bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2021‒04‒18
twenty-one papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University

  1. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2021 Mar 01. 37(1): 10-19
      Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health concern in the Caribbean. Domestic water-storage containers are preferred breeding habitats for synanthropic mosquito species, among which Aedes aegypti stands out due to its role in arbovirus transmission. To determine the microenvironmental features associated with container-dwelling mosquitoes, a house-to-house cross-sectional entomological survey was carried out in 9 Dominican provinces affected by Zika virus in 2016. All containers with the potential to store water were sampled, all immature mosquitoes were collected, and information on the type, capacity, volume of stored water, building material, presence of flowers, and house location was documented. The specimens were identified and larval indices (House index [HI], Container index [CI], Breteau index [BI], and Ae. aegypti Breeding Percentage) were applied. A total of 665 dwellings were surveyed across 30 neighborhoods. A total of 1,420 water-filled container habitats were sampled, 19.3% of which harbored immature mosquitoes of 5 species, including 4 important vectors. The dominance of Ae. aegypti was marked, as it was present in all sampled neighborhoods, inhabiting 272 containers (19.1%). Larval indices were higher than the threshold values accepted (5% for the HI and BI, and 3% for the CI) in almost all neighborhoods. The presence of Aedes spp. was associated with the serviceability of water-holding containers (χ2 = 16.56522; P < 0.001), and the difference in volume between water-holding containers was associated with the presence of Aedes spp. infection (χ2 = 4; P < 0.001), the containers up to 5 liters being the most infested. This is the first entomological research based on synanthropic mosquito breeding habitats that cover urban areas of the 3 macro-regions of the Dominican Republic.
    Keywords:   Aedes aegypti ; Hispaniola; arbovirus; larval indices; water-holding container
  2. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2021 Mar 01. 37(1): 34-37
      Container-breeding mosquitoes are increasingly important in public health due to recent outbreaks of Zika virus, chikungunya, and dengue. This paper documents seasonality of the most prevalent container-breeding mosquito species in Mississippi-Aedes albopictus. Ten sites in 5 counties in both northern and central Mississippi (20 sites, 10 counties total) were sampled by larval dipping and oviposition traps biweekly from September 2016 to June 2019, totaling 22 months and potentially yielding 440 egg or larval collections. However, 22 collections were missed due to inclement weather and personnel issues during the study period, so actually only 418 site visits were performed. Sites were chosen to maximize chances of finding Ae. albopictus. Of the total 1,310 mosquito larvae collected during the study period, 717 larvae and 50 positive egg papers belonged to Ae. albopictus. Aedes albopictus was found in all 10 northern and central counties. No eggs were collected at any of the sites from December through February, although larvae were occasionally collected during that time frame. This study demonstrates that Ae. albopictus is active in central and northern Mississippi beginning in March each year and continuing through November or December. There is little activity during the coldest months of the year (January and February). These data represent the first extensive analysis of Ae. albopictus seasonality in Mississippi, and as such, allow for better public health awareness of diseases transmitted by this species and design of more effective vector control programs.
    Keywords:   Aedes albopictus ; Mississippi; ecology; habitat; seasonality
  3. J Med Entomol. 2021 Apr 17. pii: tjab048. [Epub ahead of print]
      Gene mutations on target sites can be a valuable indicator of the status of insecticide resistance. Jeddah, a global commercial and major port-of-entry city, is bearing the brunt of dengue disease burden in Saudi Arabia. In the current study, six genotypes of three codon combinations (989, 1016, and 1534) were observed on voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene in Jeddah's Aedes aegypti population, with PGF/PGC as the dominant one. Two types of introns between exon 20 and 21 on VGSC have been identified for the first time in Ae. aegypti in Saudi Arabia. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses showed that the intron type was significantly associated with the 1016 allele and may reflect the history of insecticide treatment in different continents. In addition, fixation of the L1014F allele on VGSC and G119S on acetylcholinesterase 1 gene was detected in local Culex quinquefasciatus populations, with frequencies of 95.24 and 100%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of resistant-associated mutations in field-caught Cx. quinquefasciatus in Saudi Arabia. The high prevalence of insecticide resistance gene mutations in local primary mosquito vector species highlights the urgent need to carry out comprehensive insecticide resistance surveillance in Saudi Arabia.
