bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2020‒09‒20
23 papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University


  1. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Sep 14. 13(1): 468
    Goncalves DDS, Hue KDT, Thuy VT, Tuyet NV, Thi GN, Thi Thuy VH, Xuan THT, Thi DL, Vo LT, Le Anh Huy H, Van Thuy NT, Wills BA, Thanh PN, Simmons CP, Carrington LB.
      BACKGROUND: Dengue viruses (DENV) can be transmitted from an adult female Aedes aegypti mosquito through the germ line to the progeny; however, there is uncertainty if this occurs at a frequency that is epidemiologically significant. We measured vertical transmission of DENV from field-reared Ae. aegypti to their F1 progeny after feeding upon blood from dengue patients. We also examined the transmission potential of F1 females.METHODS: We examined the frequency of vertical transmission in field-reared mosquitoes, who fed upon blood from acutely viremic dengue patients, and the capacity for vertically infected females to subsequently transmit virus horizontally, in two sets of experiments: (i) compared vertical transmission frequency of field-reared Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, in individual progeny; and (ii) in pooled progeny derived from field- and laboratory-reared Ae. aegypti.
    RESULTS: Of 41 DENV-infected and isofemaled females who laid eggs, only a single female (2.43%) transmitted virus to one of the F1 progeny, but this F1 female did not have detectable virus in the saliva when 14 days-old. We complemented this initial study by testing for vertical transmission in another 460 field-reared females and > 900 laboratory-reared counterparts but failed to provide any further evidence of vertical virus transmission.
    CONCLUSIONS: In summary, these results using field-reared mosquitoes and viremic blood from dengue cases suggest that vertical transmission is uncommon. Field-based studies that build on these observations are needed to better define the contribution of vertical DENV transmission to dengue epidemiology.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Dengue virus (DENV); Mosquitoes; Vertical transmission
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04334-5
  2. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Sep 18. 13(1): 479
    Glavinic U, Varga J, Paslaru AI, Hauri J, Torgerson P, Schaffner F, Veronesi E.
      BACKGROUND: Since the huge epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, questions were raised to understand which mosquito species could transmit the virus. Aedes aegypti has been described as the main vector. However, other Aedes species (e.g. Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus) proven to be competent for other flaviviruses (e.g. West Nile, dengue and yellow fever), have been described as potential vectors for ZIKV under laboratory conditions. One of these, the Asian bush mosquito, Ae. japonicus, is widely distributed with high abundances in central-western Europe. In the present study, infection, dissemination and transmission rates of ZIKV (Dak84 strain) in two populations of Ae. japonicus from Switzerland (Zürich) and France (Steinbach, Haut-Rhin) were investigated under constant (27 °C) and fluctuating (14-27 °C, mean 23 °C) temperature regimes.RESULTS: The two populations were each able to transmit ZIKV under both temperature regimes. Infectious virus particles were detected in the saliva of females from both populations, regardless of the incubation temperature regime, from 7 days post-exposure to infectious rabbit blood. The highest amount of plaque forming units (PFU) (400/ml) were recorded 14 days post-oral infection in the Swiss population incubated at a constant temperature. No difference in terms of infection, dissemination and transmission rate were found between mosquito populations. Temperature had no effect on infection rate but the fluctuating temperature regime resulted in higher dissemination rates compared to constant temperature, regardless of the population. Finally, transmission efficiency ranged between 7-23% and 7-10% for the constant temperature and 0-10% and 3-27% under fluctuating temperatures for the Swiss and the French populations, respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study confirming vector competence for ZIKV of Ae. japonicus originating from Switzerland and France at realistic summer temperatures under laboratory conditions. Considering the continuous spread of this species in the northern part of Europe and its adaptation at cooler temperatures, preventative control measures should be adopted to prevent possible ZIKV epidemics.
    Keywords:  Aedes japonicus; Fluctuating temperature; Vector competence; Zika virus
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04361-2
  3. J Trop Med. 2020 ;2020 7915035
    Ranasinghe K, Gunathilaka N, Amarasinghe D, Udayanga L.
