bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2021‒05‒16
nineteen papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University

  1. Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 08. 14(1): 247
      BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Cameroon. Implementation of control interventions requires prior knowledge of the local epidemiological situation. Here we report the results of epidemiological and entomological surveys carried out in Tibati, Adamawa Region, Cameroon, an area where malaria transmission is seasonal, 6 years after the introduction of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets.METHODS: Cross-sectional studies were carried out in July 2015 and 2017 in Tibati. Thick blood smears and dried blood spots were collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals in the community and at health centers, respectively, and used for the molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium species. Adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor residual spraying and identified morphologically and molecularly. The infection status of Plasmodium spp. was determined by quantitative PCR, and positivity of PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing.
    RESULTS: Overall malaria prevalence in our study population was 55.0% (752/1367) and Plasmodium falciparum was the most prevalent parasite species (94.3%), followed by P. malariae (17.7%) and P. ovale (0.8%); 92 (12.7%) infections were mixed infections. Infection parameters varied according to clinical status (symptomatic/asymptomatic) and age of the sampled population and the collection sites. Infection prevalence was higher in asymptomatic carriers (60.8%), but asexual and sexual parasite densities were lower. Prevalence and intensity of infection decreased with age in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Heterogeneity in infections was observed at the neighborhood level, revealing hotspots of transmission. Among the 592 Anopheles mosquitoes collected, 212 (35.8%) were An. gambiae, 172 (29.1%) were An. coluzzii and 208 (35.1%) were An. funestus (s.s.). A total of 26 (4.39%) mosquito specimens were infected by Plasmodium sp. and the three Anopheles mosquitoes transmitted Plasmodium at equal efficiency. Surprisingly, we found an An. coluzzii specimen infected by Plasmodium vivax, which confirms circulation of this species in Cameroon. The positivity of all 26 PCR-positive Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes was successively confirmed by sequencing analysis.
    CONCLUSION: Our study presents the baseline malaria parasite burden in Tibati, Adamawa Region, Cameroon. Our results highlight the high malaria endemicity in the area, and hotspots of disease transmission are identified. Parasitological indices suggest low bednet usage and that implementation of control interventions in the area is needed to reduce malaria burden. We also report for the first time a mosquito vector with naturally acquired P. vivax infection in Cameroon.
    Keywords:  Anopheles coluzzii; Cameroon; Entomology; Epidemiology; Malaria; Plasmodium vivax
  2. Med Vet Entomol. 2021 May 10.
      Understanding the dynamics of larval habitat utilization by mosquito communities is crucial for the design of efficient environmental control strategies. The authors investigated the structure of mosquito communities found at hotel compounds in Zanzibar, networks of mosquito interactions with larval habitats and robustness of mosquito communities to elimination of larval habitats. A total of 23 698 mosquitoes comprising 26 species in six genera were found. Aedes aegypti (n = 16 207), Aedes bromeliae/Aedes lillie (n = 1340), Culex quinquefasciatus (n = 1300) and Eretmapodites quinquevitattus (n = 659) were the most dominant species. Ecological network analyses revealed the presence of dominant, larval habitat generalist species (e.g., A. aegypti), exploiting virtually all types of water holding containers and few larval habitat specialist species (e.g., Aedes natalensis, Orthopodomyia spp). Simulations of mosquito community robustness to systematic elimination of larval habitats indicate that mosquito populations are highly sensitive to elimination of larval habitats sustaining higher mosquito species diversity. This study provides insights on potential foci of future mosquito-borne arboviral disease outbreaks in Zanzibar and underscores the need for detailed knowledge on the ecological function of larval habitats for effective mosquito control by larval sources management.
