bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2020‒08‒23
twenty-two papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University

  1. mBio. 2020 Aug 18. pii: e01765-20. [Epub ahead of print]11(4):
    MacLeod HJ, Dimopoulos G.
      The role of Culex quinquefasciatus in Zika virus transmission has been debated since the epidemic of Zika occurred in the Americas in 2015 to 2016. The majority of studies have found no evidence that C. quinquefasciatus or other Culex species are competent vectors of Zika virus, and the few studies that have proposed Zika vector status for C. quinquefasciatus have relied predominantly on quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for viral detection. We assessed the infectious range of pre- and post-epidemic Zika virus isolates in order to classify mosquito samples based on titer infectiousness and demonstrated that two strains of C. quinquefasciatus, including one previously found to be competent, are highly resistant to infection with these Zika isolates compared to Aedes aegypti and are not competent for virus transmission. Further dissection of the dynamics of Zika exposure in both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus revealed that while virus transmission by C. quinquefasciatus is blocked at the levels of the midgut and salivary glands, viral RNA persists in these tissues for prolonged periods post-exposure. We assessed Zika entry dynamics in both Aedes and Culex cells, and our results suggest that Zika virus infection in Culex cells may be blocked downstream of cell entry. These findings strongly suggest that C. quinquefasciatus is not a vector of Zika virus and additionally inform the use of qRT-PCR in vector competence assays as well as our understanding of barriers to arbovirus infection in non-susceptible mosquito species.IMPORTANCE Understanding which mosquito species transmit an emerging arbovirus is critical to effective vector control. During the Zika virus epidemic in 2015 to 2016, Aedes mosquitoes were confirmed as vectors. However, studies addressing the vector status of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes presented conflicting evidence and remain an outstanding source of confusion in the field. Here, we established a robust cell-based assay to identify infectious titers of Zika virus and assessed the virus titers in C. quinquefasciatus by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We found that while low levels of virus were detected in C. quinquefasciatus, these titers did not correspond to infectious virus, and these mosquitoes did not transmit virus in the saliva. We also present evidence that the virus may enter Culex cells before infection is disrupted. Our findings are important for future studies incriminating vector species using qRT-PCR for virus detection and offer new information on how virus transmission is blocked by mosquitoes.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti ; Culex quinquefasciatus ; Zika virus; vector competence
  2. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 18. 13(1): 423
    Atoyebi SM, Tchigossou GM, Akoton R, Riveron JM, Irving H, Weedall G, Tossou E, Djegbe I, Oyewole IO, Bakare AA, Wondji CS, Djouaka R.
      BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanisms used by Anopheles mosquitoes to survive insecticide exposure is key to manage existing insecticide resistance and develop more suitable insecticide-based malaria vector control interventions as well as other alternative integrated tools. To this regard, the molecular basis of permethrin, DDT and dieldrin resistance in Anopheles funestus (sensu stricto) at Akaka-Remo was investigated.METHODS: Bioassays were conducted on 3-5-day-old adult An. funestus (s.s.) mosquitoes for permethrin, DDT and dieldrin susceptibility test. The molecular mechanisms of mosquito resistance to these insecticides were investigated using microarray and reverse transcriptase PCR techniques. The voltage-gated sodium channel region of mosquitoes was also screened for the presence of knockdown resistance mutations (kdr west and east) by sequencing method.
    RESULTS: Anopheles funestus (s.s.) population was resistant to permethrin (mortality rate of 68%), DDT (mortality rate of 10%) and dieldrin (mortality rate of 8%) insecticides. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses revealed the overexpression of glutathione S-transferase genes, cytochrome P450s, esterase, trypsin and cuticle proteins in resistant mosquitoes compared to control. The GSTe2 was the most upregulated detoxification gene in permethrin-resistant (FC = 44.89), DDT-resistant (FC = 57.39) and dieldrin-resistant (FC = 41.10) mosquitoes compared to control population (FC = 22.34). The cytochrome P450 gene, CYP6P9b was also upregulated in both permethrin- and DDT-resistant mosquitoes. The digestive enzyme, trypsin (hydrolytic processes) and the cuticle proteins (inducing cuticle thickening leading to reduced insecticides penetration) also showed high involvement in insecticide resistance, through their overexpression in resistant mosquitoes compared to control. The kdr east and west were absent in all mosquitoes analysed, suggesting their non-involvement in the observed mosquito resistance.
    CONCLUSIONS: The upregulation of metabolic genes, especially the GSTe2 and trypsin, as well as the cuticle proteins is driving insecticide resistance of An. funestus (s.s.) population. However, additional molecular analyses, including functional metabolic assays of these genes as well as screening for a possible higher cuticular hydrocarbon and lipid contents, and increased procuticle thickness in resistant mosquitoes are needed to further describe their distinct roles in mosquito resistance.