      Some arbovirus infections, especially dengue, have increased rapidly over the last few decades in Sri Lanka. Prevalence and distribution of different mosquito species have been limitedly documented, which remains grossly inadequate in providing evidence for potential health risks. In this study, the diversity and species composition of mosquitoes in four selected districts in Sri Lanka (Kurunegala, Gampaha, Kegalle, and Kandy) were investigated. Entomological surveys were conducted from a total of 160 temporary and permanent mosquito breeding habitats identified in the study area from June 2017 to October 2018. Mosquito immature stages were sampled using standard dipping, siphoning, or pipetting methods and identified up to the species level. Percentage relative abundance and habitat characteristics such as species richness, dominance, and Shannon-Weiner diversity were calculated for each surveyed habitat type. Associations between co-occurring species were estimated by Hulbert's coefficient of interspecific association (C8). A total of 4663 mosquito larvae belonging to seven genera and fifteen species of mosquitoes were collected. The relative distribution of mosquito species differed significantly among the four studied districts (X 2 = 143.248; df = 33; P < 0.001). According to Kruskal-Wallis statistics (P < 0.05 at 95% of significance), all diversity indices for immature stages of medically important mosquitoes varied significantly across different breeding sites. Paddy fields had the significantly highest species richness of 4.0 ± 2.82. The coefficients of interspecific association among all the recorded medically important vector mosquitoes were found negative during the present study. The findings of the current study would be useful to identify the entomological potential for disease transmission and facilitate the implementation of appropriate vector control interventions. This would ultimately provide an avenue to improve the personal skills of health staff rather than limiting their knowledge to specified disease vectors, under which the control program is concerned.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/7915035
  4. Malar J. 2020 Sep 14. 19(1): 333
    Djègbè I, Zinsou M, Dovonou EF, Tchigossou G, Soglo M, Adéoti R, Gbaguidi B, Atoyebi S, Chandre F, Akogbéto M, Lines J, Djouaka R.
      BACKGROUND: Irrigation systems have been identified as one of the factors promoting malaria disease around agricultural farms in sub-Saharan Africa. However, if improved water management strategy is adopted during rice cultivation, it may help to reduce malaria cases among human population living around rice fields. This study aimed to assess the impact of the different irrigation practices on malaria transmission, as well as to evaluate the water management system that will best mitigate malaria transmission in Malanville, Benin.METHODS: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) study was conducted on 104 households staying on and around the rice fields in Malanville. The study focused on the frequency of mosquito bites and preventive measures against malaria as well as soil preparation and rice planting methods. Mosquito larvae density was assessed in different water management system: continuous flooding (CF) or intermittent flooding (IF), deep tillage (DT) or minimal tillage (MT) and normal levelling (NL) or abnormal levelling (AL) in an experimental hut set-up. Larvae were collected using dipping methods and their density was determined.
    RESULTS: Three tillage systems, which include the use of tiller, plow and hoe, were identified on the rice field. Continuous flooding was the only irrigation system used by farmers. Retrospective data from Malanville Health Centre revealed higher malaria cases during rice production season, which was also confirmed by field participants. The density of Anopheles larvae was reduced by 80.8%, 30.8% and 40.7% (P = 0.000) during transplanting, tillering and maturation periods, respectively with intermittent flooding compared to continuous flooding. In addition, a clear reduction of larva density was observed with both intermittent flooding systems applied to minimal tillage (MT + IF + NL) and intermittent flooding applied to deep tillage (DT + IF + AL), showing that intermittent flooding could reduce the abundance of malaria vector in rice fields.
    CONCLUSION: Recommending intermittent flooding technology for rice cultivation may not only be useful for water management but could also be an intentional strategy to control mosquitoes vector-borne diseases around rice farms.
    Keywords:  Anopheles larvae; Continuous flooding; Deep tillage; Intermittent flooding; Malanville; Malaria; Minimal tillage; Rice field
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03406-2
  5. Lancet Planet Health. 2020 Sep;pii: S2542-5196(20)30178-9. [Epub ahead of print]4(9): e416-e423
    Mordecai EA, Ryan SJ, Caldwell JM, Shah MM, LaBeaud AD.
      Malaria is a long-standing public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, whereas arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue and chikungunya cause an under-recognised burden of disease. Many human and environmental drivers affect the dynamics of vector-borne diseases. In this Personal View, we argue that the direct effects of warming temperatures are likely to promote greater environmental suitability for dengue and other arbovirus transmission by Aedes aegypti and reduce suitability for malaria transmission by Anopheles gambiae. Environmentally driven changes in disease dynamics will be complex and multifaceted, but given that current public efforts are targeted to malaria control, we highlight Ae aegypti and dengue, chikungunya, and other arboviruses as potential emerging public health threats in sub-Saharan Africa.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30178-9
  6. Commun Biol. 2020 Sep 18. 3(1): 518
    Koh C, Islam MN, Ye YH, Chotiwan N, Graham B, Belisle JT, Kouremenos KA, Dayalan S, Tull DL, Klatt S, Perera R, McGraw EA.