    Keywords:   Aedes aegypti ; Culex quinquefasciatus ; acetylcholinesterase 1 gene; dengue; knockdown resistance gene
  4. Bull Math Biol. 2021 Apr 13. 83(5): 58
      Mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue fever and Zika, have posed a serious threat to human health around the world. Controlling vector mosquitoes is an effective method to prevent these diseases. Spraying pesticides has been the main approach of reducing mosquito population, but it is not a sustainable solution due to the growing insecticide resistance. One promising complementary method is the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes into wild mosquito populations, which has been proven to be a novel and environment-friendly way for mosquito control. In this paper, we incorporate consideration of releasing infected sterile mosquitoes and spraying pesticides to aim to reduce wild mosquito populations based on the population replacement model. We present the estimations for the number of wild mosquitoes or infection density in a normal environment and then discuss how to offset the effect of the heatwave, which can cause infected mosquitoes to lose Wolbachia infection. Finally, we give the waiting time to suppress wild mosquito population to a given threshold size by numerical simulations.
    Keywords:  Heatwave; Mosquito-borne diseases; Pesticides; Population replacement; Population suppression; Wolbachia
  5. J Med Entomol. 2021 Apr 15. pii: tjab065. [Epub ahead of print]
      Hand sanitizers are developed as alcohol-based liquid gel formulations, generally used to decrease the amount of infectious agents on human hands. Verdegen, LLC proposed to prepare an arthropod repellent gel for public use when the recent outbreaks of Zika infection vectored through Aedes mosquitoes in the American continents prompted multi-faceted emergency measures. Four different gel formulations were developed, comprising two of the most efficacious commercial arthropod repellent active ingredients, N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (deet) and 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester (picaridin), each at different concentrations (20 and 33% deet, or 20 and 33% picaridin). Compliance with the use of topical arthropod repellents remains an issue among military personnel. One of the most common complaints by Soldiers is that they do not like how the repellents applied on their skin leave behind an oily or greasy residue. These new gel formulations offer a user-friendly alternative for commonly used arthropod repellents formulations for the military and civilian personnel. We tested the efficacy and protection time of these new gel formulations in comparison with the commercially available cream formulations of deet and picaridin at similar concentrations. Our data show that gel formulations have better topical attributes, and offer equal or better biting protection for up to 48 h against host-seeking Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes.
    Keywords:  deet; gel formulation; mosquito; picaridin; topical repellent
  6. Malar J. 2021 Apr 14. 20(1): 184
      BACKGROUND: Application methods of |Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB) need to be improved for wide-scale use, and effects on non-target organisms (NTOs) must be assessed. The goals of this study were to determine, at the village level, the effect of different configurations of bait stations to (1) achieve < 25% Anopheles mosquito vector daily feeding rate for both males and females and (2) minimize the effect on non-target organisms.METHODS: Dye was added to Attractive Sugar Bait Stations (without toxin) to mark mosquitoes feeding on the baits, and CDC UV light traps were used to monitor for marked mosquitoes. An array of different traps were used to catch dye marked NTOs, indicating feeding on the ASB. Stations were hung on homes (1, 2, or 3 per home to optimize density) at different heights (1.0 m or 1.8 m above the ground). Eight villages were chosen as for the experiments.
    RESULTS: The use of one ASB station per house did not mark enough mosquitoes. Use of two and three stations per house gave feeding rates above the 25% goal. There was no statistical difference in the percentage of marked mosquitoes between two and three stations, however, the catches using two and three bait stations were both significantly higher than using one. There was no difference in An. gambiae s.l. feeding when stations were hung at 1.0 and 1.8 m. At 1.8 m stations sustained less accidental damage. ASB stations 1.8 m above ground were fed on by three of seven monitored insect orders. The monitored orders were: Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera and Orthoptera. Using one or two stations significantly reduced percentage of bait-fed NTOs compared to three stations which had the highest feeding rates. Percentages were as follows: 6.84 ± 2.03% Brachycera followed by wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) 5.32 ± 2.27%, and Rhopalocera 2.22 ± 1.79%. Hanging the optimal number of stations per house for catching mosquitoes (two) at 1.8 m above ground, limited the groups of non-targets to Brachycera, Chironomidae, Noctuoidea, Rhopalocera, parasitic wasps and wasps (Hymenoptera). Feeding at 1.8 m only occurred when stations were damaged.
