bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2021‒07‒04
twenty-one papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University

  1. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2021 Jun 01. 37(2): 106-108
      On August 27, 2019, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were identified in a neighborhood located in York, NE, through routine arboviral surveillance. Expanded surveillance using traps and morphologic identification revealed 118 adult Ae. aegypti throughout the adjacent neighborhood, including identification from larval sampling. Our findings describe the first recorded Ae. aegypti introduction in Nebraska and provide evidence of a breeding mosquito population, which suggests suitable habitat and the risk of potential establishment, raising concerns about prevention of arboviral diseases in Nebraska.
    Keywords:   Aedes aegypti ; Nebraska; arboviral surveillance; mosquitoes
  2. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2021 Jun 01. 37(2): 93-97
      Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are invasive mosquitoes, capable of vectoring arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika. Recent shifts in spatial distribution indicate there is a resurgence of Ae. aegypti in certain regions of Florida. After a 26-year absence, Ae. aegypti larvae were collected in a downtown neighborhood in Gainesville, Florida, in November 2019. Subsequent surveys confirmed that Ae. albopictus was completely displaced by Ae. aegypti in this neighborhood, whereas Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti coexisted around this community focus, and Ae. albopictus alone has been found elsewhere in the city and county since the 1990s. Field surveys revealed that Ae. aegypti is resurging in the downtown area of Gainesville and is actively dispersing to adjacent neighborhoods. Thus, Ae. aegypti could potentially replace Ae. albopictus across more of urban Gainesville in north-central Florida, as reported recently in coastal cities of northeastern Florida.
    Keywords:   Aedes aegypti ; Aedes albopictus ; displacement; resurgence; surveillance
  3. Insects. 2021 Jun 06. pii: 528. [Epub ahead of print]12(6):
      Several types of olfactometers have been used to evaluate mosquito responses to agents that mimic natural volatiles that repel or attract. The Y-tube olfactometer has been widely used to study repellents and attractants, while the high-throughput screening system assay has only been used to study repellents. Whether the high-throughput screening system assay is suitable for evaluating attractants is unknown. We evaluated the responses to four lactic-acid-based mixtures and two non-lactic-acid-based chemical lure candidates using the high-throughput screening system (HITSS) for three mosquito species (laboratory strains and field populations of both Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.; laboratory strain of Anopheles minimus Theobald) under laboratory-controlled conditions. HITSS assay results showed that KU-lure #1 elicited the greatest percent attraction for pyrethroid-resistant and -susceptible Ae. aegypti. KU-lure #6 elicited the strongest attractive response for pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus and pyrethroid-susceptible An. minimus. The response to the lures from each species was independent of the pyrethroid susceptibility status (Ae. aegypti, p = 0.825; Cx. quinquefasciatus, p = 0.056). However, a significant difference in attraction to KU-lure #6 was observed between diurnal and nocturnal mosquitoes (Cx. quinquefasciatus vs. Ae. aegypti, p = 0.014; An. minimus vs. Ae. aegypti, p = 0.001). The laboratory-level HITSS assay effectively selects potential lure candidates. Because the host-seeking behavior differs between mosquito species, further studies are needed to develop species-specific attractants. Additional studies in semi-field screen houses using commercial traps are necessary to evaluate the accuracy of these laboratory assay results.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Anopheles minimus; BG-lure; Culex quinquefasciatus; KU-lure; attractant; diffusion assay; high-throughput screening system assay; olfactometer
  4. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jun 26. 14(1): 332
      Mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the main vectors of many viruses, e.g. dengue and Zika, which affect millions of people each year and for which there are limited treatment options. Understanding how Aedes mosquitoes tolerate high viral loads may lead to better disease control strategies. Elucidating endogenous viral elements (EVEs) within vector genomes may give exploitable biological insights. Previous studies have reported the presence of a large number of EVEs in Aedes genomes. Here we investigated if flavivirus EVEs are conserved across populations and different Aedes species by using ~ 500 whole genome sequence libraries from Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, sourced from colonies and field mosquitoes across continents. We found that nearly all flavivirus EVEs in the Ae. aegypti reference genome originate from four separate putative viral integration events, and that they are highly conserved across geographically diverse samples. By contrast, flavivirus EVEs in the Ae. albopictus reference genome originate from up to nine distinct integration events and show low levels of conservation, even within samples from narrow geographical ranges. Our analysis suggests that flaviviruses integrated as long sequences and were subsequently fragmented and shuffled by transposable elements. Given that EVEs of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus belong to different phylogenetic clades and have very differing levels of conservation, they may have different evolutionary origins and potentially different functional roles.
