bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2021‒04‒25
nineteen papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University

  1. Trop Med Health. 2021 Apr 21. 49(1): 32
      BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti, which is widely distributed in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), is the primary vector of arboviral diseases. Chemical insecticides have been intensively used to eliminate mosquito-borne diseases, resulting in the development of insecticide resistance. However, little is known about the insecticide resistance of mosquito populations in Lao PDR and the mechanisms responsible for it, which have important implications for vector management programs. Here, we examined the phenotypic and haplotypic profiles of insecticide resistance in populations of Ae. aegypti larvae from central Lao PDR.METHODS: Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from four sites in Lao PDR, and their susceptibility to temephos, deltamethrin, permethrin, and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) was tested using larval bioassays. Synergistic tests were also conducted to evaluate the activity of insecticide-metabolizing enzymes in the larvae. Deltamethrin-resistant and Deltamethrin-susceptible larvae were then genotyped for knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations to determine the associations between each genotype and resistance.
    RESULTS: Ae. aegypti larvae from central Lao PDR were considered to be "resistant" (<98% mortality) to organophosphates and pyrethroids. The bio-insecticide Bti remains effective against such larvae. The resistance mechanisms of Ae. aegypti larvae were found to vary among populations, especially for pyrethroid resistance. Kdr mutations were significantly associated with deltamethrin resistance in Ae. aegypti from the Xaythany population. In contrast, synergist assays with piperonyl butoxide suggested that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases played an important role in the resistance seen in the Khounkham and Thakhek populations.
    CONCLUSION: This study obtained information that will aid the design and implementation of insecticide-based vector management of Ae. aegypti in central Lao PDR. Ae. aegypti larvae from central Lao PDR were highly susceptible to Bti, while they were resistant to temephos at a diagnostic dose of 0.0286 mg/L. Given the limited number of insecticides that are approved for vector control, it is important to alternate between temephos and other larvicides, such as Bti and pyriproxyfen. The differences in pyrethroid resistance mechanisms seen among the Ae. aegypti populations highlight the need to tailor vector-control strategies to each region to increase the success of dengue control in Lao PDR.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Bioassay; Dengue; Insecticide resistance; Lao PDR; P450s; Synergist; kdr mutation
  2. Biomed Res Int. 2021 ;2021 6619175
      Background: To date, dengue is considered an important public health problem in Sri Lanka. Irrational use of insecticides without evidence-based applications has primed the development of resistance in mosquito vectors.Method: The present study investigated the resistance status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to commonly used insecticides in three selected Medical Officer of Health (MOH) areas (i.e., Attanagalla, Dompe, and Negombo) in Gampaha District, Western Province of Sri Lanka. Entomological surveys were performed using ovitraps and larval collections. Larval bioassays were carried out to determine the LC50, LC90, and LC95 and susceptibility status for organophosphate temephos, whereas adult bioassays were performed to test the 0.03% deltamethrin and 0.8% malathion susceptibility.
    Results: The study revealed that the temephos concentrations required to control Ae. aegypti (13.7-17.7 times) and Ae. albopictus (4.6-7.6 times) are higher than the diagnostic concentration (0.012 mg/L) proposed by the World Health Organization. The highest resistance levels were observed for both Ae. aegypti (14 ± 1.87) and Ae. albopictus (36 ± 1.87) collected from the Negombo MOH area. Therefore, the WHO recommended diagnostic concentration is no longer effective in controlling Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae in these areas. Both the dengue vectors have evolved a high level of insecticide resistance to malathion and deltamethrin in the Gampaha District except Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in rural areas. Further, vectors in rural areas are indicated susceptible (>98%) to pyrethroids and emergence of resistance (<97%) for organophosphate insecticides.
    Conclusion: The results of this study warrant the vector management authorities on the proper application of insecticides and rational use in vector control. The susceptibility status of vector mosquitoes should be continuously monitored especially in dengue-endemic areas parallel to the routine surveillance programme. Further molecular studies are strongly recommended to determine the Knockdown Resistance (kdr) mutations among Aedes populations.