    CONCLUSIONS: The goal of marking quarter of the total Anopheles population per day was obtained using 2 bait stations at 1.8 m height above the ground. This configuration also had minimal effects on non-target insects.
    Keywords:  ASB; ATSB; Anopheles gambiae s.l.; Diptera; Hymenoptera; Lepidoptera; Non-target organisms (NTOs)
  7. Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 12. 11(1): 7910
      Mosquito bacterial communities are essential in mosquito biology, and knowing the factors shaping these bacterial communities is critical to their application in mosquito-borne disease control. This study investigated how the larval environment influences the bacterial communities of larval stages of two container-dwelling mosquito species, Aedes triseriatus, and Aedes japonicus. Larval and water samples were collected from tree holes and used tires at two study sites, and their bacteria characterized through MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial richness was highest in Ae. japonicus, intermediate in Ae. triseriatus, and lowest in water samples. Dysgonomonas was the dominant bacterial taxa in Ae. triseriatus larvae; the unclassified Comamonadaceae was dominant in water samples from waste tires, while Mycobacterium and Carnobacterium, dominated Ae. japonicus. The two mosquito species harbored distinct bacterial communities that were different from those of the water samples. The bacterial communities also clustered by habitat type (used tires vs. tree holes) and study site. These findings demonstrate that host species, and the larval sampling environment are important determinants of a significant component of bacterial community composition and diversity in mosquito larvae and that the mosquito body may select for microbes that are generally rare in the larval environment.
  8. Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 12. 11(1): 7976
      The rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action for indoor residual spraying (IRS) is recommended for improving malaria vector control and managing insecticide resistance. Insecticides with new chemistries are urgently needed. Broflanilide is a newly discovered insecticide under consideration. We investigated the efficacy of a wettable powder (WP) formulation of broflanilide (VECTRON T500) for IRS on mud and cement wall substrates in laboratory and experimental hut studies against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in Benin, in comparison with pirimiphos-methyl CS (Actellic 300CS). There was no evidence of cross-resistance to pyrethroids and broflanilide in CDC bottle bioassays. In laboratory cone bioassays, broflanilide WP-treated substrates killed > 80% of susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae sl for 6-14 months. At application rates of 100 mg/m2 and 150 mg/m2, mortality of wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae sl entering experimental huts in Covè, Benin treated with VECTRON T500 was similar to pirimiphos-methyl CS (57-66% vs. 56%, P > 0.05). Throughout the 6-month hut trial, monthly wall cone bioassay mortality on VECTRON T500 treated hut walls remained > 80%. IRS with broflanilide shows potential to significantly improve the control of malaria transmitted by pyrethroid-resistant mosquito vectors and could thus be a crucial addition to the current portfolio of IRS insecticides.
  9. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(4): e0249811
      In Appalachia, La Crosse virus (LACV) is a leading pediatric arbovirus and public health concern for children under 16 years. LACV is transmitted via the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. Thus, it is imperative to understand the dynamics of the local vector population in order to assess risk and transmission. Using entomological data collected from Knox County, Tennessee in 2013, we formulate an environmentally-driven system of ordinary differential equations to model mosquito population dynamics over a single season. Further, we include infected compartments to represent LACV transmission within the mosquito population. Findings suggest that the model, with dependence on degree days and accumulated precipitation, can closely describe field data. This model confirms the need to include these environmental variables when planning control strategies.
  10. Curr Biol. 2021 Apr 08. pii: S0960-9822(21)00429-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Wolbachia, a widespread bacterium that can reduce pathogen transmission in mosquitoes, has recently been reported to be present in Anopheles (An.) species. In wild populations of the An. gambiae complex, the primary vectors of Plasmodium malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa, Wolbachia DNA sequences at low density and infection frequencies have been detected. As the majority of studies have used highly sensitive nested PCR as the only method of detection, more robust evidence is required to determine whether Wolbachia strains are established as endosymbionts in Anopheles species. Here, we describe high-density Wolbachia infections in geographically diverse populations of An. moucheti and An. demeilloni. Fluorescent in situ hybridization localized a heavy infection in the ovaries of An.moucheti, and maternal transmission was observed. Genome sequencing of both Wolbachia strains obtained genome depths and coverages comparable to those of other known infections. Notably, homologs of cytoplasmic incompatibility factor (cif) genes were present, indicating that these strains possess the capacity to induce the cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotype, which allows Wolbachia to spread through host populations. These strains should be further investigated as candidates for use in Wolbachia biocontrol strategies in Anopheles aiming to reduce the transmission of malaria.
