bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2021‒02‒07
eighteen papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University


  1. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2021 ;pii: S0074-02762020000100359. [Epub ahead of print]115 e200313
    Guidez A, Pocquet N, Restrepo J, Mathieu L, Gaborit P, Issaly J, Carinci R, Chandre F, Epelboin Y, Romain G, Dusfour I.
      BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory.OBJECTIVES: Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan.
    METHODS: In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay.
    FINDINGS: Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids.
    CONCLUSION: The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760200313
  2. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Feb 05. 15(2): e0009121
    Rigby LM, Johnson BJ, Rašić G, Peatey CL, Hugo LE, Beebe NW, Hartel GF, Devine GJ.
      BACKGROUND: The development of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes can have pleiotropic effects on key behaviours such as mating competition and host-location. Documenting these effects is crucial for understanding the dynamics and costs of insecticide resistance and may give researchers an evidence base for promoting vector control programs that aim to restore or conserve insecticide susceptibility.METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated changes in behaviour in a backcrossed strain of Aedes aegypti, homozygous for two knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations (V1016G and S989P) isolated in an otherwise fully susceptible genetic background. We compared biting activity, host location behaviours, wing beat frequency (WBF) and mating competition between the backcrossed strain, and the fully susceptible and resistant parental strains from which it was derived. The presence of the homozygous kdr mutations did not have significant effects on blood avidity, the time to locate a host, or WBF in females. There was, however, a significant reduction in mean WBF in males and a significant reduction in estimated male mating success (17.3%), associated with the isolated kdr genotype.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a cost of insecticide resistance associated with an isolated kdr genotype and manifest as a reduction in male mating success. While there was no recorded difference in WBF between the females of our strains, the significant reduction in male WBF recorded in our backcrossed strain might contribute to mate-recognition and mating disruption. These consequences of resistance evolution, especially when combined with other pleiotropic fitness costs that have been previously described, may encourage reversion to susceptibility in the absence of insecticide selection pressures. This offers justification for the implementation of insecticide resistance management strategies based on the rotation or alternation of different insecticide classes in space and time.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009121
  3. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Feb 01. 14(1): 92
    Wat'senga Tezzo F, Fasine S, Manzambi Zola E, Marquetti MDC, Binene Mbuka G, Ilombe G, Mundeke Takasongo R, Smitz N, Bisset JA, Van Bortel W, Vanlerberghe V.
      BACKGROUND: Dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika are among the most important emerging infectious vector-borne diseases worldwide. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), increases in cases of dengue and outbreaks of yellow fever and chikungunya have been reported since 2010. The main vectors of these arboviruses, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, have been reported in DRC, but there is a lack of detailed information on their presence and spread to guide disease control efforts.METHODS: In 2018, two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Kinshasa province (DRC), one in the rainy (January/February) and one in the dry season (July). Four hundred houses were visited in each of the four selected communes (N'Djili, Mont Ngafula, Lingwala and Kalamu). Within the peri-domestic area of each household, searches were conducted for larval habitats, which were then surveyed for the presence of Aedes larvae and pupae. A subset of the immature specimens were reared to adults for morphological identification followed by DNA barcoding of the specimens to validate identifications.
    RESULTS: The most rural commune (Mont Ngafula) had the highest pupal index (number of Aedes spp. pupae per 100 inspected houses) at 246 (20) pupae/100 houses, and Breteau index (BI; number of containers positive for immature stages of Aedes spp. per 100 households) at 82.2 (19.5) positive containers/100 houses for the rainy (and dry) season, respectively. The BI was 21.5 (4.7), 36.7 (9.8) and 41.7 (7.5) in Kalamu, Lingwala and N'Djili in the rainy (and dry) season, respectively. The house index (number of houses positive for at least one container with immature stages of Aedes spp. per 100 inspected houses) was, on average, across all communes, 27.5% (7.6%); and the container index (number of containers positive for immature stages of Aedes spp. per 100 inspected containers) was 15.0% (10.0%) for the rainy (and dry) season, respectively. The vast majority of Aedes-positive containers were found outside the houses [adjusted odds ratio 27.4 (95% confidence interval 14.9-50.1)]. During the dry season, the most productive containers were the ones used for water storage, whereas in the rainy season rubbish and tires constituted key habitats. Both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found. Anopheles larvae were found in different types of Aedes larval habitats, especially during the rainy season.