  3. Wellcome Open Res. 2020 ;5 149
      Background. Outbreaks of mosquito-borne arboviral diseases including dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have recently occurred in the Caribbean. The geographical range of the principle vectors responsible for transmission, Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and Ae. albopictus is increasing and greater mosquito surveillance is needed in the Caribbean given international tourism is so prominent. The island of Saint Lucia has seen outbreaks of DENV and CHIKV in the past five years but vector surveillance has been limited with the last studies dating back to the late 1970s. Natural disasters have changed the landscape of Saint Lucia and the island has gone through significant urbanisation. Methods. In this study, we conducted an entomological survey of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus distribution across the island and analysed environmental parameters associated with the presence of these species in addition to screening for medically important arboviruses and other flaviviruses. Results. Although we collected Ae. aegypti across a range of sites across the island, no Ae. albopictus were collected despite traps being placed in diverse ecological settings. The number of Ae. aegypti collected was significantly associated with higher elevation, and semi-urban settings yielded female mosquito counts per trap-day that were five-fold lower than urban settings. Screening for arboviruses revealed a high prevalence of a novel insect-specific flavivirus closely related to cell fusing agent virus (CFAV). Conclusions. Outbreaks of arboviruses transmitted by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have a history of occurring in small tropical islands and Saint Lucia is particularly vulnerable given the limited resources available to undertake vector control and manage outbreaks. Surveillance strategies can identify risk areas for predicting future outbreaks and further research is needed to determine the diversity of current mosquito species and this should be extended to the neighbouring smaller Caribbean islands.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Mosquitoes; arbovirus surveillance; arboviruses
  4. J Med Entomol. 2021 Apr 20. pii: tjab045. [Epub ahead of print]
      From 2008 to 2017, the city of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire experienced several Aedes-borne disease epidemics which required control of the vector mosquito population based on the reduction of larval habitats and insecticidal sprays for adult mosquitoes. This study was undertaken to assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in the city of Abidjan. Immature Ae. aegypti were sampled from several larval habitats within seven communes of Abidjan and reared to adults. Three to five days old F1 emerged adults were tested for susceptibility using insecticide-impregnated papers and the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) following WHO bioassay guidelines. The results showed that Ae. aegypti populations from Abidjan were resistant to 0.1% propoxur, and 1% fenitrothion, with mortality rates ranging from 0% to 54.2%. Reduced susceptibility (93.4-97.5% mortality) was observed to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin, 5% malathion, and 0.8% chlorpyrifos-methyl. This reduced susceptibility varied depending on the insecticide and the collection site. The restoration of mortality when the mosquitoes were pre-exposed to the synergist PBO suggests that increased activity of oxidases could be contributing to resistance. Three kdr mutations (V410L, V1016I, and F1534C) were present in populations tested, with low frequencies for the Leu410 (0.28) and Ile1016 (0.32) alleles and high frequencies for the Cys1534 allele (0.96). These findings will be used to inform future arbovirus vector control activities in Abidjan.