    Keywords:  Zanzibar Island; community robustness; interaction networks; larval habitats; mosquito community
  3. Lancet Planet Health. 2021 May;pii: S2542-5196(21)00030-9. [Epub ahead of print]5(5): e277-e285
      BACKGROUND: Effective Aedes aegypti control is limited, in part, by the difficulty in achieving sufficient intervention coverage. To maximise the effect of vector control, areas with persistently high numbers of Aedes-borne disease cases could be identified and prioritised for preventive interventions. We aimed to identify persistent Aedes-borne disease hotspots in cities across southern Mexico.METHODS: In this spatial analysis, geocoded cases of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika from nine endemic Mexican cities were aggregated at the census-tract level. We included cities that were located in southern Mexico (the arbovirus endemic region of Mexico), with a high burden of dengue cases (ie, more than 5000 cases reported during a 10-year period), and listed as high priority for the Mexican dengue control and prevention programme. The Getis-Ord Gi*(d) statistic was applied to yearly slices of the dataset to identify spatial hotspots of each disease in each city. We used Kendall's W coefficient to quantify the agreement in the distribution of each virus.
    FINDINGS: 128 507 dengue, 4752 chikungunya and 25 755 Zika clinical cases were reported between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2016. All cities showed evidence of transmission heterogeneity, with a mean of 17·6% (SD 4·7) of their total area identified as persistent disease hotspots. Hotspots accounted for 25·6% (SD 9·7; range 12·8-43·0) of the population and 32·1% (10·5; 19·6-50·5) of all Aedes-borne disease cases reported. We found an overlap between hotspots of 61·7% for dengue and Zika and 53·3% for dengue and chikungunya. Dengue hotspots in 2008-16 were significantly associated with dengue hotspots detected during 2017-20 in five of the nine cities. Heads of vector control confirmed hotspot areas as problem zones for arbovirus transmission.
    INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence of the overlap of Aedes-borne diseases within geographical hotspots and a methodological framework for the stratification of arbovirus transmission risk within urban areas, which can guide the implementation of surveillance and vector control.
    FUNDING: USAID, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, International Development Research Centre, Fondo Mixto CONACyT (Mexico)-Gobierno del Estado de Yucatan, and the US National Institutes of Health.
    TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
  4. Acta Trop. 2021 May 09. pii: S0001-706X(21)00131-5. [Epub ahead of print] 105952
      Sindbis virus (SINV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are among the most widely spread mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. Due to the key role of mosquitoes in the transmission cycle of vector-borne diseases, models such as Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) have been used in recent years to predict the environmental suitability and ecological niches of mosquito vectors. Infection of three mosquito species (Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and Culiseta longiareolata) with CHIKV has recently been reported in Iran. However, given the importance of vector-borne diseases in the country, there is a need for extensive studies on the infection of mosquitoes with CHIKV and SINV in different areas of the country. Accordingly, the current research was conducted to investigate the infection of mosquitoes with the two aforementioned viruses in the northwestern part of Iran and also to model the ecological niches of the vectors of these mosquito-borne viruses in the country. In the current study, 4639 mosquito specimens, consisting of 2515 adults and 2124 larvae, were collected from the wetlands of West Azerbaijan Province and identified. Ten species belonging to four genera were identified in this study. The specimens were allocated to 149 pools for the determination of infection with CHIKV and SINV. The amplification pattern of five pools comprising two mosquito species (Culex pipiens complex and Cx. Theileri) corresponded to the reference strain of SINV, and the isolates were sequenced to confirm the presence of SINV genome. No cases of CHIKV infection were found among the 149 examined mosquito pools. Data on the distribution of Cx. Pipiens complex and Cx. Theileri were mapped using ArcMap 10.5. Prediction maps of the presence probability for these species revealed that they are most likely to be found in and spread to the north, northwest, south, and southeastern areas of the country and in areas with abundant water resources. For the first time in Iran, our study investigated the presence probability of SINV vectors using ecological niche modeling. Ecological niche profiling showed that the most suitable habitats for Cx. pipiens are mainly concentrated in the north and northwestern parts of the country, whereas Cx. theileri is mostly located in the northwest and western regions. However, there were some other areas of low suitability for these two species in the country. Further studies in a broader geographical area with more species of mosquitos and the determination of infection with other mosquito-borne viruses can provide a clear understanding of the potential spread of mosquito-borne diseases in various regions of Iran.