      Competition between viruses and Wolbachia for host lipids is a proposed mechanism of Wolbachia-mediated virus blocking in insects. Yet, the metabolomic interaction between virus and symbiont within the mosquito has not been clearly defined. We compare the lipid profiles of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes bearing mono- or dual-infections of the Wolbachia wMel strain and dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV3). We found metabolic signatures of infection-induced intracellular events but little evidence to support direct competition between Wolbachia and virus for host lipids. Lipid profiles of dual-infected mosquitoes resemble those of DENV3 mono-infected mosquitoes, suggesting virus-driven modulation dominates over that of Wolbachia. Interestingly, knockdown of key metabolic enzymes suggests cardiolipins are host factors for DENV3 and Wolbachia replication. These findings define the Wolbachia-DENV3 metabolic interaction as indirectly antagonistic, rather than directly competitive, and reveal new research avenues with respect to mosquito × virus interactions at the molecular level.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01254-z
  7. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 Sep;20(9): 703-714
    Yeo G, Chan S, How CB, Humaidi M, Lim XF, Mailepessov D, Chong CS, Phua-Lam SG, Lee R, Hapuarachchi HC, Ng LC, Yap G.
      Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are arboviruses primarily transmitted by Culex spp. mosquitoes. Birds are the primary hosts for JEV and WNV. Recent WNV outbreaks in Europe and United States and their association with migratory birds highlight the importance of understanding the feeding host preference of potential vectors for outbreak preparedness, especially in nonendemic settings. Singapore is nonendemic to JEV and WNV, but is a stopover site for migratory birds of the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Therefore, we elucidated the feeding host range of Culex spp. mosquitoes captured in four natural (bird) habitats in Singapore from January 2011 to December 2012. We characterized feeding host DNA in field-caught mosquitoes using a PCR sequencing-based assay targeting the mitochondrial gene regions. Of 22,648 mosquitoes captured, 21,287 belonged to the Culex vishnui subgroup. The host DNA analysis showed that mosquitoes from the Cx. vishnui subgroup are opportunistic biters, feeding on a range of birds and mammals. Cx. vishnui subgroup, Culex sitiens and Culex bitaeniorhynchus, was primarily ornithophagic, although they fed opportunistically on mammals, including humans. Culex gelidus and Culex quinquefasciatus, in contrast, fed mainly on mammals. The presence of ornitho- and anthropophilic mosquito vectors and susceptible avian and mammalian hosts poses a risk spill-over transmission of JEV and WNV among humans, should these viruses be introduced through migratory birds and establish persistent transmission in resident birds and animal hosts in Singapore.
    Keywords:  Culex spp.; Japanese encephalitis virus; West Nile virus; bloodmeal analysis; mitochondrial genes; polymerase chain reaction
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2576
  8. Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2020 Nov;11 e00174
    Del Puerto F, Ozorio M, Trinidad B, Martínez N, Torales M, Franco L, Ferreira L, Vera de Bilbao N.
      In Paraguay, no cases of Malaria have been recorded since 2011. Microscopy and the SnM-PCR technique were implemented to detect and characterize Plasmodium spp. both in mosquitoes and in humans residing in historically endemic areas of Paraguay, to evaluate the possibility of finding asymptomatic cases and/or Plasmodium parasites circulating in anophelines. Between 2013 and 2015, 361 human blood samples were collected on filter paper, and between 2016 and 2017, 938 female Anopheles mosquitoes were captured in 15 Paraguayan localities. All the diagnostic techniques showed negative results. We observed no asymptomatic case or Plasmodium circulating in vectors.
    Keywords:  Malaria; PCR; Paraguay
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2020.e00174
  9. Elife. 2020 09 15. pii: e58511. [Epub ahead of print]9
    Shocket MS, Verwillow AB, Numazu MG, Slamani H, Cohen JM, El Moustaid F, Rohr J, Johnson LR, Mordecai EA.
      The temperature-dependence of many important mosquito-borne diseases has never been quantified. These relationships are critical for understanding current distributions and predicting future shifts from climate change. We used trait-based models to characterize temperature-dependent transmission of 10 vector-pathogen pairs of mosquitoes (Culex pipiens, Cx. quinquefascsiatus, Cx. tarsalis, and others) and viruses (West Nile, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, Sindbis, and Rift Valley Fever viruses), most with substantial transmission in temperate regions. Transmission is optimized at intermediate temperatures (23-26°C) and often has wider thermal breadths (due to cooler lower thermal limits) compared to pathogens with predominately tropical distributions (in previous studies). The incidence of human West Nile virus cases across US counties responded unimodally to average summer temperature and peaked at 24°C, matching model-predicted optima (24-25°C). Climate warming will likely shift transmission of these diseases, increasing it in cooler locations while decreasing it in warmer locations.