    Keywords:  Anopheles, mosquitoes; Wolbachia; endosymbionts; malaria; microbiome
  11. Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 Apr 15. 10(1): 52
      BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the newest emerging diseases in Nepal with increasing burden and geographic spread over the years. The main objective of this study was to explore the epidemiological patterns of dengue since its first outbreak (2006) to 2019 in Nepal.METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis that covers the last 14 years (2006-2019) of reported dengue cases from Epidemiology Diseases Control Division (EDCD), Ministry of Health and Population, Government of Nepal. Reported cases were plotted over time and maps of reported case incidence were generated (from 2016 through 2019). An ecological analysis of environmental predictors of case incidence was conducted using negative binomial regression.
    RESULTS: While endemic dengue has been reported in Nepal since 2006, the case load has increased over time and in 2019 a total of 17 992 dengue cases were reported from 68 districts (from all seven provinces). Compared to the case incidence in 2016, incidence was approximately five times higher in 2018 [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 4.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-15.3] and over 140 times higher in 2019 (IRR: 141.6; 95% CI 45.8-438.4). A one standard deviation increase in elevation was associated with a 90% decrease in reported case incidence (IRR: 0.10; 95% CI 0.01-0.20). However, the association between elevation and reported cases varied across the years. In 2018 there was a cluster of cases reported from high elevation Kaski District of Gandaki Province. Our results suggest that dengue infections are increasing in magnitude and expanding out of the lowland areas to higher elevations over time.
    CONCLUSIONS: There is a high risk of dengue outbreak in the lowland Terai region, with increasing spread towards the mid-mountains and beyond as seen over the last 14 years. Urgent measures are required to increase the availability of diagnostics and resources to mitigate future dengue epidemics.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; DENV; Dengue; Nepal; Outbreak; Spatial epidemiology
  12. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2021 Apr 15.
      The emergence of West Nile Virus lineage 2 (WNV-2) has contributed to multiple major human outbreaks in Greece since 2010. Studies to date investigating biological and environmental factors that contribute to West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission have resulted in complex statistical models. We sought to examine open publicly available data to ascertain if a predictive risk assessment could be employed for WNV-2 in Greece. Based on accessible data, factors such as precipitation, temperature, and range of avian host species did not yield conclusive outcomes. However, by measuring the average rate of temperature change leading up to peak caseloads, we found a predictive characteristic to the timing of outbreaks. Detailed evolutionary studies revealed possible multiple introductions of WNV-2 in Europe, and that Greece acts through a source-sink inversion model, thereby allowing continued reseeding of WNV transmission each year by overwintering the Culex pipiens mosquito vector. Greece has proven an excellent model in WNV surveillance and has demonstrated the importance of rapid reporting for proper preparedness and response to vector-borne diseases.
    Keywords:  Greece WNV; WNV dynamics; WNV lineage 2; WNV transmission; viral evolution
  13. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2021 Mar 01. 37(1): 41-45
      Recent experiments suggest spatial repellents may significantly reduce biting pressure from host-seeking riceland mosquitoes, such as Anopheles quadrimaculatus, in a warm-humid open-field habitat. However, little is known regarding efficacy of these formulations in partially enclosed spaces where US military personnel may be sheltered or concealed in an operational environment. In this study we investigated the capability of 3 spatial repellents-metofluthrin, linalool, and d-cis/trans allethrin-to reduce mosquito incursion into small open-top enclosures of US military camouflage netting. We found that metofluthrin was more effective in partially enclosed spaces compared with the open field, whereas both linalool and d-cis/trans allethrin provided superior protection in the open. These findings support strategic selection of spatial repellents depending on the environment immediately surrounding the host.