    Keywords:  Arboviruses; GIS; Infectious diseases; Maximum Entropy; Wetlands; Zoonoses
  5. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 May 10. 15(5): e0009393
      Aedes aegypti is the main epidemic vector of arboviruses in Africa. In Senegal, control activities are mainly limited to mitigation of epidemics, with limited information available for Ae. aegypti populations. A better understanding of the current Ae. aegypti susceptibility status to various insecticides and relevant resistance mechanisms involved is needed for the implementation of effective vector control strategies. The present study focuses on the detection of insecticide resistance and reveals the related mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations from Senegal. Bioassays were performed on Ae. aegypti adults from nine Senegalese localities (Matam, Louga, Barkedji, Ziguinchor, Mbour, Fatick, Dakar, Kédougou and Touba). Mosquitoes were exposed to four classes of insecticides using the standard WHO protocols. Resistance mechanisms were investigated by genotyping for pyrethroid target site resistance mutations (V1016G, V1016I, F1534C and S989P) and measuring gene expression levels of key detoxification genes (CYP6BB2, CYP9J26, CYP9J28, CYP9J32, CYP9M6, CCEae3a and GSTD4). All collected populations were resistant to DDT and carbamates except for the ones in Matam (Northern region). Resistance to permethrin was uniformly detected in mosquitoes from all areas. Except for Barkédji and Touba, all populations were characterized by a susceptibility to 0.75% Permethrin. Susceptibility to type II pyrethroids was detected only in the Southern regions (Kédougou and Ziguinchor). All mosquito populations were susceptible to 5% Malathion, but only Kédougou and Matam mosquitoes were susceptible to 0.8% Malathion. All populations were resistant to 0.05% Pirimiphos-methyl, whereas those from Louga, Mbour and Barkédji, also exhibited resistance to 1% Fenitrothion. None of the known target site pyrethroid resistance mutations was present in the mosquito samples included in the genotyping analysis (performed in > 1500 samples). In contrast, a remarkably high (20-70-fold) overexpression of major detoxification genes wasobserved, suggesting that insecticide resistance is mostly mediated through metabolic mechanisms. These data provide important evidence to support dengue vector control in Senegal.
  6. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2021 May 10. pii: e202105064. [Epub ahead of print]95
      OBJECTIVE: Environmental management of imported arboviruses such as dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV) or Chikungunya (CHIKV) is a task of great significance for Public Health since the arrival and establishment of the competent vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) in numerous cities of our country. There are recent examples of autochthonous transmission of some of these arboviruses in Spain probably linked to undetected and / or unmanaged imported cases.METHODS: Vector management interventions were carried out in the city of Valencia (Spain) by the Health Service of the Valencia City Council between 2016 and 2018. These actions took place within the framework of a coordination protocol established with the Health authorities of the Valencia regional government.
    RESULTS: A total of 21 arbovirus cases were reported and led to entomological surveillance and vector control interventions in the city of Valencia: 8 DENV, 7 CHIKV and 6 ZIKV. In 8 of these 21 cases (38%) the presence of Ae. Albopictus was detected within the risk zones established for each case.
    CONCLUSIONS: Vector surveillance and control strategies associated with imported cases of arboviruses, provide accurate information on the environmental risks of amplification of these viruses and also allow reducing these risks through population control of vectors. Due to the short duration of the viremic phases, these interventions should be carried out as quickly as possible in order to reduce the hypothetical contact between the infected person and vector as much as possible.
    Keywords:  Aedes albopictus; Arbovirosis; Chikungunya; Dengue; Imported diseases; Medical entomology; Public Health; Spain; Valencia; Vector control; Zika
  7. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2021 May 10. 7(5): e19502
      BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a vector for the transmission of diseases such as dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika fever, and yellow fever. In 2016, over 1 million cases of these diseases were reported in Brazil, which is an alarming public health issue. One of the ways of controlling this disease is by inspecting and neutralizing the places where A. aegypti lays its eggs. The Ministry of Planning, Development, and Administration of Brazil maintains the inspection statistics.OBJECTIVE: We propose a multi-criteria analysis to create an index for A. aegypti inspections reported through the Ministry of Planning, Development, and Administration system of Brazil.
    METHODS: Based on the repository from urban cleaning services combined with data on inspections conducted by government agencies in several Brazilian cities and municipalities, we selected and combined metrics, which we further ranked using the analytic hierarchy process methodology. We also developed risk maps based on the analytic hierarchy process ranking of the A. aegypti breeding sites.