    Keywords:   Aedes aegypti ; Kdr mutation; Arbovirus; Côte d’Ivoire; insecticide resistance
  5. mSphere. 2021 Apr 21. pii: e01229-20. [Epub ahead of print]6(2):
      Culex modestus mosquitoes are considered potential transmission vectors of West Nile virus and Usutu virus. Their presence has been reported across several European countries, including one larva detected in Belgium in 2018. In this study, mosquitoes were collected in the city of Leuven and surrounding areas in the summers of 2019 and 2020. Species identification was performed based on morphological features and partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. The 107 mosquitoes collected in 2019 belonged to eight mosquito species, Culex pipiens (24.3%), Cx. modestus (48.6%), Cx. torrentium (0.9%), Culiseta annulata (0.9%), Culiseta morsitans (0.9%), Aedes sticticus (14.0%), Aedes cinereus (9.3%), and Anopheles plumbeus (0.9%), suggesting the presence of an established Cx. modestus population in Belgium. The collection of Cx. modestus mosquitoes at the same locations in 2020 confirmed their establishment in the region. Haplotype network analysis of the COI sequences for Cx. modestus showed that the Belgian population is rather diverse, suggesting that it may have been established in Belgium for some time. The Belgian Cx. modestus population was most closely related to populations from the United Kingdom and Germany. Characterization of the virome of the collected mosquitoes resulted in the identification of at least 33 eukaryotic viral species. Nine (nearly) complete genomes belonging to 6 viral species were identified, all of which were closely related to known viruses. In conclusion, here, we report the presence of Cx. modestus in the surrounding areas of Leuven, Belgium. As this species is considered to be a vector of several arboviruses, the implementation of vector surveillance programs to monitor this species is recommended.IMPORTANCE Culex modestus mosquitoes are considered to be a potential "bridge" vector, being able to transmit pathogens between birds as well as from birds to mammals, including humans. In Belgium, this mosquito species was considered absent until the finding of one larva in 2018 and subsequent evidence of a large population in 2019 to 2020 described here. We collected mosquitoes in the summers of 2019 and 2020 in the city of Leuven and surrounding areas. The mosquito species was identified by morphological and molecular methods, demonstrating the presence of Cx. modestus in this region. The ability of mosquitoes to transmit pathogens can depend on several factors, one of them being their natural virus composition. Therefore, we identified the mosquito-specific viruses harbored by Belgian mosquitoes. As Cx. modestus is able to transmit viruses such as West Nile virus and Usutu virus, the establishment of this mosquito species may increase the risk of virus transmission in the region. It is thus advisable to implement mosquito surveillance programs to monitor this species.
    Keywords:  Belgium; Culex modestus; haplotype; mosquito; virome
  6. Trop Med Int Health. 2021 Apr 04.
      The sanitary problem of Aedes aegypti mosquito acquires relevance around the world because it is the vector of dengue, zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. The vector is adapting to southern regions faster and the propagation of these diseases in urban areas is a complex problem for society. We aimed to contribute to the risk prevention of disease transmission in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, through monitoring Aedes aegypti population-levels and developing education campaigns with government agencies and society participation. Monitoring activities aimed to diagnostic the presence of the vector and its ecology behavior, and to generate education and prevention politics to avoid its propagation. The results show that (1) the mosquito is in the territory and it is spreading, (2) prevention activities of the municipalities are insufficient to generate an effective sanitary response, and (3) it is necessary to improve the education programs to the population about the life cycle of the vector. The integration of university, government, and society improved the work of the team because it combined knowledge about vector ecology, diseases, and territory characteristics.
    Keywords:   Aedes aegypti ; and university articulation; municipal state; sanitary risk prevention; society
  7. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Apr 20. 14(1): 212
      BACKGROUND: The impact of single-dose mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin for onchocerciasis on mosquito populations was investigated in Ogun State, Nigeria.METHODS: Indoor and outdoor collection of mosquitoes was carried out in two intervention (IC) and two control communities (CC) at three different periods: pre-MDA (baseline), 2-3 days after MDA and 13-14 days after MDA. The density and parity rate of female Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes were determined and compared. Environmental and climatic data of study locations were obtained to perform generalized linear model analysis.
    RESULTS: A total of 1399 female mosquitoes were collected, including 1227 Anopheles and 172 Culex mosquitoes. There was a similar magnitude of reduction in the indoor density of Anopheles by 29% in the IC and CC 2-3 days post-MDA but the reduction in indoor parity rate was significantly higher (p = 0.021) in the IC, reducing by more than 50%. In the IC, observation of a significant reduction at 2-3 days post-MDA was consistent for both the indoor density (1.43 to 1.02) and indoor parity rate (95.35% to 44.26%) of Anopheles mosquitoes. The indoor parity rate of Anopheles remained significantly reduced (75.86%) 13-14 post-MDA. On the other hand, the indoor density of Culex increased from 0.07 to 0.10 at 2-3 days post-MDA while the indoor parity rate of Culex did not change. The outdoor density of Anopheles in the IC increased (p = 0.394) from 0.58 to 0.90 at 2-3 days post-MDA; a similar observation was consistent for the outdoor density (2.83 to 3.90) and outdoor parity rate (70.59% to 97.44%) of Culex, while the outdoor parity rate of Anopheles reduced from 85.71 to 66.67% at 2-3 days post-MDA. A generalized linear model showed that ivermectin MDA significantly caused a reduction in both the indoor density (p < 0.001) and indoor parity rate (p = 0.003) of Anopheles in the IC.