    CONCLUSIONS: In both surveys and in all communes, the larval indices (BI) were higher than the arbovirus transmission threshold values established by the World Health Organization. Management strategies for controlling Aedes in Kinshasa need to target the key types of containers for Aedes larvae, which are mainly located in outdoor spaces, for larval habitat destruction or reduction.
    Keywords:  Aedes; Central Africa; Chikungunya; Democratic Republic of Congo; Kinshasa; Survey
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04588-7
  4. J Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 05. pii: jiab066. [Epub ahead of print]
    Rodrigues NB, Godoy RSM, Orfano AS, Chaves BA, Campolina TB, Costa BDA, Felix LS, Silva BM, Norris DE, Pimenta PFP, Costa Secundino NF.
      BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a highly competent vector in the transmission of arboviruses, such as chikungunya, dengue, Zika and yellow fever, and causes single and coinfections in the populations of tropical countries.METHODS: The infection rate, viral abundance, vector competence, disseminated infection and survival rate were recorded after single and multiple infections of the vector with 15 combinations of chikungunya, dengue, Zika and yellow fever arboviruses.
    RESULTS: Infection rates were 100% in all single and multiple infection experiments, except in one triple coinfection that presented a rate of 50%. The vector competence and disseminated infection rate varied from 100% (in single and quadruple infections) to 40% (in dual and triple infections). The dual and triple coinfections altered the vector competence and/or viral abundance of at least one of the arboviruses. The highest viral abundances were detected for a single infection with chikungunya. The viral abundances in quadruple infections were similar when compared to each respective single infection. A decrease in survival rates was observed in a few combinations.
    CONCLUSIONS: Ae. aegypti was able to host all single and multiple arboviral coinfections. The interference of the chikungunya virus suggests that distinct arbovirus families may have a significant role in complex coinfections.
    Keywords:   Aedes aegypti ; Chikungunya virus; Zika virus; coinfection; dengue virus; yellow fever virus
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab066
  5. Insects. 2021 Feb 02. pii: 129. [Epub ahead of print]12(2):
    Hopken MW, Reyes-Torres LJ, Scavo N, Piaggio AJ, Abdo Z, Taylor D, Pierce J, Yee DA.
      Urban ecosystems are a patchwork of habitats that host a broad diversity of animal species. Insects comprise a large portion of urban biodiversity which includes many pest species, including those that transmit pathogens. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inhabit urban environments and rely on sympatric vertebrate species to complete their life cycles, and in this process transmit pathogens to animals and humans. Given that mosquitoes feed upon vertebrates, they can also act as efficient samplers that facilitate detection of vertebrate species that utilize urban ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed DNA extracted from mosquito blood meals collected temporally in multiple neighborhoods of the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico to evaluate the presence of vertebrate fauna. DNA was collected from 604 individual mosquitoes that represented two common urban species, Culex quinquefasciatus (n = 586) and Aedes aegypti (n = 18). Culex quinquefasciatus fed on 17 avian taxa (81.2% of blood meals), seven mammalian taxa (17.9%), and one reptilian taxon (0.85%). Domestic chickens dominated these blood meals both temporally and spatially, and no statistically significant shift from birds to mammals was detected. Aedes aegypti blood meals were from a less diverse group, with two avian taxa (11.1%) and three mammalian taxa (88.9%) identified. The blood meals we identified provided a snapshot of the vertebrate community in the San Juan Metropolitan Area and have potential implications for vector-borne pathogen transmission.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus; bird; high-throughput sequencing; iDNA; mammal; metabarcoding; species diversity; vector-borne diseases
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12020129
  6. Malar J. 2021 Feb 04. 20(1): 70
    Kessler A, Shylla B, Singh US, Lyngdoh R, Mawkhlieng B, van Eijk AM, Sullivan SA, Das A, Walton C, Wilson ML, Carlton JM, Albert S.