    Keywords:  Aedes; Arbovirus; Endogenous viral element; Flavivirus; Mosquito
  5. Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 29. 11(1): 13457
      Anopheles funestus is playing an increasing role in malaria transmission in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, where An. gambiae s.s. has been effectively controlled by long-lasting insecticidal nets. We investigated vector population bionomics, insecticide resistance and malaria transmission dynamics in 86 study clusters in North-West Tanzania. An. funestus s.l. represented 94.5% (4740/5016) of all vectors and was responsible for the majority of malaria transmission (96.5%), with a sporozoite rate of 3.4% and average monthly entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of 4.57 per house. Micro-geographical heterogeneity in species composition, abundance and transmission was observed across the study district in relation to key ecological differences between northern and southern clusters, with significantly higher densities, proportions and EIR of An. funestus s.l. collected from the South. An. gambiae s.l. (5.5%) density, principally An. arabiensis (81.1%) and An. gambiae s.s. (18.9%), was much lower and closely correlated with seasonal rainfall. Both An. funestus s.l. and An. gambiae s.l. were similarly resistant to alpha-cypermethrin and permethrin. Overexpression of CYP9K1, CYP6P3, CYP6P4 and CYP6M2 and high L1014S-kdr mutation frequency were detected in An. gambiae s.s. populations. Study findings highlight the urgent need for novel vector control tools to tackle persistent malaria transmission in the Lake Region of Tanzania.
  6. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jun 06. pii: 6137. [Epub ahead of print]18(11):
      Surveillance and control activities for virus-transmitting mosquitoes have primarily focused on dwellings. There is little information about viral circulation in heavily trafficked places such as schools. We collected and analyzed data to assess the presence and prevalence of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses in mosquitoes, and measured Aedes indices in schools in Medellín (Colombia) between 2016-2018. In 43.27% of 2632 visits we collected Aedes adults, creating 883 pools analyzed by RT-PCR. 14.27% of pools yielded positive for dengue or Zika (infection rates of 1.75-296.29 for Aedes aegypti). Ae. aegypti was more abundant and had a higher infection rate for all studied diseases. Aedes indices varied over time. There was no association between Aedes abundance and mosquito infection rates, but the latter did correlate with cases of arboviral disease and climate. Results suggest schools are important sources of arbovirus and health agencies should include these sites in surveillance programs; it is essential to know the source for arboviral diseases transmission and the identification of the most population groups exposed to these diseases to research and developing new strategies.
    Keywords:  Aedes; arbovirus; entomological indices; infection rates; schools
  7. Insects. 2021 Jun 30. pii: 596. [Epub ahead of print]12(7):
      Ligusticum sinense Oliv. cv. is a species of Umbelliferae (Apiaceae), a large plant family in the order Apiales. In this study, L. sinense hexane extract nanoemulsion gel (LHE-NEG) was investigated for mosquito repellency and compared to the standard chemical, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), with the goal of developing a natural alternative to synthetic repellents in protecting against mosquito vectors. The results demonstrated that LHE-NEG afforded remarkable repellency against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus, and Culex quinquefasciatus, with median protection times (MPTs) of 5.5 (4.5-6.0), 11.5 (8.5-12.5), and 11.25 (8.5-12.5) h, respectively, which was comparable to those of DEET-nanoemulsion gel (DEET-NEG: 8.5 (7.0-9.0), 12.0 (10.0-12.5), and 12.5 (10.0-13.5) h, respectively). Evaluation of skin irritation in 30 human volunteers revealed no potential irritant from LHE-NEG. The physical and biological stability of LHE-NEG were determined after being kept under heating/cooling cycle conditions. The stored samples of LHE-NEG exhibited some changes in appearance and differing degrees of repellency between those kept for 3 and 6 heating/cooling cycles, thus providing slightly shorter MPTs of 4.25 (4.0-4.5) and 3.25 (2.5-3.5) h, respectively, when compared to those of 5.0 (4.5-6.0) h in fresh preparation. These findings encourage commercially developed LHE-based products as an alternative to conventional synthetic repellents in preventing mosquito bites and helping to interrupt mosquito-borne disease transmission.