    RESULTS: Based on our analysis and the available data, the priority for inspections should consider the number of sick people (weight 0.350), medical evaluations (weight 0.239), inspections (weight 0.201), mosquito breeding sites (weight 0.126), and days of absence from work (weight 0.096).
    CONCLUSIONS: The proposed index could aid public health practitioners in preventing the appearance of new A. aegypti breeding sites. This information technology application can help solve such public health challenges.
    Keywords:  human sensors; multi-criteria analysis; public health; tropical diseases; vector surveillance
  8. Nat Commun. 2021 May 11. 12(1): 2619
      After the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas in 2016, both Zika and dengue incidence declined to record lows in many countries in 2017-2018, but in 2019 dengue resurged in Brazil, causing ~2.1 million cases. In this study we use epidemiological, climatological and genomic data to investigate dengue dynamics in recent years in Brazil. First, we estimate dengue virus force of infection (FOI) and model mosquito-borne transmission suitability since the early 2000s. Our estimates reveal that DENV transmission was low in 2017-2018, despite conditions being suitable for viral spread. Our study also shows a marked decline in dengue susceptibility between 2002 and 2019, which could explain the synchronous decline of dengue in the country, partially as a result of protective immunity from prior ZIKV and/or DENV infections. Furthermore, we performed phylogeographic analyses using 69 newly sequenced genomes of dengue virus serotype 1 and 2 from Brazil, and found that the outbreaks in 2018-2019 were caused by local DENV lineages that persisted for 5-10 years, circulating cryptically before and after the Zika epidemic. We hypothesize that DENV lineages may circulate at low transmission levels for many years, until local conditions are suitable for higher transmission, when they cause major outbreaks.
  9. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 May;15(5): e0008212
      In Colombia, little is known on the distribution of the Asian mosquito Aedes albopictus, main vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika in Asia and Oceania. Therefore, this work sought to estimate its current and future potential geographic distribution under the Representative Concentration Paths (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5 emission scenarios by 2050 and 2070, using ecological niche models. For this, predictions were made in MaxEnt, employing occurrences of A. albopictus from their native area and South America and bioclimatic variables of these places. We found that, from their invasion of Colombia to the most recent years, A. albopictus is present in 47% of the country, in peri-urban (20%), rural (23%), and urban (57%) areas between 0 and 1800 m, with Antioquia and Valle del Cauca being the departments with most of the records. Our ecological niche modelling for the currently suggests that A. albopictus is distributed in 96% of the Colombian continental surface up to 3000 m (p < 0.001) putting at risk at least 48 million of people that could be infected by the arboviruses that this species transmits. Additionally, by 2050 and 2070, under RCP 2.6 scenario, its distribution could cover to nearly 90% of continental extension up to 3100 m (≈55 million of people at risk), while under RCP 8.5 scenario, it could decrease below 60% of continental extension, but expand upward to 3200 m (< 38 million of people at risk). These results suggest that, currently in Colombia, A. albopictus is found throughout the country and climate change could diminish eventually its area of distribution, but increase its altitudinal range. In Colombia, surveillance and vector control programs must focus their attention on this vector to avoid complications in the national public health setting.
  10. Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 12. 14(1): 252
      BACKGROUND: Malaria vector control has been implemented chiefly through indoor interventions targeting primary vectors resulting in population declines-pointing to a possible greater proportional contribution to transmission by secondary malaria vectors with their predominant exophagic and exophilic traits. With a historical focus on primary vectors, there is paucity of data on secondary malaria vectors in many countries in Africa. This study sought to determine the species compositions and bionomic traits, including proportions infected with Plasmodium falciparum and phenotypic insecticide resistance, of secondary vectors in three sites with high malaria transmission in Kisumu County, western Kenya.METHODS: Cross-sectional sampling of adult Anopheles was conducted using indoor and outdoor CDC light traps (CDC-LT) and animal-baited traps (ABTs) in Kakola-Ombaka and Kisian, while larvae were sampled in Ahero. Secondary vectors captured were exposed to permethrin using WHO bioassays and then analyzed by ELISA to test for proportions infected with P. falciparum sporozoites. All Anopheles were identified to species using morphological keys with a subset being molecularly identified using ITS2 and CO1 sequencing for species identification.