    Keywords:  culex pipiens; culex quinquefasciatus; culex tarsalis; ecology; epidemiology; global health; mosquito-borne disease; temperature; virus; west nile virus
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58511
  10. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Oct;26(10): 2429-2431
    Haider N, Vairo F, Ippolito G, Zumla A, Kock RA.
      We estimated the weighted mean basic reproduction number (R0) of chikungunya virus based on outbreak size. R0 was 3.4 (95% CI 2.4-4.2) and varied for 2 primary chikungunya mosquito vectors: 4.1 (95% CI 1.5-6.6) for Aedes aegypti and 2.8 (95% CI 1.8-3.8) for Ae. albopictus.
    Keywords:  Aedes mosquito; Basic reproduction number; R0; arboviruses; chikungunya virus; epidemic; mosquito-borne infections; outbreaks; vector-borne infections; viruses; zoonoses
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2610.190957
  11. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(9): e0230984
    Nouage L, Elanga-Ndille E, Binyang A, Tchouakui M, Atsatse T, Ndo C, Kekeunou S, Wondji CS.
      Insecticide resistance genes are often associated with pleiotropic effects on various mosquito life-history traits. However, very little information is available on the impact of insecticide resistance on blood feeding process in mosquitoes. Here, using two recently detected DNA-based metabolic markers in the major malaria vector, An. funestus, we investigated how metabolic resistance genes could affect the blood meal intake. After allowing both the field F1 and lab F8 Anopheles funestus strains to feed on the human arm for 30 minutes, we assessed the association between key parameters of blood meal process including, probing time, feeding duration, blood feeding success, blood meal size, and markers of glutathione S-transferase (L119F-GSTe2) and cytochrome P450 (CYP6P9a_R)-mediated metabolic resistance. None of the parameters of blood meal process was associated with L119F-GSTe2 genotypes. By contrast, for CYP6P9a_R, homozygous resistant mosquitoes were significantly more able to blood-feed than homozygous susceptible (OR = 3.3; CI 95%: 1.4-7.7; P = 0.01) mosquitoes. Moreover, the volume of blood meal ingested by CYP6P9a-SS mosquitoes was lower than that of CYP6P9a-RS (P<0.004) and of CYP6P9a-RR (P<0.006). This suggests that CYP6P9a gene is inked with the feeding success and blood meal size of An. funestus. However, no correlation was found in the expression of CYP6P9a and that of genes encoding for salivary proteins involved in blood meal process. This study suggests that P450-based metabolic resistance may influence the blood feeding process of Anopheles funestus mosquito and consequently its ability to transmit malaria parasites.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0230984
  12. Viruses. 2020 Sep 13. pii: E1020. [Epub ahead of print]12(9):
    Vairo F, Aimè Coussoud-Mavoungou MP, Ntoumi F, Castilletti C, Kitembo L, Haider N, Carletti F, Colavita F, Gruber CEM, Iannetta M, Messina F, Lanini S, Ulrich Judicaël B, Giombini E, Montaldo C, Portella C, Diafouka-Diatela S, Rueca M, Kock R, Bartolini B, Mboera L, Munster V, Fischer R, Seifert S, Muñoz-Fontela C, Escudero-Pérez B, Gomez-Medina S, Nelson EV, Kjia Tungu P, Nicastri E, Puro V, Di Caro A, Capobianchi MR, Mikolo JL, Zumla A, Ippolito G, On Behalf Of The Pandora-Id-Net Consortium Chikungunya Outbreak Group Taskforce .
      The Republic of Congo (RoC) declared a chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak on 9 February 2019. We conducted a ONE-Human-Animal HEALTH epidemiological, virological and entomological investigation. Methods: We collected national surveillance and epidemiological data. CHIK diagnosis was based on RT-PCR and CHIKV-specific antibodies. Full CHIKV genome sequences were obtained by Sanger and MinION approaches and Bayesian tree phylogenetic analysis was performed. Mosquito larvae and 215 adult mosquitoes were collected in different villages of Kouilou and Pointe-Noire districts and estimates of Aedes (Ae.) mosquitos' CHIKV-infectious bites obtained. We found two new CHIKV sequences of the East/Central/South African (ECSA) lineage, clustering with the recent enzootic sub-clade 2, showing the A226V mutation. The RoC 2019 CHIKV strain has two novel mutations, E2-T126M and E2-H351N. Phylogenetic suggests a common origin from 2016 Angola strain, from which it diverged around 1989 (95% HPD 1985-1994). The infectious bite pattern was similar for 2017, 2018 and early 2019. One Ae. albopictus pool was RT-PCR positive. The 2019 RoC CHIKV strain seems to be recently introduced or be endemic in sylvatic cycle. Distinct from the contemporary Indian CHIKV isolates and in contrast to the original Central-African strains (transmitted by Ae. aegypti), it carries the A226V mutation, indicating an independent adaptive mutation in response to vector replacement (Ae. albopictus vs Ae. aegypti).