    Keywords:  DEET; Ligusticum sinense; mosquito; nanoformulation; repellent
  8. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jun 02. pii: 5971. [Epub ahead of print]18(11):
      Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue globally. The variables that influence the abundance of dengue vectors are numerous and complex. This has generated a need to focus on areas at risk of disease transmission, the spatial-temporal distribution of vectors, and the factors that modulate vector abundance. To help guide and improve vector-control efforts, this study identified the ecological, social, and other environmental risk factors that affect the abundance of adult female and immature Ae. aegypti in households in urban and rural areas of northeastern Thailand. A one-year entomological study was conducted in four villages of northeastern Thailand between January and December 2019. Socio-demographic; self-reported prior dengue infections; housing conditions; durable asset ownership; water management; characteristics of water containers; knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding climate change and dengue; and climate data were collected. Household crowding index (HCI), premise condition index (PCI), socio-economic status (SES), and entomological indices (HI, CI, BI, and PI) were calculated. Negative binomial generalized linear models (GLMs) were fitted to identify the risk factors associated with the abundance of adult females and immature Ae. aegypti. Urban sites had higher entomological indices and numbers of adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes than rural sites. Overall, participants' KAP about climate change and dengue were low in both settings. The fitted GLM showed that a higher abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with many factors, such as a low education level of household respondents, crowded households, poor premise conditions, surrounding house density, bathrooms located indoors, unscreened windows, high numbers of wet containers, a lack of adult control, prior dengue infections, poor climate change adaptation, dengue, and vector-related practices. Many of the above were also significantly associated with a high abundance of immature mosquito stages. The GLM model also showed that maximum and mean temperature with four-and one-to-two weeks of lag were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of the abundance of adult and immature mosquitoes, respectively, in northeastern Thailand. The low KAP regarding climate change and dengue highlights the engagement needs for vector-borne disease prevention in this region. The identified risk factors are important for the critical first step toward developing routine Aedes surveillance and reliable early warning systems for effective dengue and other mosquito-borne disease prevention and control strategies at the household and community levels in this region and similar settings elsewhere.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; climate change; dengue; entomological indices; knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP); vector control
  9. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jul 02. 14(1): 349
      BACKGROUND: Malaria control primarily depends on two vector control strategies: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Both IRS and LLIN target indoor-biting mosquitoes. However, some of the most important malaria vectors have developed resistance against the chemical compounds used in IRS and LLINs. Insecticide-induced behavioural changes in vectors, such as increased outdoor feeding on cattle and other animals, also limit the effectiveness of these strategies. Novel vector control strategies must therefore be found to complement IRS and LLINs. A promising tool is the use of cattle-applied endectocides. Endectocides are broad-spectrum systemic drugs that are effective against a range of internal nematodes parasites and blood-feeding arthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two endectocide drugs, injectable ivermectin and topical fipronil, on the survival and fecundity of zoophilic Anopheles arabiensis.METHODS: Laboratory-reared mosquitoes were allowed to feed on cattle treated with either injectable ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg), topical fipronil (1.0 mg/kg) or saline (control) on days 0, 1, 4, 7, 13, 21 and 25 post-treatment, and mortality and egg production were recorded daily.