    RESULTS: Two morphologically identified secondary vectors captured-An. coustani and An. pharoensis-were determined to consist of four species molecularly. These included An. christyi, An. sp. 15 BSL-2014, an unidentified member of the An. coustani complex (An. cf. coustani) and a species similar to that of An. pharoensis and An. squamosus (An. cf. pharoensis). Standardized (Anopheles per trap per night) capture rates demonstrate higher proportions of secondary vectors across most trapping methods-with overall indoor and outdoor CDC-LTs and ABT captures composed of 52.2% (n = 93), 78.9% (n = 221) and 58.1% (n = 573) secondary vectors respectively. Secondary vectors were primarily caught outdoors. The overall proportion of secondary vectors with P. falciparum sporozoite was 0.63% (n = 5), with the unidentified species An. cf. pharoensis, determined to carry Plasmodium. Overall secondary vectors were susceptible to permethrin with a > 99% mortality rate.
    CONCLUSIONS: Given their high densities, endophily equivalent to primary vectors, higher exophily and Plasmodium-positive proportions, secondary vectors may contribute substantially to malaria transmission. Unidentified species demonstrate the need for further morphological and molecular identification studies towards further characterization. Continued monitoring is essential for understanding their temporal contributions to transmission, the possible elevation of some to primary vectors and the development of insecticide resistance.
    Keywords:  Anopheles; Insecticide resistance; Malaria; Secondary vector; Sporozoite infection
  11. Euro Surveill. 2021 May;26(19):
      BackgroundWest Nile virus (WNV) circulates in an enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes and birds; humans are accidental hosts.AimWe analysed human WNV infections reported between 2010 and 2018 to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control to better understand WNV epidemiology.MethodsWe describe probable and confirmed autochthonous human cases of WNV infection reported by European Union (EU) and EU enlargement countries. Cases with unknown clinical manifestation or with unknown place of infection at NUTS 3 or GAUL 1 level were excluded from analysis.ResultsFrom southern, eastern and western Europe, 3,849 WNV human infections and 379 deaths were reported. Most cases occurred between June and October. Two large outbreaks occurred, in 2010 (n = 391) and in 2018 (n = 1,993). The outbreak in 2018 was larger than in all previous years and the first cases were reported unusually early. The number of newly affected areas (n = 45) was higher in 2018 than in previous years suggesting wider spread of WNV.ConclusionReal-time surveillance of WNV infections is key to ensuring that clinicians and public health authorities receive early warning about the occurrence of cases and potential unusual seasonal patterns. Human cases may appear shortly after first detection of animal cases. Therefore, public health authorities should develop preparedness plans before the occurrence of human or animal WNV infections.
    Keywords:  Europe; West Nile fever; West Nile virus; epidemiology; surveillance; vector-borne infections
  12. Euro Surveill. 2021 May;26(19):
      BackgroundDespite the known circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) in Slovakia, no formal entomological surveillance programme has been established there thus far.AimTo conduct contemporaneous surveillance of WNV and USUV in different areas of Slovakia and to assess the geographical spread of these viruses through mosquito vectors. The first autochthonous human WNV infection in the country is also described.MethodsMosquitoes were trapped in four Slovak territorial units in 2018 and 2019. Species were characterised morphologically and mosquito pools screened for WNV and USUV by real-time reverse-transcription PCRs. In pools with any of the two viruses detected, presence of pipiens complex group mosquitoes was verified using molecular approaches.ResultsAltogether, 421 pools containing in total 4,508 mosquitoes were screened. Three pools tested positive for WNV and 16 for USUV. USUV was more prevalent than WNV, with a broader spectrum of vectors and was detected over a longer period (June-October vs August for WNV). The main vectors of both viruses were Culex pipiens sensu lato. Importantly, WNV and USUV were identified in a highly urbanised area of Bratislava city, Slovakias' capital city. Moreover, in early September 2019, a patient, who had been bitten by mosquitoes in south-western Slovakia and who had not travelled abroad, was laboratory-confirmed with WNV infection.ConclusionThe entomological survey results and case report increase current understanding of the WNV and USUV situation in Slovakia. They underline the importance of vector surveillance to assess public health risks posed by these viruses.