    CONCLUSION: Ivermectin MDA resulted in the reduction of both the survival and density of Anopheles mosquitoes. This has strong implications for malaria transmission, which depends strongly on vector survival.
    Keywords:  Endectocide; Ivermectin; Mosquito; Nigeria; Vector control
  8. Math Biosci Eng. 2021 Mar 29. 18(3): 2952-2990
      In this paper, we propose a dengue transmission model of SIR(S)-SI type that accounts for two sex-structured mosquito populations: the wild mosquitoes (males and females that are Wolbachia-free), and those deliberately infected with either wMel or wMelPop strain of Wolbachia. This epidemiological model has four possible outcomes: with or without Wolbachia and with or without dengue. To reach the desired outcome, with Wolbachia and without dengue, we employ the dynamic optimization approach and then design optimal programs for releasing Wolbachia-carrying male and female mosquitoes. Our discussion is focused on advantages and drawbacks of two Wolbachia strains, wMelPop and wMel, that are recommended for dengue prevention and control. On the one hand, the wMel strain guarantees a faster population replacement, ensures durable Wolbachia persistence in the wild mosquito population, and requiters fewer releases. On the other hand, the wMelPop strain displays better results for averting dengue infections in the human population.
    Keywords:   Aedes aegypti mosquitoes ; Wolbachia-based biocontrol ; dengue transmission model ; optimal control ; optimal release program ; sex-structured model ; wMelPop and wMel strains
  9. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Apr 20. 14(1): 207
      BACKGROUND: The rapid and widespread evolution of insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the insecticide resistance status of mosquito populations and the underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance can inform the development of effective and site-specific strategies for resistance prevention and management. The aim of this study was to investigate the insecticide resistance status of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes from coastal Kenya.METHODS: Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) larvae sampled from eight study sites were reared to adulthood in the insectary, and 3- to 5-day-old non-blood-fed females were tested for susceptibility to permethrin, deltamethrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), fenitrothion and bendiocarb using the standard World Health Organization protocol. PCR amplification of rDNA intergenic spacers was used to identify sibling species of the An. gambiae complex. The An. gambiae (s.l.) females were further genotyped for the presence of the L1014S and L1014F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations by real-time PCR.
    RESULTS: Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant species, accounting for 95.2% of the total collection, followed by An. gambiae (s.s.), accounting for 4.8%. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, permethrin and fenitrothion but not to bendiocarb and DDT. The L1014S kdr point mutation was detected only in An. gambiae (s.s.), at a low allelic frequency of 3.33%, and the 1014F kdr mutation was not detected in either An. gambiae (s.s.) or An. arabiensis.
    CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrate phenotypic resistance to pyrethroids and organophosphates and a low level of the L1014S kdr point mutation that may partly be responsible for resistance to pyrethroids. This knowledge may inform the development of insecticide resistance management strategies along the Kenyan Coast.
    Keywords:  Anopheles; Coastal Kenya; Insecticide resistance; Kdr; Sodium channel
  10. J Med Entomol. 2021 Apr 24. pii: tjab066. [Epub ahead of print]
      Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is the most pathogenic arbovirus endemic to the United States. Studies have demonstrated Florida's role as a regional reservoir for the virus and its ability to support year-round transmission. Previous research has developed risk index models for mapping locations most at risk for EEEV transmission. We compared vector abundance, vector feeding behavior, potential host species, and fauna presence at high versus low-moderate risk sites during the winter and spring. Predicted high-risk sites had a significantly greater abundance of mosquitoes overall, including Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae), the primary enzootic vector of EEEV. Twenty host species were identified from Cs. melanura bloodmeals, with the majority taken from avian species. Culiseta melanura largely fed upon the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis (Passeriformes: Cardinalidae)), which accounted for 20-24.4% of the bloodmeals obtained from this species in years 1 and 2, respectively. One EEEV-positive mosquito pool (Cs. melanura) and nine EEEV seropositive sentinel chickens were confirmed during winter-spring collections from high-risk sites; no seropositive chickens nor mosquito pools were found at the low-moderate risk sites. These results suggest that high-risk sites for EEEV activity are characterized by habitats that support populations of Cs. melanura and which may also provide ample opportunities to feed upon Northern Cardinals. The overall low level of mosquito populations during the winter also suggests that control of Cs. melanura populations in winter at high-risk sites may prove effective in reducing EEEV transmission during the peak summer season.