    Keywords:  Aedes spp; ONE-HEALTH; Republic of Congo; arbovirus; chikungunya; mosquito; outbreak
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091020
  13. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Sep 10. pii: E6609. [Epub ahead of print]21(18):
    Gold AS, Feitosa-Suntheimer F, Araujo RV, Hekman RM, Asad S, Londono-Renteria B, Emili A, Colpitts TM.
      Dengue is the most burdensome vector-borne viral disease in the world. Dengue virus (DENV), the etiological cause of dengue, is transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Like any arbovirus, the transmission cycle of dengue involves the complex interactions of a multitude of human and mosquito factors. One point during this transmission cycle that is rich in these interactions is the biting event by the mosquito, upon which its saliva is injected into the host. A number of components in mosquito saliva have been shown to play a pivotal role in the transmission of dengue, however one such component that is not as well characterized is extracellular vesicles. Here, using high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry, we show that dengue infection altered the protein cargo of Aedes aegypti extracellular vesicles, resulting in the packaging of proteins with infection-enhancing ability. Our results support the presence of an infection-dependent pro-viral protein packaging strategy that uses the differential packaging of pro-viral proteins in extracellular vesicles of Ae. aegypti saliva to promote transmission. These studies represent the first investigation into the function of Ae. aegypti extracellular vesicle cargo during dengue infection.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; dengue virus; extracellular vesicles
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186609
  14. PLoS Pathog. 2020 Sep 18. 16(9): e1008739
    Volohonsky G, Paul-Gilloteaux P, Štáfková J, Soichot J, Salamero J, Levashina EA.
      Malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites traverse the mosquito midgut cells to establish infection at the basal side of the midgut. This dynamic process is a determinant of mosquito vector competence, yet the kinetics of the parasite migration is not well understood. Here we used transgenic mosquitoes of two Anopheles species and a Plasmodium berghei fluorescence reporter line to track parasite passage through the mosquito tissues at high spatial resolution. We provide new quantitative insight into malaria parasite invasion in African and Indian Anopheles species and propose that the mosquito complement-like system contributes to the species-specific dynamics of Plasmodium invasion.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008739
  15. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 14. pii: 202003976. [Epub ahead of print]
    Sinka ME, Pironon S, Massey NC, Longbottom J, Hemingway J, Moyes CL, Willis KJ.
      In 2012, an unusual outbreak of urban malaria was reported from Djibouti City in the Horn of Africa and increasingly severe outbreaks have been reported annually ever since. Subsequent investigations discovered the presence of an Asian mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, a species known to thrive in urban environments. Since that first report, An. stephensi has been identified in Ethiopia and Sudan, and this worrying development has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to publish a vector alert calling for active mosquito surveillance in the region. Using an up-to-date database of published locational records for An. stephensi across its full range (Asia, Arabian Peninsula, Horn of Africa) and a set of spatial models that identify the environmental conditions that characterize a species' preferred habitat, we provide evidence-based maps predicting the possible locations across Africa where An. stephensi could establish if allowed to spread unchecked. Unsurprisingly, due to this species' close association with man-made habitats, our maps predict a high probability of presence within many urban cities across Africa where our estimates suggest that over 126 million people reside. Our results strongly support the WHO's call for surveillance and targeted vector control and provide a basis for the prioritization of surveillance.
    Keywords:  ensemble modeling; invasive species; species distribution model; urban malaria; vector
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2003976117
  16. Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2020 Nov;11 e00175
    File T, Dinka H.
      The distribution of malaria shows considerable spatial heterogeneity globally, regionally and locally. For the design of effective malaria control and elimination, and for its implementation in Ethiopia, urban malaria should be given due attention. Therefore, the present study was aimed to examine the status of urban malaria during the minor transmission season in Adama city. A total of 2590 febrile patients were screened using the gold standard microscopy-based blood test for malaria diagnosis from seven purposively selected health facilities found in Adama City from April to July 2018. Socio-demographic data were collected from malaria positive patients to correlate predisposing factors; like previous malaria history, settlement, travel history, age, and other associated risk factors with malaria incidence. Climatological data, such as temperature and relative humidity, recorded during the study period were also collected from the data base of Adama meteorology center for analysis. The microscopic data indicated that from a total of 2590 febrile patients screened for malaria during the study period 3.7% (97/2590) of them were confirmed malaria positive. Adolescents and adults (≥15 years of age) were found to be most affected by Plasmodium vivax (66%) and Plasmodium falciparum (20.5%), and mixed (6%). Analysis of the climatological data revealed a rise in environmental temperature and relative humidity during the study that coincides with the increase of malaria cases, since it creates favorable mosquito breeding for malaria transmission in the city. P. vivax was found as a predominant species in causing malaria burden indicating its public health problem in Adama city affecting the productive age group of the community, adolescents and adults, during the minor transmission season of malaria. In addition to its public health importance by causing morbidity and mortality such kind of scenario may also exacerbates poverty.