    RESULTS: Compared to controls, the mortality of An. arabiensis increased by 3.52- and 2.43-fold with injectable ivermectin and topical fipronil, respectively. The overall fecundity of mosquitoes that fed on both ivermectin- and fipronil-treated cattle was significantly reduced by up to 90 and 60%, respectively, compared to the control group. The effects of both drugs attenuated over a period of 3 weeks. Injectable ivermectin was more effective than topical fipronil and increased mosquito mortality by a risk factor of 1.51 higher than fipronil. Similarly, both drugs significantly reduced the fecundity of An. arabiensis.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that injectable ivermectin and topical fipronil are able to suppress An. arabiensis density and could help to reduce outdoor malaria transmission. Data from the present study as well as from other similar studies suggest that current-generation endectocides have a limited duration of action and are expensive. However, new-generation, sustained-release formulations of ivermectin have a multi-week, high mortality impact on vector populations, thus holding promise of an effective reduction of outdoor malaria transmission.
    Keywords:  Anopheles arabiensis; Cattle; Endectocides; Fipronil; Ivermectin; Livestock; Malaria; Vector control
  10. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jun 26. 14(1): 335
      BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Kenya is based on case management and vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, the development of insecticide resistance compromises the effectiveness of insecticide-based vector control programs. The use of pesticides for agricultural purposes has been implicated as one of the sources driving the selection of resistance. The current study was undertaken to assess the status and mechanism of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in irrigated and non-irrigated areas with varying agrochemical use in western Kenya.METHODS: The study was carried out in 2018-2019 in Homa Bay County, western Kenya. The bioassay was performed on adults reared from larvae collected from irrigated and non-irrigated fields in order to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to different classes of insecticides following the standard WHO guidelines. Characterization of knockdown resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting enzyme/angiotensin-converting enzyme (Ace-1) mutations within Anopheles gambiae s.l. species was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. To determine the agricultural and public health insecticide usage pattern, a questionnaire was administered to farmers, households, and veterinary officers in the study area.
    RESULTS: Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species in the irrigated (100%, n = 154) area and the dominant species in the non-irrigated areas (97.5%, n = 162), the rest being An. gambiae sensu stricto. In 2018, Anopheles arabiensis in the irrigated region were susceptible to all insecticides tested, while in the non-irrigated region reduced mortality was observed (84%) against deltamethrin. In 2019, phenotypic mortality was decreased (97.8-84% to 83.3-78.2%). In contrast, high mortality from malathion (100%), DDT (98.98%), and piperonyl butoxide (PBO)-deltamethrin (100%) was observed. Molecular analysis of the vectors from the irrigated and non-irrigated areas revealed low levels of leucine-serine/phenylalanine substitution at position 1014 (L1014S/L1014F), with mutation frequencies of 1-16%, and low-frequency mutation in the Ace-1R gene (0.7%). In addition to very high coverage of LLINs impregnated with pyrethroids and IRS with organophosphate insecticides, pyrethroids were the predominant chemical class of pesticides used for crop and animal protection.
    CONCLUSION: Anopheles arabiensis from irrigated areas showed increased phenotypic resistance, and the intensive use of pesticides for crop protection in this region may have contributed to the selection of resistance genes observed. The susceptibility of these malaria vectors to organophosphates and PBO synergists in pyrethroids offers a promising future for IRS and insecticide-treated net-based vector control interventions. These findings emphasize the need for integrated vector control strategies, with particular attention to agricultural practices to mitigate mosquito resistance to insecticides.
    Keywords:  Agriculture; Insecticide resistance; Knockdown resistance; Malaria vectors
  11. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 11. pii: 99. [Epub ahead of print]6(2):
      Zika virus (ZIKV) was recently introduced into the Western Hemisphere, where it is suspected to be transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti in urban environments. ZIKV represents a public health problem as it has been implicated in congenital microcephaly in South America since 2015. Reports of ZIKV transmission in forested areas of Africa raises the possibility of its dispersal to non-human-modified environments in South America, where it is now endemic. The current study aimed to detect arboviruses in mosquitoes collected from areas with low human interference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a sensitive pan-flavivirus RT-PCR, designed to detect the NS5 region, pools of Ae. albopictus and Haemagogus leucocelaenus, were positive for both ZIKV and yellow fever (YFV). Virus RNA was detected in pools of adult males and females reared from field-collected eggs. Findings presented here suggest natural vertical transmission and infection of ZIKV in Hg. leucocelaenus and Ae.albopitcus in Brazil.