    Keywords:   Culiseta melanura ; Eastern equine encephalitis virus; arbovirus; host use
  11. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Apr 20. 15(4): e0009289
      BACKGROUND: Chikungunya is an arbovirus, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which emerged in the Americas in 2013 and spread rapidly to almost every country on this continent. In Brazil, where the first cases were detected in 2014, it currently has reached all regions of this country and more than 900,000 cases were reported. The clinical spectrum of chikungunya ranges from an acute self-limiting form to disabling chronic forms. The purpose of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of chikungunya infection in a large Brazilian city and investigate the association between viral circulation and living condition.METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based ecological study in selected Sentinel Areas (SA) through household interviews and a serologic survey in 2016/2017. The sample was of 1,981 individuals randomly selected. The CHIKV seroprevalence was 22.1% (17.1 IgG, 2.3 IgM, and 1.4 IgG and IgM) and varied between SA from 2.0% to 70.5%. The seroprevalence was significantly lower in SA with high living conditions compared to SA with low living condition. There was a positive association between CHIKV seroprevalence and population density (r = 0.2389; p = 0.02033).
    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The seroprevalence in this city was 2.6 times lower than the 57% observed in a study conducted in the epicentre of the CHIKV epidemic of this same urban centre. So, the herd immunity in this general population, after four years of circulation of this agent is relatively low. It indicates that CHIKV transmission may persist in that city, either in endemic form or in the form of a new epidemic, because the vector infestation is persistent. Besides, the significantly lower seroprevalences in SA of higher Living Condition suggest that beyond the surveillance of the disease, vector control and specific actions of basic sanitation, the reduction of the incidence of this infection also depends on the improvement of the general living conditions of the population.
  12. Front Microbiol. 2021 ;12 630438
      In mosquitoes, the interaction between the gut microbiota, the immune system, and the pathogens that these insects transmit to humans and animals is regarded as a key component toward the development of control strategies, aimed at reducing the burden of severe diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever. Indeed, different microorganisms from the mosquito microbiota have been investigated for their ability to affect important traits of the biology of the host insect, related with its survival, development and reproduction. Furthermore, some microorganisms have been shown to modulate the immune response of mosquito females, significantly shaping their vector competence. Here, we will review current knowledge in this field, focusing on i) the complex interaction between the intestinal microbiota and mosquito females defenses, both in the gut and at humoral level; ii) how knowledge on these issues contributes to the development of novel and targeted strategies for the control of mosquito-borne diseases such as the use of paratransgenesis or taking advantage of the relationship between Wolbachia and mosquito hosts. We conclude by providing a brief overview of available knowledge on microbiota-immune system interplay in major insect vectors.
    Keywords:  Wolbachia; control strategies; insects; pathogens; vector-borne diseases
  13. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2021 Apr 20.
      Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and West Nile virus (WNV) are two important emerging Arboviruses transmitted by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, typically Ae. caspius, Ae. detritus and Cx. pipiens in temperate regions. In Morocco, several outbreaks of WNV (1996, 2003, and 2010), affecting horses mostly, have been reported in northwestern regions resulting in the death of 55 horses and one-person cumulatively. Serological evidence of WNV local circulation, performed one year after the latest outbreak, revealed WNV neutralizing bodies in 59 out of 499 tested participants (Hicham El Rhaffouli et al., 2012). The country also shares common borders with northern Mauritania, where RVF is often documented. Human movement, livestock trade, climate changes, and the availability of susceptible mosquito vectors are expected to increase the spread of these diseases in the country. Thus, in this study, we gathered a dataset summarizing occurrences of Ae. caspius, Ae. detritus and Cx. pipiens in the country, and generated model prediction for their potential distribution under both current and future (2050) climate conditions, as a proxy to identify regions at-risk of RVF and WNV probable expansion. We found that the northwestern regions (where the population is most concentrated), specifically along the Atlantic coastline, are highly suitable for Ae. caspius, Ae. detritus and Cx. pipiens, under present-day conditions. Future model scenarios anticipated possible range changes for the three mosquitoes under all climatic assumptions. All of the studied species are prospected to gain new areas that are currently not suitable, even under the most optimist scenario, thus placing additional human populations at risk. Our maps and predictions offer an opportunity to strategically target surveillance and control programmes. Public health officials, entomological surveillance, and control delegation must augment efforts and continuously monitor these areas to reduce and minimize human infection risk.
    Keywords:   Ae. detritus ; Aedes caspius ; Cx. pipiens ; Climate change; Ecological niche modeling; Future; Present; Rift Valley Fever; West Nile virus; potential distribution
  14. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Apr 19. 14(1): 205
      BACKGROUND: Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector, recently implicated as contributing to ongoing residual malaria transmission in South Africa, which feeds and rests both indoors and outdoors. This species is, therefore, not effectively targeted using core malaria vector control interventions alone. Additionally, increasing resistance to available insecticides necessitates investigations into complementary non-insecticide-based vector control methods for outdoor-resting mosquitoes. The feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a complementary vector control intervention is being investigated in South Africa. Successful implementation of an SIT programme largely depends on inundating a target insect population with sterilized laboratory-bred males. Therefore, knowledge of the native population size and dispersal ability of released sterile laboratory-reared males is critical. In this study, we estimated the male An. arabiensis population size and the dispersal of released males in an area targeted for a pilot sterile male release programme.METHODS: Three separate releases were performed within a 2-year period. Approximately 5000-15,000 laboratory-reared male An. arabiensis (KWAG) were produced and marked for mark-release-recapture experiments. To recapture released mosquitoes, cloth tubes were deployed in widening concentric circles. The average dispersal distance of released males was calculated and the wild male An. arabiensis population size was estimated using two Lincoln index formulae. The natural population was sampled concurrently and Anopheles species diversity examined.
    RESULTS: The Anopheles gambiae complex and An. funestus group species made up the majority of wild collections along with other anophelines. The An. arabiensis population size was estimated to be between 550 and 9500 males per hectare depending on time of year, weather conditions and method used. Average dispersal distance of marked males ranged from 58 to 86 m. Marked males were found in swarms with wild males, indicating that laboratory-reared males are able to locate and participate in mating swarms.
    CONCLUSIONS: It was logistically feasible to conduct mark-release-recapture studies at the current scale. The population size estimates obtained may provide a guideline for the initial number of males to use for a pending SIT pilot trial. It is promising for future SIT trials that laboratory-reared marked males participated in natural swarms, appearing at the right place at the right time.
    Keywords:  Malaria elimination; Malaria vector control; Male mosquitoes; Over-flooding ratio; Population size; Sterile insect technique
  15. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2020 ;113(3): 289-297
      Mosquito control in Cameroon relies largely on the proper use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs). It is necessary to monitor their effectiveness in order to propose corrective measures to improve the strategy. The aim of this work was to determine the physical integrity and effectiveness of LLINs (Interceptor brand) on Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations in two urban and rural areas of the Ayos health district. The level of LLIN coverage and use was assessed through a population survey. The physical integrity of LLINs was assessed by measuring the holes according to the WHO method. Bio-efficacy testing of ITNs was carried out according to the cone test protocol using 2-5-day-old, non-blood fed Anopheles gambiae s.l. females from the natural field strain and the reference susceptible strain. Household LLIN coverage rates in urban and rural areas were 55.50% and 66.94%, respectively. On the other hand, the rates of use were 78.01% and 75.22% in urban and rural areas respectively. The proportion of nets that had lost their physical integrity after 36 months of use was 47.00% and 59.63% in urban and rural areas respectively. The size of holes ranged from 0.5 to 25 cm. Alphacypermethrin was found to be ineffective against both strains of Anopheles gambiae s.l. tested. Knockdown rates ranged from 8.5% to 73% for the reference susceptible strain and less than 2.5% for the natural field strain. Mortality rates for the natural strain of Anopheles gambiae s.l. ranged from 0% to 2.5% while they were between 29% and 70% for the susceptible strain. The results show a decrease in the effectiveness of LLINs against the mosquitoes tested. This may be due to the lower than expected WHO possession and use rates of LLINs, their relatively high degree of wear and tear, and the resistance of the vectors to alphacypermethrin.