      BACKGROUND: Despite declining incidence over the past decade, malaria remains an important health burden in India. This study aimed to assess the village-level temporal patterns of Plasmodium infection in two districts of the north-eastern state of Meghalaya and evaluate risk factors that might explain these patterns.METHODS: Primary Health Centre passive malaria case data from 2014 to 2018 were analysed to characterize village-specific annual incidence and temporal trends. Active malaria case detection was undertaken in 2018 and 2019 to detect Plasmodium infections using PCR. A questionnaire collected socio-demographic, environmental, and behavioural data, and households were spatially mapped via GPS. Adult mosquitoes were sampled at a subset of subjects' houses, and Anopheles were identified by PCR and sequencing. Risk factors for Plasmodium infection were evaluated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, and spatial cluster analysis was undertaken.
    RESULTS: The annual malaria incidence from PHC-based passive surveillance datasets in 2014-2018 was heterogenous but declining across villages in both districts. Active surveillance in 2018 enrolled 1468 individuals from 468 households (West Jaintia Hills) and 1274 individuals from 359 households (West Khasi Hills). Plasmodium falciparum prevalence per 100 people varied from 0 to 4.1% in the nine villages of West Jaintia Hills, and from 0 to 10.6% in the 12 villages of West Khasi Hills. Significant clustering of P. falciparum infections [observed = 11, expected = 2.15, Relative Risk (RR) = 12.65; p < 0.001] was observed in West Khasi Hills. A total of 13 Anopheles species were found at 53 houses in five villages, with Anopheles jeyporiensis being the most abundant. Risk of infection increased with presence of mosquitoes and electricity in the households [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.19 and 1.11], respectively. Households with reported animals had reduced infection risk (OR = 0.91).
    CONCLUSION: Malaria incidence during 2014-2018 declined in all study villages covered by the passive surveillance data, a period that includes the first widespread insecticide-treated net campaign. The survey data from 2018 revealed a significant association between Plasmodium infection and certain household characteristics. Since species of Plasmodium-competent mosquito vectors continue to be abundant, malaria resurgence remains a threat, and control efforts should continue.
    Keywords:  Anopheles mosquito abundance; Declining incidence; Malaria elimination; Subpatent Plasmodium infections
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03600-w
  7. Parasit Vectors. 2021 Feb 01. 14(1): 91
    Cross DE, Thomas C, McKeown N, Siaziyu V, Healey A, Willis T, Singini D, Liywalii F, Silumesii A, Sakala J, Smith M, Macklin M, Hardy AJ, Shaw PW.
      BACKGROUND: The Barotse floodplains of the upper Zambezi River and its tributaries are a highly dynamic environment, with seasonal flooding and transhumance presenting a shifting mosaic of potential larval habitat and human and livestock blood meals for malaria vector mosquitoes. However, limited entomological surveillance has been undertaken to characterize the vector community in these floodplains and their environs. Such information is necessary as, despite substantial deployment of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) against Anopheles vectors, malaria transmission persists across Barotseland in Zambia's Western Province.METHODS: Geographically extensive larval surveys were undertaken in two health districts along 102 km of transects, at fine spatial resolution, during a dry season and following the peak of the successive wet season. Larvae were sampled within typical Anopheles flight range of human settlements and identified through genetic sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer two regions of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. This facilitated detailed comparison of taxon-specific abundance patterns between ecological zones differentiated by hydrological controls.