    Keywords:  Adama city; Minor transmission; P. falciparum; P. vivax; Urban malaria
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2020.e00175
  17. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Sep 15. 13(1): 472
    Ang JXD, Kadir KA, Mohamad DSA, Matusop A, Divis PCS, Yaman K, Singh B.
      BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant cause of human malaria in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Only one study has been previously undertaken in Sarawak to identify vectors of P. knowlesi, where Anopheles latens was incriminated as the vector in Kapit, central Sarawak. A study was therefore undertaken to identify malaria vectors in a different location in Sarawak.METHODS: Mosquitoes found landing on humans and resting on leaves over a 5-day period at two sites in the Lawas District of northern Sarawak were collected and identified. DNA samples extracted from salivary glands of Anopheles mosquitoes were subjected to nested PCR malaria-detection assays. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of Plasmodium was sequenced, and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the mosquitoes were sequenced from the Plasmodium-positive samples for phylogenetic analysis.
    RESULTS: Totals of 65 anophelines and 127 culicines were collected. By PCR, 6 An. balabacensis and 5 An. donaldi were found to have single P. knowlesi infections while 3 other An. balabacensis had either single, double or triple infections with P. inui, P. fieldi, P. cynomolgi and P. knowlesi. Phylogenetic analysis of the Plasmodium SSU rRNA gene confirmed 3 An. donaldi and 3 An. balabacensis with single P. knowlesi infections, while 3 other An. balabacensis had two or more Plasmodium species of P. inui, P. knowlesi, P. cynomolgi and some species of Plasmodium that could not be conclusively identified. Phylogenies inferred from the ITS2 and/or cox1 sequences of An. balabacensis and An. donaldi indicate that they are genetically indistinguishable from An. balabacensis and An. donaldi, respectively, found in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo.
    CONCLUSIONS: Previously An. latens was identified as the vector for P. knowlesi in Kapit, central Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, and now An. balabacensis and An. donaldi have been incriminated as vectors for zoonotic malaria in Lawas, northern Sarawak.
    Keywords:  Anopheles balabacensis; Anopheles donaldi; Malaria; Plasmodium knowlesi; Vector; Zoonosis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04345-2
  18. Malar J. 2020 Sep 17. 19(1): 339
    Bharti PK, Rajvanshi H, Nisar S, Jayswar H, Saha KB, Shukla MM, Mishra AK, Sharma RK, Das A, Kaur H, Wattal SL, Lal AA.
      BACKGROUND: Many malaria endemic countries are heading towards malaria elimination through the use of case management and vector control strategies, which employ surveillance, improving access to early diagnosis, prompt treatment., and integrated vector control measures. There is a consensus that elimination of malaria is feasible when rapid detection and prompt treatment is combined with mosquito-human contact interruption in an efficient and sustainable manner at community levels. This paper describes results of an integrated case management and vector control strategy for reducing malaria cases in 1233 villages over 3 years in district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh, India.METHODS: The project enrolled the entire population (1,143,126) of Mandla district for fever surveillance followed by testing of febrile cases and treatment of positive subjects using T4 strategy, which is Track (by fever), Test (by RDTs), Treat (by ACT) and Track (for completion of treatment). In addition to the active and passive surveillance for detection and treatment of febrile cases, the project conducted mass screening and treatment to clear the asymptomatic reservoirs of infection. Febrile cases were also tested in the out-patient department of the District Hospital from June 2018 to September, 2018 and in a community-based medical camp from November 7 to 14, 2019. The project also used vector control measures for interrupting human-mosquito contact, and information, education and communication (IEC) campaigns to increase demand for malaria services at community level.
    RESULTS: This project has revealed about 91% reduction of indigenous cases of malaria during the period from June 2017 to May 2020, through case management and vector control strategies. A total 357,143 febrile cases were screened, out of which 0.19% were found positive for the presence of malaria parasites, with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax ratio of 62:38. The prevalence of malaria was higher in individuals > 15 years of age (69% cases). The positivity rate was 0.33% in 2017-18, 0.13% in 2018-19, and 0.06% in 2019-20. In all of the 3 years of the project, the peak transmission correlated with rains. Mass screening revealed 0.18% positivity in Sep-Oct 2018, followed by 0.06% in June 2019, and 0.03% in December 2019, and these were mostly asymptomatic cases in the community. Imported cases into the district were mostly contributed by the distant state of Telangana (51.13%). Fever patients tested for malaria parasites in the District Hospital and medical camp revealed zero cases.