    Keywords:  Aedes albopictus; Haemagogus leucocelaenus; Rio de Janeiro; Zika virus; yellow fever virus
  12. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jun 26. 14(1): 339
      BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of recent data and knowledge on mosquito diversity and potential vectors of arboviruses in South Africa, with most of the available data dating back to the 1950s-1970s. Aedes and Culex species are the major vectors of some of the principal arboviruses which have emerged and re-emerged in the past few decades.METHODS: In this study we used entomological surveillance in selected areas in the north-eastern parts of South Africa from 2014 to 2018 to assess mosquito diversity, with special emphasis on the Aedes species. The impact of trap types and environmental conditions was also investigated. Identification of the blood meal sources of engorged females collected during the study period was carried out, and DNA barcodes were generated for selected species.
    RESULTS: Overall, 18.5% of the total Culicidae mosquitoes collected belonged to the genus Aedes, with 14 species recognised or suspected vectors of arboviruses. Species belonging to the Neomelaniconion subgenus were commonly collected in the Bushveld savanna at conservation areas, especially Aedes mcintoshi and Aedes circumluteolus. Aedes aegypti was present in all sites, albeit in low numbers. Temperature was a limiting factor for the Aedes population, and they were almost exclusively collected at temperatures between 18 °C and 27 °C. The cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode fragment was amplified for 21 Aedes species, and for nine of these species it was the first sequence information uploaded on GenBank.
    CONCLUSION: This study provides a better understanding of the diversity and relative abundance of Aedes species in the north-east of South Africa. The information provided here will contribute to future arboviral research and implementation of efficient vector control and prevention strategies.
    Keywords:  Aedes; Africa; Disease vectors; Mosquitoes; South Africa
  13. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jun 10. pii: 6275. [Epub ahead of print]18(12):
      Makkah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), contains many of the world's mosquito vectors of parasitic and arboviral disease and is the site of the Hajj mass gathering. As such there is a risk of exportation and globalization of vector-borne viruses, including the re-emerging Zika virus (ZIKV). There was international concern regarding the introduction of ZIKV to KSA and potential international spread of the virus following the 2016 Hajj which took place few days after the Rio summer Olympics at the height of the ZIKV pandemic. We aimed to detect flaviviruses, including ZIKV, circulating among mosquito hosts in the city of Makkah during and post the 2016 Hajj pilgrimage. Mosquitos (adults and larvae) were sampled from 15 sites in Makkah city during and post the 2016 Hajj and identified to species by morphological keys. Mosquitos were pooled according to date of collection, location, and species. A Pan-Flaviviruses RT-PCR assay that enables identification of 51 flaviviruses species and three tentative species was used to detect flavivirus RNA directly from mosquito homogenates. Between the 10 September and 6 October 2016, 9412 female mosquitos were collected. Of these, 81.3% were Aedes aegypti, 18.6% were Culex species, and 0.1% were Anopheles species. Of the total 493 mosquito pools generated, 242 (49%) were positive by the Pan-Flaviviruses primer set. Sequence analysis revealed that none of the mosquitos carried a pathogenic flavivirus, including ZIKV, but were infected with a novel insect-specific flavivirus. We found no pathogenic flaviviruses circulating in Makkah city during and post the 2016 Hajj and no evidence of introduction of ZIKV through the pilgrimage. Enhanced vector-borne diseases surveillance, prevention, and control are crucial in KSA especially during international mass gatherings such as the annual Hajj to prevent outbreaks and the spread of viruses with epidemic and pandemic potentials.
    Keywords:  Saudi Arabia; Zika; flavivirus; mass gathering; mosquito; vector-borne disease
  14. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Jul 02. 15(7): e0009540
      BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a medically important, globally distributed vector of the viruses that cause dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika. Although reproduction and mate choice are key components of vector population dynamics and control, our understanding of the mechanisms of sexual selection in mosquitoes remains poor. In "good genes" models of sexual selection, females use male cues as an indicator of both mate and offspring genetic quality. Recent studies in Ae. aegypti provide evidence that male wingbeats may signal aspects of offspring quality and performance during mate selection in a process known as harmonic convergence. However, the extent to which harmonic convergence may signal overall inherent quality of mates and their offspring remains unknown.METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine this, we measured the relationship between acoustic signaling and a broad panel of parent and offspring fitness traits in two generations of field-derived Ae. aegypti originating from dengue-endemic field sites in Thailand. Our data show that in this population of mosquitoes, harmonic convergence does not signal male fertility, female fecundity, or male flight performance traits, which despite displaying robust variability in both parents and their offspring were only weakly heritable.