    Keywords:  Afrique intertropicale; Akoun; Ayos; Bioefficacité; Cameroun; Ebabodo; Intégrité physique; MILDA; Moustiquaires imprégnées d’insecticide à longue durée d’action; Utilisation
  16. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Apr 20. 14(1): 209
      BACKGROUND: Anopheles arabiensis is an opportunistic malaria vector that rests and feeds outdoors, circumventing current indoor vector control methods. Furthermore, this vector will readily feed on both animals and humans. Targeting this vector while feeding on animals can provide an additional intervention for the current vector control activities. Previous results have displayed the efficacy of using Subolesin/Akirin ortholog vaccines for the control of multiple ectoparasite infestations. This made Akirin a potential antigen for vaccine development against An. arabiensis.METHODS: The efficacy of three antigens, namely recombinant Akirin from An. arabiensis, recombinant Akirin from Aedes albopictus, and recombinant Q38 (Akirin/Subolesin chimera) were evaluated as novel interventions for An. arabiensis vector control. Immunisation trials were conducted based on the concept that mosquitoes feeding on vaccinated balb/c mice would ingest antibodies specific to the target antigen. The antibodies would interact with the target antigen in the arthropod vector, subsequently disrupting its function.
    RESULTS: All three antigens successfully reduced An. arabiensis survival and reproductive capacities, with a vaccine efficacy of 68-73%.
    CONCLUSIONS: These results were the first to show that hosts vaccinated with recombinant Akirin vaccines could develop a protective response against this outdoor malaria transmission vector, thus providing a step towards the development of a novel intervention for An. arabiensis vector control.
    Keywords:  Akirin; Immunisation; Malaria; Recombinant proteins; Subolesin; Vector control
  17. PLoS Med. 2021 Apr;18(4): e1003535
      BACKGROUND: Despite recent intensification of control measures, Plasmodium vivax poses a major challenge for malaria elimination efforts. Liver-stage hypnozoite parasites that cause relapsing infections can be cleared with primaquine; however, poor treatment adherence undermines drug effectiveness. Tafenoquine, a new single-dose treatment, offers an alternative option for preventing relapses and reducing transmission. In 2018, over 237,000 cases of malaria were reported to the Brazilian health system, of which 91.5% were due to P. vivax.METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the impact of introducing tafenoquine into case management practices on population-level transmission dynamics using a mathematical model of P. vivax transmission. The model was calibrated to reflect the transmission dynamics of P. vivax endemic settings in Brazil in 2018, informed by nationwide malaria case reporting data. Parameters for treatment pathways with chloroquine, primaquine, and tafenoquine with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) testing were informed by clinical trial data and the literature. We assumed 71.3% efficacy for primaquine and tafenoquine, a 66.7% adherence rate to the 7-day primaquine regimen, a mean 5.5% G6PDd prevalence, and 8.1% low metaboliser prevalence. The introduction of tafenoquine is predicted to improve effective hypnozoite clearance among P. vivax cases and reduce population-level transmission over time, with heterogeneous levels of impact across different transmission settings. According to the model, while achieving elimination in only few settings in Brazil, tafenoquine rollout in 2021 is estimated to improve the mean effective radical cure rate from 42% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 41%-44%) to 62% (95% UI 54%-68%) among clinical cases, leading to a predicted 38% (95% UI 7%-99%) reduction in transmission and over 214,000 cumulative averted cases between 2021 and 2025. Higher impact is predicted in settings with low transmission, low pre-existing primaquine adherence, and a high proportion of cases in working-aged males. High-transmission settings with a high proportion of cases in children would benefit from a safe high-efficacy tafenoquine dose for children. Our methodological limitations include not accounting for the role of imported cases from outside the transmission setting, relying on reported clinical cases as a measurement of community-level transmission, and implementing treatment efficacy as a binary condition.