    Keywords:  Integrated vector management; military operational entomology; passive control; residual pesticide; resistance management
  14. Pan Afr Med J. 2021 ;38 44
      Introduction: evidence-based mosquito control strategy is important for efficient and effective delivery of mosquito control interventions. This is hinged on effective community participation and thorough understanding of the Knowledge Attitude and Practices (KAPs) to achieve desired result. Such community dynamics are often understudied. We designed this study to assess the perception of four local communities on aspects of mosquito behavior, prevention and control in Lagos State, Nigeria.Methods: a cross-sectional survey was carried out using pretested semi-structured questionnaires to assess socio-demographic factors and KAPs in Kosofe, Alimosho, Ibeju-Lekki and Badagry Local Government Areas of Lagos State, Nigeria. Data analysis was carried out using IBM SPSS version 23.
    Results: a total of 746 questionnaires were analyzed. Socio-demographic profile of the sampled population reveals that majority of the study population (73.1%) was between 18 and 40 years which constitute 49% males and 51% females. The knowledge of mosquito as a disease vector was high among the respondents which correlates with their level of education (P<0.05). The use of insecticide aerosols and Insecticides Treated Nets (ITNs) are the main control measures employed for mosquito control by respondents. Cost, convenience of usage and awareness majorly influenced the type of control measures that respondents adopt. Reasons such as not being easy to setup, skin irritation and the filling of being caged are reasons why some individuals do not use ITNs. Indoors, 32.4% of the respondents indicate the use of dichlorvos (DDVP) for household control of mosquitoes.
    Conclusion: the knowledge of mosquito control is high among middle aged individuals in Lagos State. Insecticide aerosols and ITNs are two major mosquito control methods used with DDVP insecticides frequently used indoors. This can inform the design of appropriate control methods in Lagos State.
    Keywords:  Mosquitoes; control; insecticides; knowledge; perception
  15. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2021 Mar 01. 37(1): 28-33
      Populations of Culex stigmatosoma and Cx. thriambus have been documented in the southwestern USA with a southward range extension to northern South America and Central America, respectively. Studies conducted in California indicate both species are potential vectors of West Nile virus. However, vector competence studies are lacking for other parts of the USA. During a multicounty regional surveillance study west of San Antonio, Texas, multiple errors were observed in the Texas distributional literature of these species. These errors involved incorrect distributional information in Texas and US publications. Evidence to correct these errant records was found upon further analysis of Texas literature and curated specimens. Therefore, the aims of this study were to present that evidence and then combine the corrected records with additional records from the Texas Department of State Health Services and from larval collections made during other Texas surveillance studies.
    Keywords:  County records; Culicidae; West Nile virus; distribution; surveillance
  16. Lancet Planet Health. 2021 04;pii: S2542-5196(21)00002-4. [Epub ahead of print]5(4): e220-e229
      BACKGROUND: In malaria-endemic areas, residents of modern houses have less malaria than those living in traditional houses. We aimed to assess whether children in The Gambia received an incremental benefit from improved housing, where current best practice of insecticide-treated nets, indoor residual spraying, seasonal malaria chemoprevention in children younger than 5 years, and prompt treatment against clinical malaria was in place.METHODS: In this randomised controlled study, 800 households with traditional thatched-roofed houses were randomly selected from 91 villages in the Upper River Region of The Gambia. Within each village, equal numbers of houses were randomly allocated to the control and intervention groups using a sampling frame. Houses in the intervention group were modified with metal roofs and screened doors and windows, whereas houses in the control group received no modifications. In each group, clinical malaria in children aged 6 months to 13 years was monitored by active case detection over 2 years (2016-17). We did monthly collections from indoor light traps to estimate vector densities. Primary endpoints were the incidence of clinical malaria in study children with more than 50% of observations each year and household vector density. The trial is registered at ISRCTN02622179.