    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, our findings suggest that vector reproductive control programs should treat harmonic convergence as an indicator of some, but not all aspects of inherent quality, and that sexual selection likely affects Ae. aegypti in a trait-, population-, and environment-dependent manner.
  15. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2021 Jun 01. 37(2): 101-105
      The response of mosquitoes to bushfire is poorly understood. During the 2019-20 summer, many regions of Australia were impacted by devastating bushfires. An area of estuarine and brackish-water wetlands alongside the Georges River, Sydney, New South Wales, was burned in January 2020. Mosquito populations within the area were monitored as part of the local authority's mosquito management program, providing a unique opportunity to record the response of key mosquitoes of pest and public health concern to bushfire. Ground pools within a tidally influenced swamp oak forest dominated by Casuarina glauca and associated wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus spp. had been identified as suitable habitat for a range of mosquitoes, including Aedes alternans, Ae. vigilax, and Verrallina funerea. Surveys of immature stages of mosquitoes within recently burned habitats inundated by tides demonstrated that mosquito eggs survived the direct and indirect impacts of fire and immature stages successfully completed development as reflected in concomitant changes in adult mosquito populations following the bushfire. This unique observation has implications for mosquito management following bushfire in Australia and internationally.
    Keywords:   Aedes alternans ; Aedes vigilax ; Verrallina funerea ; wetlands; wildfire
  16. Viruses. 2021 Jun 23. pii: 1208. [Epub ahead of print]13(7):
      Humans and wildlife are at risk from certain vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and West Nile and yellow fevers. Factors linked to global change, including habitat alteration, land-use intensification, the spread of alien species, and climate change, are operating on a global scale and affect both the incidence and distribution of many vector-borne diseases. Hence, understanding the drivers that regulate the transmission of pathogens in the wild is of great importance for ecological, evolutionary, health, and economic reasons. In this literature review, we discuss the ecological factors potentially affecting the transmission of two mosquito-borne pathogens circulating naturally between birds and mosquitoes, namely, West Nile virus (WNV) and the avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Traditionally, the study of pathogen transmission has focused only on vectors or hosts and the interactions between them, while the role of landscape has largely been ignored. However, from an ecological point of view, it is essential not only to study the interaction between each of these organisms but also to understand the environmental scenarios in which these processes take place. We describe here some of the similarities and differences in the transmission of these two pathogens and how research into both systems may facilitate a greater understanding of the dynamics of vector-borne pathogens in the wild.
    Keywords:  ecology; emerging and remerging diseases; haemosporidians; insect vectors; mosquito-borne pathogens; wildlife
  17. Viruses. 2021 Jun 16. pii: 1154. [Epub ahead of print]13(6):
      Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic pathogen mainly found in East and Southeast Asia and transmitted by mosquitoes. The objective of this review is to summarize the knowledge on the diversity of JEV mosquito vector species. Therefore, we systematically analyzed reports of JEV found in field-caught mosquitoes as well as experimental vector competence studies. Based on the investigated publications, we classified 14 species as confirmed vectors for JEV due to their documented experimental vector competence and evidence of JEV found in wild mosquitoes. Additionally, we identified 11 mosquito species, belonging to five genera, with an experimentally confirmed vector competence for JEV but lacking evidence on their JEV transmission capacity from field-caught mosquitoes. Our study highlights the diversity of confirmed and potential JEV vector species. We also emphasize the variety in the study design of vector competence investigations. To account for the diversity of the vector species and regional circumstances, JEV vector competence should be studied in the local context, using local mosquitoes with local virus strains under local climate conditions to achieve reliable data. In addition, harmonization of the design of vector competence experiments would lead to better comparable data, informing vector and disease control measures.