    CONCLUSIONS: In our modelling study, we predicted that, provided there is concurrent rollout of G6PDd diagnostics, tafenoquine has the potential to reduce P. vivax transmission by improving effective radical cure through increased adherence and increased protection from new infections. While tafenoquine alone may not be sufficient for P. vivax elimination, its introduction will improve case management, prevent a substantial number of cases, and bring countries closer to achieving malaria elimination goals.
  18. Malar J. 2021 Apr 17. 20(1): 188
      BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a global health concern and is endemic in Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu Natal Provinces of South Africa, which aims to eliminate malaria by 2025. Community engagement plays a significant role in improving the acceptability and effectiveness of programmes aimed at reducing malaria transmission. The success of such intervention efforts depends on the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the community, and understanding the KAP of community residents may support malaria control efforts in the locality. In this context, a cross-sectional household survey to assess community KAP on malaria transmission and prevention in the Ha-Lambani village, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province was conducted.METHODS: Data were collected between November 2018 and May 2019 by questionnaire of 261 consenting adults (213 females and 48 males, aged between 18 and 95 years) selected from different households. Also, a focus group discussion among 13 randomly selected participants was conducted. Pearson's Chi Square test was used to determine statistical differences by village.
    RESULTS: Study participants (100%, 261/261) were aware of the presence of malaria in their community and 95% associated it with mosquito bites. The local health clinic was the most prominent source of malaria information (85%). Only 22% correctly identified headache, chills and fever as the three most common symptoms of malaria. The majority of participants (98%) knew that effective medication for malaria is available and had a positive treatment-seeking behaviour. Knowledge of malaria prevention measures was high (82%); contrarily, 97% of respondents did not sleep under a bed net the previous night. The focus group data concurred with these results and also revealed that poor bed net use resulted from lack of access to bed nets because community residents could not afford them.
    CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that participants have appropriate knowledge about malaria transmission and a positive treatment-seeking behaviour. However, economic barriers are responsible for the inadequate use of bed nets. Therefore, distribution of bed nets to the community should be considered to improve practice of malaria prevention measures. Furthermore, knowledge of signs and symptoms and appropriate malaria treatment was limited, and initiatives to improve awareness on these topics should be continued.
    Keywords:  Attitudes and practices; Ha-Lambani; Knowledge; Limpopo Province; Malaria; South Africa
  19. Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 Apr 20. 10(1): 51
      Malaria was once one of the most serious public health problems in China, with more than 30 million malaria cases annually before 1949. However, the disease burden has sharply declined and the epidemic areas has shrunken after the implementation of an integrated malaria control and elimination strategy, especially since 2000. Till now, China has successfully scaled up its efforts to become malaria-free and is currently being evaluated for malaria-free certification by the WHO. In the battle against malaria, China's efforts have spanned generations, reducing from an incidence high of 122.9/10 000 (6.97 million cases) in 1954 to 0.06/10 000 (7855 cases) in 2010. In 2017, for the first time, China reached zero indigenous case of malaria, putting the country on track to record three consecutive years of zero transmission by 2020, accoding to the National Malaria Elimination Action Plan (2010-2020). China's efforts to eliminate malaria is impressive, and the country is dedicated to sharing its lessons learned in malaria elimination-including, but not limited to, the application of novel genetics-based approaches-with other nations through new initiatives. China will promote international relationships and establish collaborative platforms on a wide range of topics in roughly 65 countries, including 20 African nations. China's experience in applying innovative genetics-based approaches and tools to characterize malaria parasite populations, including surveillance of markers related to drug resistance, categorization of cases as indigenous or imported, and objective identification of the likely sources of infections to inform efforts towards malaria control and elimination in Africa could offer game-changing results when applied to settings with ongoing transmission.
    Keywords:  Africa; China; Elimination; Genetic epidemiological methods; Malaria