    Keywords:  Europe; Slovakia; Usutu; West Nile; arbovirus; flavivirus; mosquitoes
  13. Nat Commun. 2021 May 11. 12(1): 2635
      The scale-up of malaria control efforts has led to marked reductions in malaria burden over the past twenty years, but progress has slowed. Implementation of indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide, a proven vector control intervention, has been limited and difficult to sustain partly because questions remain on its added impact over widely accepted interventions such as bed nets. Using data from 14 enhanced surveillance health facilities in Uganda, a country with high bed net coverage yet high malaria burden, we estimate the impact of starting and stopping IRS on changes in malaria incidence. We show that stopping IRS was associated with a 5-fold increase in malaria incidence within 10 months, but reinstating IRS was associated with an over 5-fold decrease within 8 months. In areas where IRS was initiated and sustained, malaria incidence dropped by 85% after year 4. IRS could play a critical role in achieving global malaria targets, particularly in areas where progress has stalled.
  14. Euro Surveill. 2021 May;26(19):
      Cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Spain increased in summer 2020. Here we report on this increase and the local, regional and national public health measures taken in response. We analysed data from regional surveillance networks and the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network, both for human and animal West Nile virus (WNV) infection. During the 2020 season, a total of 77 human cases of WNV infection (median age 65 years; 60% males) were detected in the south-west of Spain; 72 (94%) of these cases developed WNND, presenting as meningoencephalitis, seven of which were fatal. In the previous two decades, only six human cases of WNND were detected in Spain. Reduced activities for vector control this season, together with other factors, might have contributed to the massive increase. Public health measures including vector control, campaigns to raise awareness among physicians and the general population, and interventions to ensure the safety of donations of blood products, organs, cells and tissues were effective to reduce transmission. Going forward, maintenance of vector control activities and an update of the vector-borne diseases response plan in Spain is needed.
    Keywords:  Spain; WNV; West Nile fever; West Nile virus; epidemiology; surveillance; vector-borne infections; viral infections
  15. Sci Rep. 2021 May 10. 11(1): 9916
      The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), a vector of dengue, Zika and other diseases, was introduced in Europe in the 1970s, where it is still widening its range. Spurred by public health concerns, several studies have delivered predictions of the current and future distribution of the species for this region, often with differing results. We provide the first joint analysis of these predictions, to identify consensus hotspots of high and low suitability, as well as areas with high uncertainty. The analysis focused on current and future climate conditions and was carried out for the whole of Europe and for 65 major urban areas. High consensus on current suitability was found for the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, southern France, Italy and the coastline between the western Balkans and Greece. Most models also agree on a substantial future expansion of suitable areas into northern and eastern Europe. About 83% of urban areas are expected to become suitable in the future, in contrast with ~ 49% nowadays. Our findings show that previous research is congruent in identifying wide suitable areas for Aedes albopictus across Europe and in the need to effectively account for climate change in managing and preventing its future spread.
  16. Malar J. 2021 May 14. 20(1): 219
      BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are widely used for the prevention and control of malaria. In Guatemala, since 2006, ITNs have been distributed free of charge in the highest risk malaria-endemic areas and constitute one of the primary vector control measures in the country. Despite relying on ITNs for almost 15 years, there is a lack of data to inform the timely replacement of ITNs whose effectiveness becomes diminished by routine use.METHODS: The survivorship, physical integrity, insecticide content and bio-efficacy of ITNs were assessed through cross-sectional surveys conducted at 18, 24 and 32 months after a 2012 distribution of PermaNet® 2.0 in a malaria focus in Guatemala. A working definition of 'LLIN providing adequate protection' was developed based on the combination of the previous parameters and usage of the net. A total of 988 ITNs were analysed (290 at 18 months, 349 at 24 months and 349 at 32 months).
    RESULTS: The functional survivorship of bed nets decreased over time, from 92% at 18 months, to 81% at 24 months and 69% at 32 months. Independent of the time of the survey, less than 80% of the bed nets that were still present in the household were reported to have been used the night before. The proportion of bed nets categorized as "in good condition" per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of the total hole surface area, diminished from 77% to 18 months to 58% at 32 months. The portion of ITNs with deltamethrin concentration less than 10 mg/m2 increased over time. Among the bed nets for which bioassays were conducted, the percentage that met WHO criteria for efficacy dropped from 90% to 18 months to 52% at 32 months. The proportion of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) providing adequate protection was 38% at 24 months and 21% at 32 months.
