meanwhile it may catalyze intracellular H2O2 into ROS via Fenton reaction. In addition, Fe3+ ions released from Fe3O4@Pt NPs under the acidic condition in tumor cells consume GSH in a rapid fashion, inhibiting ROS clearance to enhance its antitumor efficacy. As a result, considerable in vitro and in vivo tumor inhibition phenomena are observed. This study has demonstrated an alternative concept of combinational therapeutic modality with superior efficacy.
    Keywords:  Chemodynamic therapy; Electrodynamic therapy; Fe3O4@Pt; GSH depletion
  5. Nanotechnology. 2021 Jul 12.
      Ferrofluids or magnetic nanofluids are highly stable colloidal suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed into various base fluids. These stable ferrofluids possess high thermal conductivity, improved thermo-physical properties, higher colloidal stability, good magnetic properties, and biocompatibility, which are the primary driving forces behind their excellent performance, and thus enable them to be used for a wide range of practical applications. The most studied and advanced ferrofluids are based on iron oxide nanostructures especially NPs, because of their easy and large-scale synthesis at low costs. Although in the last decade, several review articles are available on ferrofluids but mainly focused on preparations, properties, and a specific application. Hence, a collective and comprehensive review article on the recent progress of iron oxide nanostructures based ferrofluids for advanced biomedical applications is undeniably required. The state of the art of biomedical applications is presented and critically analyzed with a special focus on hyperthermia, drug delivery/nanomedicine, MRI, and magnetic separation of cells. This review article provides up-to-date information related to the technological advancements and emerging trends in iron oxide nanostructures based ferrofluids research focused on advanced biomedical applications. Finally, conclusions and outlook of iron oxide nanostructures based ferrofluids research for biomedical applications are presented.
    Keywords:  Fe3O4 nanoparticles; Ferrofluids; Hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging; Iron oxide nanostructures; Magnetic separation of cells; Nanomedicine and drug delivery; Thermal and magnetic properties
  6. Rev Sci Instrum. 2021 May 01. 92(5): 054103
      Magnetic particle characterization determines the quality of magnetic particles and is of great importance in particle technology, drug delivery, cell separation, in vivo diagnostics, and other biomedical applications. The quality of the sample depends on the particle size, intrinsic magnetic properties of the particles, and the uniformity of these properties. A commercial particle tracking velocimeter was used to record and capture dark field images of particle trajectories in an applied isodynamic magnetic field. The calibrated particle size, magnetophoretic mobility, and additional image data were collected for each magnetic bead imaged. Using twenty-one different de-identified calibration beads and transmission electron microscopy to validate the vendor-reported particle size enabled the estimation of intrinsic magnetic properties, namely, apparent magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization, of individual paramagnetic particles. The distributions of volume magnetic susceptibility based on the magnetophoretic mobility and size of the particle for different magnetic beads were determined and displayed as two-parameter distributions. The measured apparent susceptibility and saturation magnetization were found to be directly proportional to the percentage of iron oxide in the reagent particles.