    Keywords:  Japanese encephalitis virus; mosquito; vector competence
  18. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2021 Jun 01. 37(2): 90-92
      On October 9, 2019, mosquito collections were conducted to update the mosquito species of medical importance in the Apurímac River Valley, Canayre, in the state of Ayacucho, Peru. Species collected included Culex (Carrollia) iridescens, which had been previously reported only in Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil, this being the first national report of this species in Peru and the first species within the genus Culex in Ayacucho. With the addition of Cx. iridescens to the mosquito fauna of Peru, there are currently 182 species in the country. Specimens collected during this study were deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Natural History Museum of the National University of San Cristobal Huamanga in Ayacucho, Peru.
    Keywords:   Culex iridescens ; Peru; first national record
  19. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 28. pii: trab095. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Direct membrane feeding assays assess the transmission potential of malaria-infected individuals using whole blood collected in anticoagulant vacutainers.METHODS: The potential inhibitory effect of four commonly used anticoagulants on gametocyte infectivity to mosquitoes was assessed in standard membrane feeding assays with cultured Plasmodium falciparum.
    RESULTS: Infection burden in mosquitoes was significantly reduced when blood was collected in sodium citrate and EDTA. Transmission was highest when blood was collected in lithium heparin and sodium heparin, although a concentration-dependent inhibition of mosquito infection was also observed.
    CONCLUSIONS: Although anticoagulants can reduce transmission efficiency, lithium heparin and sodium heparin are the best anticoagulants for evaluating malaria transmission.
    Keywords:  DMFA; anticoagulant; gametocyte; heparin; malaria; transmission
  20. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 28. pii: tpmd200822. [Epub ahead of print]
      The study was an attempt to capture Anopheles stephensi from cattle sheds during dawn to understand the realistic density of the resting mosquitoes. A 2-year longitudinal study was carried out in cattle sheds in close proximity to the human dwellings to collect the resting vector mosquitoes. The man-hour density of A. stephensi ranged from 24.7 to 206.5. The vector incrimination results indicated 0.15% of A. stephensi infected with Pv210 in 2015 and 0.09% in 2016. The current study has revealed that cattle sheds are the preferred resting place of A. stephensi and that dawn is the perfect time to collect and estimate its densities. Hence, adult vector control may also be given due importance in addition to the routine larval source management measures to curb malaria transmission in an urban setting.
  21. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 29. pii: 116. [Epub ahead of print]6(3):
      During the last decade, cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) have occurred in the Emilia Romagna Region (ERR). Even though the notification rates remain relatively low, ranging from 0.06 to 1.83 cases/100,000 inhabitants, the persistent pathogen's circulation in settings characterized by favorable environmental characteristics suggests that WNV is becoming endemic to the Po River Valley. This study assesses knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices toward WNV prevention among residents from 10 high-risk municipalities from the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia (total population: 82,317 inhabitants, census 2020). A web-based survey, based on the health belief model, was performed during the month of January 2021, with a convenience sampling of 469 participants from a series of closed discussion groups on social media (i.e., 2.1% of the potential responders). A total of 243 participants knew the meaning of WNV: Of them, 61.3% were aware of previous WNV infections in ERR, 76.5% acknowledged WNV infection as a severe one, but only 31.3% expressed any worry about WNV. Our results irregularly report preventive practices, either collective (e.g., draining standing water from items and the environment, 50.7%; spraying pesticides around the home, 33.0%) or individual (e.g., use of skin repellants when going outdoors, 42.6%). In a multivariate analysis, performed through binary logistic regression, participants reporting any worry towards WNV were more likely to characterize WNV as a severe disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 20.288, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.083-80.972). On the contrary, respondents supporting community mosquito control programs were more likely among people working with animals/livestock (aOR = 13.948, 95%CI = 2.793-69.653), and supporting tax exemptions for mosquito control programs (aOR = 4.069, 95%CI 2.098-7.893). In conclusion, our results suggest that future interventions promoting WNV prevention among residents in ERR should focus on perceptions of vulnerability to WNV, emphasizing the benefits of personal protective behaviors.
    Keywords:  West Nile Fever; West Nile Virus; knowledge; risk perception