    CONCLUSIONS: At 32 months, only one in five of the LLINs distributed in the campaign provided adequate protection in terms of survivorship, physical integrity, bio-efficacy and usage. Efforts to encourage the community to retain, use, and properly care for the LLINs may improve their impact. Durability assessments should be included in future campaigns.
    Keywords:  Bio-efficacy; Deltamethrin; Durability; Insecticide content; Insecticide-treated bed nets; Long-lasting insecticidal nets; Malaria; Survivorship; attrition
  17. J Prim Care Community Health. 2021 Jan-Dec;12:12 21501327211013298
      BACKGROUND: Risk assessment criteria for predicting dengue outbreak must be appropriated at village levels. We aimed to develop risk dengue village prediction criteria, predict village dengue risk, and strengthen dengue prevention based on community participation.METHODS: This participatory research conducted in Southern Thailand included the following 5 phases: (i) preparing communities in 3 districts; (ii) developing risk dengue village prediction criteria; (iii) applying computer program; (iv) predicting village dengue risk with 75 public health providers in 39 PCUs; and (v) utilizing findings to strengthen dengue prevention activities in 220 villages. Data collecting for prediction used secondary data from primary care units in the past 5 year and current year. Descriptive statistics used calculating criteria and comparing with standard level to adjust score of risk.
    RESULTS: Risk dengue village assessment criteria had 2 aspects: dengue severity (3 factors) and dengue outbreak opportunity (3 factors). Total scores were 33 points and cut-off of 17 points for high and low dengue risks villages. All criteria were applied using computer program ( Risk prediction involved stakeholder participation in 220 villages, and used for strengthening dengue prevention activities. The concept of integrated vector management included larval indices surveillance system, garbage management, larval indices level lower than the standard, community capacity activities for dengue prevention, and school-based dengue prevention. The risk prediction criteria and process mobilized villages for dengue prevention activities to decrease morbidity rate.
    CONCLUSION: Dengue risk assessment criteria were appropriated within the village, with its smallest unit, the household, included. The data can be utilized at village levels for evaluating dengue outbreak risks.
    Keywords:  action research; community participation; dengue prevention; larval indices surveillance system; prediction; risk assessment
  18. BMJ Glob Health. 2021 May;pii: e005391. [Epub ahead of print]6(5):
      Despite the decrease in malaria mortality and morbidity, it remains a significant public health problem in India. India is targeting malaria elimination from the country by 2030. Different areas in India are in different phases of malaria elimination. The emerging resistance in vectors as well parasite have added necessity to accelerate the malaria elimination programme. Forested areas remain the foci for malaria transmission due to favourable human and environmental factors. Here, we analysed the longitudinal data from 2000 to 2019 to see the trends in forest malaria in India. Population living in forested areas are major malaria contributors. From 2000 to 2019, ~32% of malaria cases and 42% of malaria related deaths were reported from forested districts which represent only ~6.6% of the total Indian population. Increasing insecticide resistance, a high percentage of submicroscopic infections and challenging to test and treat communities are the crucial components of the prevailing obstacles of forested malaria. To achieve the elimination goal, efforts should be intensified with more resources diverted to the forested areas. Malaria control in forested areas will bring fruitful results for malaria control in India.
    Keywords:  malaria; public health
  19. Can Vet J. 2021 May;62(5): 469-476
      The objectives of the study were to describe the regional and provincial incidence rates and the weekly distribution of 842 reported West Nile virus (WNV) cases in horses in Canada between 2003 and 2019. This study also investigated characteristics of cases reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) between 2015 and 2019. The western region (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) had higher incidence rates than the eastern region (Ontario, Quebec, and Atlantic provinces) and overall, Saskatchewan registered the highest incidence. Over the study period, an earlier weekly preliminary onset of WNV cases was observed in the western region. The vast majority of cases were unvaccinated (96%), most cases were Quarter Horses (68%) and the risk of mortality was 31.9%. The findings of this study may be useful in informing veterinary equine practitioners about measures to prevent WNV disease in horses in Canada.