    RESULTS: An unexpected paucity of primary vectors was revealed, with An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus representing < 2% of 995 sequenced anophelines. Potential secondary vectors predominated in the vector community, primarily An. coustani group species and An. squamosus. While the distribution of An. gambiae s.l. in the study area was highly clustered, secondary vector species were ubiquitous across the landscape in both dry and wet seasons, with some taxon-specific relationships between abundance and ecological zones by season.
    CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of candidate vector species and their high relative abundance observed across diverse hydro-ecosystems indicate a highly adaptable transmission system, resilient to environmental variation and, potentially, interventions that target only part of the vector community. Larval survey results imply that residual transmission of malaria in Barotseland is being mediated predominantly by secondary vector species, whose known tendencies for crepuscular and outdoor biting renders them largely insensitive to prevalent vector control methods.
    Keywords:  Anopheles; COI; Exophagy; ITS2; Larvae; Malaria; Primary vector; Residual transmission; Secondary vector
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04540-1
  8. Parasite. 2021 ;28 8
    Bamou R, Kopya E, Nkahe LD, Menze BD, Awono-Ambene P, Tchuinkam T, Njiokou F, Wondji CS, Antonio-Nkondjio C.
      In Cameroon, pyrethroid-only long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are still largely used for malaria control. The present study assessed the efficacy of such LLINs against a multiple-resistant population of the major malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, in the city of Yaoundé via a cone bioassay and release-recapture experimental hut trial. Susceptibility of field mosquitoes in Yaoundé to pyrethroids, DDT, carbamates and organophosphate insecticides was investigated using World Health Organization (WHO) bioassay tube tests. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance were characterised molecularly. Efficacy of unwashed PermaNet® 2.0 was evaluated against untreated control nets using a resistant colonised strain of An. coluzzii. Mortality, exophily and blood feeding inhibition were estimated. Field collected An. coluzzii displayed high resistance with mortality rates of 3.5% for propoxur (0.1%), 4.16% for DDT (4%), 26.9% for permethrin (0.75%), 50.8% for deltamethrin (0.05%), and 80% for bendiocarb (0.1%). High frequency of the 1014F west-Africa kdr allele was recorded in addition to the overexpression of several detoxification genes, such as Cyp6P3, Cyp6M2, Cyp9K1, Cyp6P4 Cyp6Z1 and GSTe2. A low mortality rate (23.2%) and high blood feeding inhibition rate (65%) were observed when resistant An. coluzzii were exposed to unwashed PermaNet® 2.0 net compared to control untreated net (p < 0.001). Furthermore, low personal protection (52.4%) was observed with the resistant strain, indicating reduction of efficacy. The study highlights the loss of efficacy of pyrethroid-only nets against mosquitoes exhibiting high insecticide resistance and suggests a switch to new generation bed nets to improve control of malaria vector populations in Yaoundé.
    Keywords:  An. coluzzii; Bioassay; Cameroon; Experimental-hut; Insecticide Resistance; LLINs; Susceptibility
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2021003
  9. Acta Trop. 2021 Jan 29. pii: S0001-706X(21)00028-0. [Epub ahead of print] 105849
    Orta-Pineda G, Abella-Medrano CA, Suzán G, Serrano-Villagrana A, Ojeda-Flores R.
      Global change and ecosystem transformation at regional and local scales during recent decades have facilitated the exponential increase of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito-borne pathogens are responsible for millions of infections, mainly in tropical regions where marginalized human populations are located, and where in recent years processes of landscape anthropization have occurred. Anthropogenic landscape transformation is known to change species assemblages. However, the magnitude of these effects is largely unknown, and the effects of anthropogenic landscape transformation on sylvatic mosquito assemblages are poorly known in Mexican ecosystems. We evaluate how mosquito abundance, richness, and diversity change along a gradient of three human-modified landscapes-one highly anthropized, one moderately anthropized, and one slightly anthropized-within a tropical forest matrix in a Protected Natural Area in Chiapas. A total of 4 538 mosquitoes belonging to 23 species were captured and identified at the three sites. We found differences in the structure and abundance of the three mosquito assemblages. The species assemblage of the highly anthropized site was significantly different from the other sites, and the relative abundance of the assemblages increased with landscape anthropization. Our results suggest that landscape anthropization alters the composition and structure of mosquito assemblages, modifying the abundance and species richness of mosquitoes associated with sylvatic ecosystems. This could support the hypothesis of intermediate disturbance that suggests the diversity is maximized when late and early successional species coexist in these ecosystems. This information is essential to understand the ecology of potential sylvatic vectors and the environmental factors that are involved in the emergence and re-emergence of mosquito-borne diseases.