    CONCLUSION: Using the current intervention and prevention tools along with optimum utilization of human resources, a 91% reduction in indigenous cases of malaria was seen in the district in 3 years. The reduction was similar in the three high prevalence blocks of the district. These results reveal that malaria elimination is achievable in India within a stipulated time frame. The reduction of malaria at the community level was further validated when zero malaria cases were diagnosed during hospital and community-based studies in Mandla. Prompt detection and treatment of imported/migratory cases may have prevented outbreaks in the district. This project has demonstrated that field programmes backed by adequate technical, management, operational, and financial controls with robust monitoring are needed for achieving malaria elimination.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03402-6
  19. PLoS Med. 2020 Sep;17(9): e1003248
    Lorenz LM, Bradley J, Yukich J, Massue DJ, Mageni Mboma Z, Pigeon O, Moore J, Kilian A, Lines J, Kisinza W, Overgaard HJ, Moore SJ.
      BACKGROUND: Two billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been procured for malaria control. A functional LLIN is one that is present, is in good physical condition, and remains insecticidal, thereby providing protection against vector-borne diseases through preventing bites and killing disease vectors. The World Health Organization (WHO) prequalifies LLINs that remain adequately insecticidal 3 years after deployment. Therefore, institutional buyers often assume that prequalified LLINs are functionally identical with a 3-year lifespan. We measured the lifespans of 3 LLIN products, and calculated their cost per year of functional life, to demonstrate the economic and public health importance of procuring the most cost-effective LLIN product based on its lifespan.METHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomised double-blinded trial of 3 pyrethroid LLIN products (10,571 nets in total) was conducted at 3 follow-up points: 10 months (August-October 2014), 22 months (August-October 2015), and 36 months (October-December 2016) among 3,393 households in Tanzania using WHO-recommended methods. Primary outcome was LLIN functional survival (LLIN present and in serviceable condition). Secondary outcomes were (1) bioefficacy and chemical content (residual insecticidal activity) and (2) protective efficacy for volunteers sleeping under the LLINs (bite reduction and mosquitoes killed). Median LLIN functional survival was significantly different between the 3 net products (p = 0.001): 2.0 years (95% CI 1.7-2.3) for Olyset, 2.5 years (95% CI 2.2-2.8) for PermaNet 2.0 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73 [95% CI 0.64-0.85], p = 0.001), and 2.6 years (95% CI 2.3-2.8) for NetProtect (HR = 0.70 [95% CI 0.62-0.77], p < 0.001). Functional survival was affected by accumulation of holes, leading to users discarding nets. Protective efficacy also significantly differed between products as they aged. Equivalent annual cost varied between US$1.2 (95% CI $1.1-$1.4) and US$1.5 (95% CI $1.3-$1.7), assuming that each net was priced identically at US$3. The 2 longer-lived nets (PermaNet and NetProtect) were 20% cheaper than the shorter-lived product (Olyset). The trial was limited to only the most widely sold LLINs in Tanzania. Functional survival varies by country, so the single country setting is a limitation.
    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that LLIN functional survival is less than 3 years and differs substantially between products, and these differences strongly influence LLIN value for money. LLIN tendering processes should consider local expectations of cost per year of functional life and not unit price. As new LLIN products come on the market, especially those with new insecticides, it will be imperative to monitor their comparative durability to ensure that the most cost-effective products are procured for malaria control.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003248
  20. Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2020 ;6 18
    Alkadir S, Gelana T, Gebresilassie A.
      Background: In Ethiopia, malaria is a serious public health concern and has great impact on socio-economy. The trend analysis of malaria data from health facilities is useful for understanding its transmission dynamics and implementing evidence-based malaria control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the trends of malaria infection in Guba district, western Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken at Mankush Health Centre, western Ethiopia. All malaria cases reported from 2014 to 2018 were carefully reviewed from the laboratory record books to determine the trends of malaria morbidity. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.
    Results: In total, 16,964 malaria suspects were diagnosed using microscopy over the last 5 years, of which 8658 (51.04%) were confirmed positive cases. Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infection (both species) accounted for 75.2, 24.5 and 0.28% of the cases, respectively. Males patients were more affected (n = 5028, 58.1%) than female ones (n = 3630, 41.9%). Of the total confirmed cases, 60.4% were age group of subjects (≥ 15 years) followed by 22.6% of 5-14 years and 15.9% of under 5 years. High malaria prevalence was observed in spring (September to November) season, while the least was observed in autumn (March to May) with the prevalence of 45.6 and 11.5%, respectively.