    FINDINGS: In June, 2016, 785 houses had one child each recruited into the study (398 in unmodified houses and 402 in modified houses). 26 children in unmodified houses and 28 children in modified houses did not have at least 50% of visits in a year and so were excluded from analysis. 38 children in unmodified houses were recruited after study commencement, as were 21 children in modified houses, meaning 410 children in unmodified houses and 395 in modified houses were included in the parasitological analyses. At the end of the study, 659 (94%) of 702 children were reported to have slept under an insecticide-treated net; 662 (88%) of 755 children lived in houses that received indoor residual spraying; and 151 (90%) of 168 children younger than 5 years had seasonal malaria chemoprevention. Incidence of clinical malaria was 0·12 episodes per child-year in children in the unmodified houses and 0·20 episodes per child-year in the modified houses (unadjusted incidence rate ratio [RR] 1·68 [95% CI 1·11-2·55], p=0·014). Household vector density was 3·30 Anopheles gambiae per house per night in the unmodified houses compared with 3·60 in modified houses (unadjusted RR 1·28 [0·87-1·89], p=0·21).
    INTERPRETATION: Improved housing did not provide protection against clinical malaria in this area of low seasonal transmission with high coverage of insecticide-treated nets, indoor residual spraying, and seasonal malaria chemoprevention.
    FUNDING: Global Health Trials funded by Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, and Wellcome Trust.
  17. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Apr 16. 15(4): e0008813
      The control of arboviruses carried by Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) can be performed with tools that monitor and reduce the circulation of these vectors. Therefore, the efficiency of four types of traps in capturing A. aegypti and A. albopictus eggs and adults, with the biological product Vectobac WG, was evaluated in the field. For this, 20 traps were installed in two locations, which were in the South (Londrina, Paraná) and North (Manaus, Amazonas) Regions of Brazil, from March to April 2017 and January to February 2018, respectively. The UELtrap-E (standard trap) and UELtrap-EA traps captured A. aegypti and A. albopictus eggs: 1703/1866 eggs in Londrina, and 10268/2149 eggs in Manaus, respectively, and presented high ovitraps positivity index (OPI) values (averages: 100%/100% in Londrina, and 100%/96% in Manaus, respectively); and high egg density index (EDI) values (averages: 68/75 in Londrina, and 411/89 in Manaus, respectively), so they had statistically superior efficiency to that of the CRtrap-E and CRtrap-EA traps in both regions, that captured less eggs and adults: 96/69 eggs in Londrina, and 1091/510 eggs in Manaus, respectively. Also presented lower OPI values (averages: 28%/4% in Londrina, and 88%/60% in Manaus, respectively); and lower EDI values (averages: 10.5/9 in Londrina, and 47/30 in Manaus, respectively). The capture ratios of Aedes adults in the UELtrap-EA and CRtrap-EA traps in Londrina and Manaus were 53.3%/29.5% and 0%/9.8%, respectively. UELtrap-EA can be adopted as efficient tool for Aedes monitoring due to their high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use.
  18. J Virol. 2021 Apr 14. pii: JVI.02203-20. [Epub ahead of print]
      Recent field trials have demonstrated that dengue incidence can be substantially reduced by introgressing strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquito populations. This strategy relies on Wolbachia reducing the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to disseminated infection by positive-sense RNA viruses like dengue. However, RNA viruses are well known to adapt to antiviral pressures. Here we review the viral infection stages where selection for Wolbachia-resistant virus variants could occur. We also consider the genetic constraints imposed on viruses that alternate between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, and the likely selection pressures that dengue virus might adapt to in order to be effectively transmitted by Ae. aegypti that carry Wolbachia Whilst there are hurdles to dengue viruses developing resistance to Wolbachia, we suggest that long-term surveillance for resistant viruses should be an integral component of Wolbachia-introgression biocontrol programs.
  19. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 12. pii: tpmd201378. [Epub ahead of print]
      Since the late nineteenth century, the importance of house structure as a determinant of malaria risk has been recognized. Few studies to date have examined the association of housing and malaria in clinical populations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of febrile patients (n = 282) at two rural health clinics in a high malaria-transmission area of northern Zambia. Participants underwent testing for Plasmodium falciparum infection by PCR. Demographic and other risk factors including house structure, indoor residual spraying (IRS), bed net use, education level, and household income were collected. Data were fitted to logistic regression models for relational and mediation analyses. Residing in a house with a thatch roof was associated with higher odds of malaria than residing in a house with corrugated metal (odds ratio: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.0-6.3, P = 0.04). Lower income and educational attainment were also associated with greater odds of malaria. Living under a thatch roof accounted for 24% (95% CI: 14-82) of the effect of household income on malaria risk, and income accounted for 11% (95% CI: 8-19) of the effect of education. Neither IRS nor bed net use was associated with malaria risk, despite large, local investments in these vector control interventions. The findings testify to malaria as a disease of rural poverty and contribute further evidence to the utility of housing improvements in vector control programs.