    Keywords:  Culicidae; diversity; intermediate disturbance; landscape ecology; metacommunity; vector ecology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105849
  10. BMC Public Health. 2021 Jan 30. 21(1): 251
    Soma DD, Zogo B, Taconet P, Somé A, Coulibaly S, Baba-Moussa L, Ouédraogo GA, Koffi A, Pennetier C, Dabiré KR, Moiroux N.
      BACKGROUND: To sustain the efficacy of malaria vector control, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the combination of effective tools. Before designing and implementing additional strategies in any setting, it is critical to monitor or predict when and where transmission occurs. However, to date, very few studies have quantified the behavioural interactions between humans and Anopheles vectors in Africa. Here, we characterized residual transmission in a rural area of Burkina Faso where long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) are widely used.METHODS: We analysed data on both human and malaria vectors behaviours from 27 villages to measure hourly human exposure to vector bites in dry and rainy seasons using a mathematical model. We estimated the protective efficacy of LLINs and characterised where (indoors vs. outdoors) and when both LLIN users and non-users were exposed to vector bites.
    RESULTS: The percentage of the population who declared sleeping under a LLIN the previous night was very high regardless of the season, with an average LLIN use ranging from 92.43 to 99.89%. The use of LLIN provided > 80% protection against exposure to vector bites. The proportion of exposure for LLIN users was 29-57% after 05:00 and 0.05-12% before 20:00. More than 80% of exposure occurred indoors for LLIN users and the estimate reached 90% for children under 5 years old in the dry cold season.
    CONCLUSIONS: LLINs are predicted to provide considerable protection against exposure to malaria vector bites in the rural area of Diébougou. Nevertheless, LLIN users are still exposed to vector bites which occurred mostly indoors in late morning. Therefore, complementary strategies targeting indoor biting vectors in combination with LLIN are expected to be the most efficient to control residual malaria transmission in this area.
    Keywords:  Anopheles; Behaviours; Diébougou; Humans; LLIN; Residual transmission
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10304-y
  11. Wellcome Open Res. 2020 ;5 183
    Thornton J, Gomes B, Ayres C, Reimer L.
      Background: Laboratory reared mosquito colonies are essential tools to understand insecticide action. However, they differ considerably from wild populations and from each other depending on their origin and rearing conditions, which makes studying the effects of specific resistance mechanisms difficult. This paper describes our methods for establishing multiple resistant strains of Aedes aegypti from two colonies as a new resource for further research on metabolic and target site resistance. Methods: Two resistant colonies of Ae. aegypti, from Cayman and Recife, were selected through 10 generations of exposure to insecticides including permethrin, malathion and temephos, to yield eight strains with different profiles of resistance due to either target site or metabolic resistance. Resistance ratios for each insecticide were calculated for the selected and unselected strains. The frequency of kdr alleles in the Cayman strains was determined using TaqMan assays. A comparative gene expression analysis among Recife strains was conducted using qPCR in larvae (CCae3A, CYP6N12, CYP6F3, CYP9M9) and adults (CCae3A, CYP6N12, CYP6BB2, CYP9J28a). Results: In the selected strain of Cayman, mortality against permethrin reduced almost to 0% and kdr became fixated by 5 generations. A similar phenotype was seen in the unselected homozygous resistant colony, whilst mortality in the susceptible homozygous colony rose to 82.9%. The Recife strains showed different responses between exposure to adulticide and larvicide, with detoxification genes in the temephos selected strain staying similar to the baseline, but a reduction in detoxification genes displayed in the other strains. Conclusions: These selected strains, with a range of insecticide resistance phenotypes and genotypes, will support further research on the effects of target-site and/or metabolic resistance mechanisms on various life-history traits, behaviours and vector competence of this important arbovirus vector.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; insecticide resistance; kdr; malathion; mosquito; permethrin; pyrethroid; temephos
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15974.1
  12. Emerg Top Life Sci. 2019 May 10. 3(2): 115-132
    Andriamifidy RF, Tjaden NB, Beierkuhnlein C, Thomas SM.