    Conclusions: The study demonstrated that malaria is a public health concern, in which P. falciparum is the predominant species followed by P. vivax. Therefore, the district health bureau and other concerned stakeholders should strength evidence-based malaria control and prevention interventions to interrupt disease transmission and eventual reduction malaria of malaria cases in Guba district.
    Keywords:  Ethiopia; Guba; Malaria; Prevalence; Retrospective
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40794-020-00112-4
  21. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(9): e0238134
    De Niz M, Kehrer J, Brancucci NMB, Moalli F, Reynaud EG, Stein JV, Frischknecht F.
      Malaria is a life-threatening disease, caused by Apicomplexan parasites of the Plasmodium genus. The Anopheles mosquito is necessary for the sexual replication of these parasites and for their transmission to vertebrate hosts, including humans. Imaging of the parasite within the insect vector has been attempted using multiple microscopy methods, most of which are hampered by the presence of the light scattering opaque cuticle of the mosquito. So far, most imaging of the Plasmodium mosquito stages depended on either sectioning or surgical dissection of important anatomical sites, such as the midgut and the salivary glands. Optical projection tomography (OPT) and light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) enable imaging fields of view in the centimeter scale whilst providing micrometer resolution. In this paper, we compare different optical clearing protocols and present reconstructions of the whole body of Plasmodium-infected, optically cleared Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and their midguts. The 3D-reconstructions from OPT imaging show detailed features of the mosquito anatomy and enable overall localization of parasites in midguts. Additionally, LSFM imaging of mosquito midguts shows detailed distribution of oocysts in extracted midguts. This work was submitted as a pre-print to bioRxiv, available at https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/682054v2.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238134
  22. Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2020 Jun 19. 10(1): 1782042
    Sintayehu DW, Tassie N, De Boer WF.
      The number of dengue fever incidence and its distribution has increased considerably in recent years in Africa. However, due to inadequate research at the continental level, there is a limited understanding regarding the current and future spatial distribution of the main vector, the mosquitoAedes aegypti, and the associated dengue risk due to climate change. To fill this gap we used reported dengue fever incidences, the presence of Ae. aegypti, and bioclimatic variables in a species distribution model to assess the current and future (2050 and 2070) climatically suitable areas. High temperatures and with high moisture levels are climatically suitable for the distribution of Ae. aegypti related to dengue fever. Under the current climate scenario indicated that 15.2% of the continent is highly suitable for dengue fever outbreaks. We predict that climatically suitable areas for Ae. aegypti related to dengue fever incidences in eastern, central and western part of Africa will increase in the future and will expand further towards higher elevations. Our projections provide evidence for the changing continental threat of vector-borne diseases and can guide public health policy decisions in Africa to better prepare for and respond to future changes in dengue fever risk.
    Keywords:  Ae. aegypti; Africa; climate change; dengue fever; suitable
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2020.1782042
  23. Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 15. 10(1): 15066
    Oumbouke WA, Pignatelli P, Barreaux AMG, Tia IZ, Koffi AA, Ahoua Alou LP, Sternberg ED, Thomas MB, Weetman D, N'Guessan R.
      Routine monitoring of occurrence, levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance informs effective management strategies, and should be used to assess the effect of new tools on resistance. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating a novel insecticide-based intervention in central Côte d'Ivoire, we assessed resistance and its underlying mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae populations from a subset of trial villages. Resistance to multiple insecticides in An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii was detected across villages, with dose-response assays demonstrating extremely high resistance intensity to the pyrethroid deltamethrin (> 1,500-fold), and mortality following exposure to pyrethroid-treated bednets was low (< 30% mortality in cone bioassays). The 1014F kdr mutation was almost fixed (≥ 90%) in all villages but the 1575Y kdr-amplifying mutation was relatively rare (< 15%). The carbamate and organophosphate resistance-associated Ace-1 G119S mutation was also detected at moderate frequencies (22-43%). Transcriptome analysis identified overexpression of P450 genes known to confer pyrethroid resistance (Cyp9K1, Cyp6P3, and Cyp6M2), and also a carboxylesterase (COEAE1F) as major candidates. Cyp6P3 expression was high but variable (up to 33-fold) and correlated positively with deltamethrin resistance intensity across villages (r2 = 0.78, P = 0.02). Tools and strategies to mitigate the extreme and multiple resistance provided by these mechanisms are required in this area to avoid future control failures.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71933-8