  20. Lancet Planet Health. 2021 04;pii: S2542-5196(20)30292-8. [Epub ahead of print]5(4): e209-e219
      BACKGROUND: Temperature and rainfall patterns are known to influence seasonal patterns of dengue transmission. However, the effect of severe drought and extremely wet conditions on the timing and intensity of dengue epidemics is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to quantify the non-linear and delayed effects of extreme hydrometeorological hazards on dengue risk by level of urbanisation in Brazil using a spatiotemporal model.METHODS: We combined distributed lag non-linear models with a spatiotemporal Bayesian hierarchical model framework to determine the exposure-lag-response association between the relative risk (RR) of dengue and a drought severity index. We fit the model to monthly dengue case data for the 558 microregions of Brazil between January, 2001, and January, 2019, accounting for unobserved confounding factors, spatial autocorrelation, seasonality, and interannual variability. We assessed the variation in RR by level of urbanisation through an interaction between the drought severity index and urbanisation. We also assessed the effect of hydrometeorological hazards on dengue risk in areas with a high frequency of water supply shortages.
    FINDINGS: The dataset included 12 895 293 dengue cases reported between 2001 and 2019 in Brazil. Overall, the risk of dengue increased between 0-3 months after extremely wet conditions (maximum RR at 1 month lag 1·56 [95% CI 1·41-1·73]) and 3-5 months after drought conditions (maximum RR at 4 months lag 1·43 [1·22-1·67]). Including a linear interaction between the drought severity index and level of urbanisation improved the model fit and showed the risk of dengue was higher in more rural areas than highly urbanised areas during extremely wet conditions (maximum RR 1·77 [1·32-2·37] at 0 months lag vs maximum RR 1·58 [1·39-1·81] at 2 months lag), but higher in highly urbanised areas than rural areas after extreme drought (maximum RR 1·60 [1·33-1·92] vs 1·15 [1·08-1·22], both at 4 months lag). We also found the dengue risk following extreme drought was higher in areas that had a higher frequency of water supply shortages.
    INTERPRETATION: Wet conditions and extreme drought can increase the risk of dengue with different delays. The risk associated with extremely wet conditions was higher in more rural areas and the risk associated with extreme drought was exacerbated in highly urbanised areas, which have water shortages and intermittent water supply during droughts. These findings have implications for targeting mosquito control activities in poorly serviced urban areas, not only during the wet and warm season, but also during drought periods.
    FUNDING: Royal Society, Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, National Institutes of Health, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico.
    TRANSLATION: For the Portuguese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
  21. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2021 May;pii: S0048-3575(21)00054-7. [Epub ahead of print]174 104823
      Conventional and volatile pyrethroids are widely used to control the vectors of dengue arboviral diseases, Aedes albopictus in China. The development of resistance to conventional pyrethroids has become an increasing problem, potentially affecting the use of volatile pyrethroid. The Ae. albopictus dimefluthrin-resistant (R) strain by selecting the field population with dimefluthrin were investigated the multiple and cross-resistance levels between conventional and volatile pyrethroids and analyzed both target-site and metabolic resistant mechanisms to dimefluthrin compared with three volatile pyrethroids metofluthrin, meperfluthrin and esbiothrin and type II pyrethroid deltamethrin. The R strain displayed moderate to low resistance to selected pyrethroids (dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, meperfluthrin, esbiothrin and deltamethrin) associated with metabolic enzymes, but less distinctly to selected pyrethroids (dimefluthrin and metofluthrin) associated with a high frequency of sodium channel gene mutation (F1534S). Profiles of the multiple and cross-resistance of the R strain to other three volatile pyrethroids and type II pyrethroid deltamethrin were detected. Both synergistic and enzyme activity studies indicated that multifunctional oxidase (MFO) played an important role in this resistance.
    Keywords:  Aedes albopictus; Metabolic resistance; Target-site resistance; Volatile pyrethroid