      Mosquito-borne diseases are on the rise globally. Besides invasion processes and the increasing connectivity between distant regions through the trade of goods and human mobility, climate change is seen as an important driver for changing the likelihood of occurrence of vectors and diseases, respectively. Ectothermic insects respond directly to thermal conditions and thus we can expect them to follow climatic trends. However, a variety of species and different stages in their life cycles need to be considered. Here, we review the current literature in this field and disentangle the state of knowledge and the challenges and open questions for future research. The integration of diurnal temperature ranges in prospective experimental studies will strongly improve the knowledge of mosquitoes' ecology and mosquito-borne disease transmission for temperate regions in particular. In addition, invasive mosquitoes are known to rapidly adapt to the climatic conditions, but the underlying processes are not yet fully understood.
    Keywords:  chikungunya; climate change; climate warming; dengue; early warning; mosquito-borne disease
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1042/ETLS20180125
  13. J Virol. 2021 Feb 03. pii: JVI.02218-20. [Epub ahead of print]
    Riemersma KK, Jaeger AS, Crooks CM, Braun KM, Weger-Lucarelli J, Ebel GD, Friedrich TC, Aliota MT.
      Zika virus (ZIKV) has the unusual capacity to circumvent natural alternating mosquito-human transmission and be directly transmitted human-to-human via sexual and vertical routes. The impact of direct transmission on ZIKV evolution and adaptation to vertebrate hosts is unknown. Here we show that molecularly barcoded ZIKV rapidly adapted to a mammalian host during direct transmission chains in mice, coincident with the emergence of an amino acid substitution previously shown to enhance virulence. In contrast, little to no adaptation of ZIKV to mice was observed following chains of direct transmission in mosquitoes or alternating host transmission. Detailed genetic analyses revealed that ZIKV evolution in mice was generally more convergent and subjected to more relaxed purifying selection than in mosquitoes or alternate passages. These findings suggest that prevention of direct human transmission chains may be paramount to resist gains in ZIKV virulence.Importance We used experimental evolution to model chains of direct and indirect Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission by serially passaging a synthetic swarm of molecularly barcoded ZIKV within and between mosquitoes and mice. We observed that direct mouse transmission chains facilitated a rapid increase in ZIKV replication and enhanced virulence in mice. These findings demonstrate that ZIKV is capable of rapid adaptation to a vertebrate host and indicate that direct human-to-human transmission could pose a greater threat to public health than currently realized.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02218-20
  14. Malar J. 2021 Feb 02. 20(1): 68
    Briggs J, Kuchta A, Murphy M, Tessema S, Arinaitwe E, Rek J, Chen A, Nankabirwa JI, Drakeley C, Smith D, Bousema T, Kamya M, Rodriguez-Barraquer I, Staedke S, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Greenhouse B.
      BACKGROUND: Evaluation of genetic relatedness of malaria parasites is a useful tool for understanding transmission patterns, but patterns are not easily detectable in areas with moderate to high malaria transmission. To evaluate the feasibility of detecting genetic relatedness in a moderate malaria transmission setting, relatedness of Plasmodium falciparum infections was measured in cohort participants from randomly selected households in the Kihihi sub-county of Uganda (annual entomological inoculation rate of 27 infectious bites per person).METHODS: All infections detected via microscopy or Plasmodium-specific loop mediated isothermal amplification from passive and active case detection during August 2011-March 2012 were genotyped at 26 microsatellite loci, providing data for 349 samples from 230 participants living in 80 households. Pairwise genetic relatedness was calculated using identity by state (IBS).
    RESULTS: As expected, genetic diversity was high (mean heterozygosity [He] = 0.73), and the majority (76.5 %) of samples were polyclonal. Despite the high genetic diversity, fine-scale population structure was detectable, with significant spatiotemporal clustering of highly related infections. Although the difference in malaria incidence between households at higher (mean 1127 metres) versus lower elevation (mean 1015 metres) was modest (1.4 malaria cases per person-year vs. 1.9 per person-year, respectively), there was a significant difference in multiplicity of infection (2.2 vs. 2.6, p = 0.008) and, more strikingly, a higher proportion of highly related infections within households (6.3 % vs. 0.9 %, p = 0.0005) at higher elevation compared to lower elevation.
    CONCLUSIONS: Genetic data from a relatively small number of diverse, multiallelic loci reflected fine scale patterns of malaria transmission. Given the increasing interest in applying genetic data to augment malaria surveillance, this study provides evidence that genetic data can be used to inform transmission patterns at local spatial scales even in moderate transmission areas.
    Keywords:  Clustering; Genotyping; Malaria; Microsatellite; Molecular epidemiology; Transmission; Uganda
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03603-7
  15. Emerg Top Life Sci. 2019 May 10. 3(2): 133-142
    Rocklöv J, Tozan Y.
      The disease burden of dengue has been steadily rising over the last half-century due to a multitude of factors, including global trade and travel, urbanization, population growth, and climate variability and change, that facilitate conductive conditions for the proliferation of dengue vectors and viruses. This review describes how climate, specifically temperature, affects the vectors' ability to cause and sustain outbreaks, and how the infectiousness of dengue is influenced by climatic change. The review is focused on the core concepts and frameworks derived in the area of epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases and outlines the sensitivity of vectorial capacity and vector-to-human transmission on climatic conditions. It further reviews studies linking mathematical or statistical models of disease transmission to scenarios of projected climate change and provides recommendations for future research directions.
    Keywords:   Aedes ; arbovirus; climate; climate change; dengue
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1042/ETLS20180123
  16. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jan 18. pii: tpmd200444. [Epub ahead of print]
    Riad MH, Cohnstaedt LW, Scoglio CM.
      Vector-borne disease risk assessment is crucial to optimize surveillance, preventative measures (vector control), and resource allocation (medical supplies). High arthropod abundance and host interaction strongly correlate to vector-borne pathogen transmission. Increasing host density and movement increases the possibility of local and long-distance pathogen transmission. Therefore, we developed a risk-assessment framework using climate (average temperature and rainfall) and host demographic (host density and movement) data, particularly suitable for regions with unreported or underreported incidence data. This framework consisted of a spatiotemporal network-based approach coupled with a compartmental disease model and nonhomogeneous Gillespie algorithm. The correlation of climate data with vector abundance and host-vector interactions is expressed as vectorial capacity-a parameter that governs the spreading of infection from an infected host to a susceptible one via vectors. As an example, the framework is applied for dengue in Bangladesh. Vectorial capacity is inferred for each week throughout a year using average monthly temperature and rainfall data. Long-distance pathogen transmission is expressed with human movement data in the spatiotemporal network. We have identified the spatiotemporal suitability of dengue spreading in Bangladesh as well as the significant-incidence window and peak-incidence period. Analysis of yearly dengue data variation suggests the possibility of a significant outbreak with a new serotype introduction. The outcome of the framework comprised spatiotemporal suitability maps and probabilistic risk maps for spatial infection spreading. This framework is capable of vector-borne disease risk assessment without historical incidence data and can be a useful tool for preparedness with accurate human movement data.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0444
  17. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 26. pii: 1077. [Epub ahead of print]18(3):
    Scully J, Mosnier E, Carbunar A, Roux E, Djossou F, Garçeran N, Musset L, Sanna A, Demar M, Nacher M, Gaudart J.
      Aims: This study examines the dynamics of malaria as influenced by meteorological factors in French Guiana from 2005 to 2019. It explores spatial hotspots of malaria transmission and aims to determine the factors associated with variation of hotspots with time. Methods: Data for individual malaria cases came from the surveillance system of the Delocalized Centers for Prevention and Care (CDPS) (n = 17) from 2005-2019. Meteorological data was acquired from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) database. The Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model tested stationarity of the time series, and the impact of meteorological indices (issued from principal component analysis-PCA) on malaria incidence was determined with a general additive model. Hotspot characterization was performed using spatial scan statistics. Results: The current sample includes 7050 eligible Plasmodium vivax (n = 4111) and Plasmodium falciparum (n = 2939) cases from health centers across French Guiana. The first and second PCA-derived meteorological components (maximum/minimum temperature/minimum humidity and maximum humidity, respectively) were significantly negatively correlated with total malaria incidence with a lag of one week and 10 days, respectively. Overall malaria incidence decreased across the time series until 2017 when incidence began to trend upwards. Hotspot characterization revealed a few health centers that exhibited spatial stability across the entire time series: Saint Georges de l'Oyapock and Antecume Pata for P. falciparum, and Saint Georges de l'Oyapock, Antecume Pata, Régina and Camopi for P. vivax. Conclusions: This study highlighted changing malaria incidence in French Guiana and the influences of meteorological factors on transmission. Many health centers showed spatial stability in transmission, albeit not temporal. Knowledge of the areas of high transmission as well as how and why transmission has changed over time can inform strategies to reduce the transmission of malaria in French Guiana. Hotspots should be further investigated to understand other influences on local transmission, which will help to facilitate elimination.
    Keywords:  Amazonia; French Guiana; Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium vivax; hotspots; malaria; meteorological factors
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031077
  18. Mol Biol Rep. 2021 Feb 01.
    Torres-Longoria B, Fragoso-Fonseca DE, Núñez-León A, de la Luz Torres M, Vázquez-Pichardo M, Escobar-Escamilla N, Wong-Arámbula C, Ramírez-González JE, Méndez-Tenorio A, Castro-Mussot ME, Moreno-Altamirano MMB, Membrillo-Hernández J, López-Martínez I, Díaz-Quiñónez JA.
      In 2014, the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was detected for the first time in Mexico, the identified strain was the one corresponding to the Asian genotype which was phylogenetically grouped with the strains that circulated in the British Virgin Islands outbreak and was later classified with lineages of Caribbean strains. In three years, 13,569 cases of chikungunya were registered in Mexico. Although the transmission and spread of the virus are now considered a moderate risk, the danger that the virus reemerges is not ruled out due to the infestation of Aedes mosquitoes. In this study, we reviewed the chikungunya fever (CHIKF) cases reported between 2014 and 2016 to reanalyze the data. Seventeen cases were selected from different states where the circulation of the virus had been reported. Statistical data were analyzed and a retrospective analysis was carried out. Nucleic acid sequences were determined of these 17 samples. 2015 was the year with the highest number of cases (92.8%) and they were detected in 28 states of the country. There is a predominance of females, and the most affected age group was between 25 and 44 years. In 2016, CHIKV genotypes were not known, in this study the presence of the Asian genotype of Caribbean lineage was confirmed. The presence of the West African and ECSA genotypes was phylogenetically ruled out. The sequences obtained were deposited in GeneBank.
    Keywords:  CHIKF; CHIKV; Genotype; Next generation sequencing; Phylogeny
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06151-0