    Keywords:  Anopheles funestus; DDT; Insecticide Resistance mechanisms; Metabolic genes; Nigeria; Permethrin
  3. Environ Res. 2020 Aug 15. pii: S0013-9351(20)30935-X. [Epub ahead of print] 110038
    Brugueras S, Martinez BF, Martinez de la Puente J, Figuerola J, Porro TM, Rius C, Larrauri A, Gomez-Barroso D.
      Mosquito borne diseases are a group of infections that affect humans. Emerging or reemerging diseases are those that (re)occur in regions, groups or hosts that were previously free from these diseases: dengue virus; chikungunya virus; Zika virus; West Nile fever and malaria. In Europe, these infections are mostly imported; however, due to the presence of competent mosquitoes and the number of trips both to and from endemic areas, these pathogens are potentially emergent or re-emergent. Present and future climatic conditions, as well as meteorological, environmental and demographic aspects are risk factors for the distribution of different vectors and/or diseases.This review aimed to identify and analyze the existing literature on the transmission of mosquito borne diseases and those factors potentially affecting their transmission risk of them in six southern European countries with similar environmental conditions: Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain. In addition, we would identify those factors potentially affecting the (re)introduction or spread of mosquito vectors. This task has been undertaken with a focus on the environmental and climatic factors, including the effects of climate change. We undertook a systematic review of the vectors, diseases and their associations with climactic and environmental factors in European countries of the Mediterranean region. We followed the PRISMA guidelines and used explicit and systematic methods to identify, select and critically evaluate the studies which were relevant to the topic.We identified 1,302 articles in the first search of the databases. Of those, 160 were selected for full-text review. The final data set included 61 articles published between 2000 and 2017. 39.3% of the papers were related with dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus or their vectors. Temperature, precipitation and population density were key factors among others. 32.8% studied West Nile virus and its vectors, being temperature, precipitation and NDVI the most frequently used variables. Malaria have been studied in 23% of the articles, with temperature, precipitation and presence of water indexes as the most used variables. The number of publications focused on mosquito borne diseases is increasing in recent years, reflecting the increased interest in that diseases in southern European countries. Climatic and environmental variables are key factors on mosquitoes´ distribution and to show the risk of emergence and/or spread of emergent diseases and to study the spatial changes in that distributions.
    Keywords:  Aedes; Anopheles; Culex; West Nile virus; Zika; climate; dengue; invasive mosquito species; malaria; mosquito borne diseases
  4. Insects. 2020 Aug 13. pii: E529. [Epub ahead of print]11(8):
    Ahmad NA, Endersby-Harshman NM, Mohd Mazni NR, Mohd Zabari NZA, Amran SNS, Ridhuan Ghazali MK, Abdul Karim MA, Cheong YL, Sinkins SP, Ahmad NW, Hoffmann AA.
      Specific sodium channel gene mutations confer target site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in mosquitoes and other insects. In Aedes mosquito species, multiple mutations that contribute to resistance vary in their importance around the world. Here, we characterize voltage sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) mutations in populations of Aedesaegypti from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and look at their persistence in populations affected by ongoing Wolbachia releases (a dengue control measure). We also describe a Vssc mutation in Aedesalbopictus (F1534L) found for the first time in Malaysia. We show that there are three predominant Vssc haplotypes in Aedesaegypti in this region, which all persist with regular backcrossing, thereby maintaining the original genetic composition of the populations. We identify changes in genotype frequency in closed populations of Ae. aegypti maintained for multiple generations in laboratory culture, suggesting different fitness costs associated with the genotypes, some of which may be associated with the sex of the mosquito. Following population replacement of Ae. aegypti by Wolbachia in the target area, however, we find that the Vssc mutations have persisted at pre-release levels. Mosquitoes in two genotype classes demonstrate a type I pyrethroid resistance advantage over wildtype mosquitoes when exposed to 0.25% permethrin. This resistance advantage is even more pronounced with a type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin (0.03%). The results point to the importance of these mutations in pyrethroid resistance in mosquito populations and the need for regular backcrossing with male mosquitoes from the field to maintain similarity of genetic background and population integrity during Wolbachia releases.
    Keywords:  kdr; pyrethroid resistance; target site
  5. J Med Entomol. 2020 Aug 18. pii: tjaa141. [Epub ahead of print]
    Deguenon JM, Riegel C, Cloherty-Duvernay ER, Chen K, Stewart DA, Wang B, Gittins D, Tihomirov L, Apperson CS, McCord MG, Roe RM.
      Malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and the Zika and West Nile Viruses are major vector-borne diseases of humans transmitted by mosquitoes. According to the World Health Organization, over 80% of the world's population is at risk of contacting these diseases. Insecticides are critical for mosquito control and disease prevention, and insect insecticide resistance is on the increase; new alternatives with potentially different modes of action from current chemistry are needed. During laboratory screening of industrial minerals for insecticide activity against Anopheles gambiae (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) we discovered a novel mechanical insecticide derived from volcanic rock (MIVR) with potential use as a residual spray. In modified WHO cone tests, the time to 50% mortality was 5 h under high-humidity conditions. MIVR treated surfaces demonstrated no mosquito repellency. In field studies where the mechanical insecticide was applied to wood using standard spray equipment and then placed under stilt homes in New Orleans, LA, the residual activity was >80% after 9 wk against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) (with similar efficacy to a positive chemical insecticide control). In scanning electron microcopy studies, the MIVR was transferred as particles mostly to the legs of the mosquito. This wettable powder made from volcanic rock is a mechanical insecticide representing a potential new mode of action different from current chemistry for mosquito control and is in commercial development under the trade name Imergard™WP as an indoor and outdoor residual spray.
    Keywords:  Imergard™WP; mechanical insecticide; mosquito-borne disease; mosquitoes; residual spray
  6. Gates Open Res. 2020 ;4 50
    Indriani C, Tantowijoyo W, Rancès E, Andari B, Prabowo E, Yusdi D, Ansari MR, Wardana DS, Supriyati E, Nurhayati I, Ernesia I, Setyawan S, Fitriana I, Arguni E, Amelia Y, Ahmad RA, Jewell NP, Dufault SM, Ryan PA, Green BR, McAdam TF, O'Neill SL, Tanamas SK, Simmons CP, Anders KL, Utarini A.
      Background: Ae. aegypti mosquitoes stably transfected with the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis ( wMel strain) have been deployed for biocontrol of dengue and related arboviral diseases in multiple countries. Field releases in northern Australia have previously demonstrated near elimination of local dengue transmission from Wolbachia-treated communities, and pilot studies in Indonesia have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of the method. We conducted a quasi-experimental trial to evaluate the impact of scaled Wolbachia releases on dengue incidence in an endemic setting in Indonesia. Methods: In Yogyakarta City, Indonesia, following extensive community engagement, wMel Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes were released every two weeks for 13-15 rounds over seven months in 2016-17, in a contiguous 5 km 2 area (population 65,000). A 3 km 2 area (population 34,000) on the opposite side of the city was selected a priori as an untreated control area. Passive surveillance data on notified hospitalised dengue patients was used to evaluate the epidemiological impact of Wolbachia deployments, using controlled interrupted time-series analysis. Results: Rapid and sustained introgression of wMel Wolbachia into local Ae. aegypti populations was achieved. Thirty-four dengue cases were notified from the intervention area and 53 from the control area (incidence 26 vs 79 per 100,000 person-years) during 24 months following Wolbachia deployment. This corresponded in the regression model to a 73% reduction in dengue incidence (95% confidence interval 49%,86%) associated with the Wolbachia intervention. Exploratory analysis including 6 months additional post-intervention observations showed a small strengthening of this effect (30 vs 115 per 100,000 person-years; 76% reduction in incidence, 95%CI 60%,86%). Conclusions: We demonstrate a significant reduction in dengue incidence following successful introgression of Wolbachia into local Ae. aegypti populations in an endemic setting in Indonesia. These findings are consistent with previous field trials in northern Australia, and support the effectiveness of this novel approach for dengue control.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Indonesia; Wolbachia; World Mosquito Program; dengue; interrupted time series analysis; mosquito release; quasi-experimental study; vector-borne disease
  7. Pathogens. 2020 Aug 18. pii: E668. [Epub ahead of print]9(8):
    Ekwudu O, Marquart L, Webb L, Lowry KS, Devine GJ, Hugo LE, Frentiu FD.
      Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important mosquito-borne viral pathogen of humans, comprising four serotypes (DENV-1 to -4) with a myriad of genotypes and strains. The kinetics of DENV replication within the mosquito following ingestion of a blood meal influence the pathogen's ability to reach the salivary glands and thus the transmission potential. The influence of DENV serotype and strain diversity on virus kinetics in the two main vector species, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, has been poorly characterized. We tested whether DENV replication kinetics vary systematically among serotypes and strains, using Australian strains of the two vectors. Mosquitoes were blood fed with two strains per serotype, and sampled at 3, 6, 10 and 14-days post-exposure. Virus infection in mosquito bodies, and dissemination of virus to legs and wings, was detected using qRT-PCR. For both vectors, we found significant differences among serotypes in proportions of mosquitoes infected, with higher numbers for DENV-1 and -2 versus other serotypes. Consistent with this, we observed that DENV-1 and -2 generally replicated to higher RNA levels than other serotypes, particularly at earlier time points. There were no significant differences in either speed of infection or dissemination between the mosquito species. Our results suggest that DENV diversity may have important epidemiological consequences by influencing virus kinetics in mosquito vectors.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; arbovirus; dengue viruses (DENV); flavivirus; genetic diversity; vector competence; virus kinetics
  8. Malar J. 2020 Aug 20. 19(1): 297
    Mosha JF, Lukole E, Charlwood JD, Wright A, Rowland M, Bullock O, Manjurano A, Kisinza W, Mosha FW, Kleinschmidt I, Protopopoff N.
      BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most widely deployed vector control intervention in sub-Saharan Africa to prevent malaria. Recent reports indicate selection of pyrethroid insecticide resistance is widespread in mosquito vectors. This paper explores risk factors associated with malaria infection prevalence and vector density between mass distribution campaigns, changes in net coverage, and loss of protection in an area of high pyrethroid resistance in Northwest Tanzania.METHODS: A cross sectional malaria survey of 3456 children was undertaken in 2014 in Muleba district, Kagera region west of Lake Victoria. Vector density was assessed using indoor light traps and outdoor tent traps. Anophelines were identified to species using PCR and tested for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. Logistic regression was used to identify household and environmental factors associated with malaria infection and regression binomial negative for vector density.
    RESULTS: LLIN use was 27.7%. Only 16.9% of households had sufficient nets to cover all sleeping places. Malaria infection was independently associated with access to LLINs (OR: 0.57; 95% CI 0.34-0.98). LLINs less than 2 years old were slightly more protective than older LLINs (53 vs 65% prevalence of infection); however, there was no evidence that LLINs in good condition (hole index < 65) were more protective than LLINs, which were more holed. Other risk factors for malaria infection were age, group, altitude and house construction quality. Independent risk factors for vector density were consistent with malaria outcomes and included altitude, wind, livestock, house quality, open eaves and LLIN usage. Indoor collections comprised 4.6% Anopheles funestus and 95.4% Anopheles gambiae of which 4.5% were Anopheles arabiensis and 93.5% were Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.
    CONCLUSION: Three years after the mass distribution campaign and despite top-ups, LLIN usage had declined considerably. While children living in households with access to LLINs were at lower risk of malaria, infection prevalence remained high even among users of LLINs in good condition. While effort should be made to maintain high coverage between campaigns, distribution of standard pyrethroid-only LLINs appears insufficient to prevent malaria transmission in this area of intense pyrethroid resistance.
    Keywords:  Effectiveness; Llins; Malaria; Tanzania; Vectors
  9. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(8): e0234098
    Briolant S, Costa MM, Nguyen C, Dusfour I, Pommier de Santi V, Girod R, Almeras L.
      In French Guiana, the malaria, a parasitic infection transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes, remains a disease of public health importance. To prevent malaria transmission, the main effective way remains Anopheles control. For an effective control, accurate Anopheles species identification is indispensable to distinguish malaria vectors from non-vectors. Although, morphological and molecular methods are largely used, an innovative tool, based on protein pattern comparisons, the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption / Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling, emerged this last decade for arthropod identification. However, the limited mosquito fauna diversity of reference MS spectra remains one of the main drawback for its large usage. The aim of the present study was then to create and to share reference MS spectra for the identification of French Guiana Anopheline species. A total of eight distinct Anopheles species, among which four are malaria vectors, were collected in 6 areas. To improve Anopheles identification, two body parts, legs and thoraxes, were independently submitted to MS for the creation of respective reference MS spectra database (DB). This study underlined that double checking by MS enhanced the Anopheles identification confidence and rate of reliable classification. The sharing of this reference MS spectra DB should make easier Anopheles species monitoring in endemic malaria area to help malaria vector control or elimination programs.
  10. BMC Biol. 2020 Aug 20. 18(1): 104
    Filipović I, Hapuarachchi HC, Tien WP, Razak MABA, Lee C, Tan CH, Devine GJ, Rašić G.
      BACKGROUND: Hundreds of millions of people get a mosquito-borne disease every year and nearly one million die. Transmission of these infections is primarily tackled through the control of mosquito vectors. The accurate quantification of mosquito dispersal is critical for the design and optimization of vector control programs, yet the measurement of dispersal using traditional mark-release-recapture (MRR) methods is logistically challenging and often unrepresentative of an insect's true behavior. Using Aedes aegypti (a major arboviral vector) as a model and two study sites in Singapore, we show how mosquito dispersal can be characterized by the spatial analyses of genetic relatedness among individuals sampled over a short time span without interruption of their natural behaviors.RESULTS: Using simple oviposition traps, we captured adult female Ae. aegypti across high-rise apartment blocks and genotyped them using genome-wide SNP markers. We developed a methodology that produces a dispersal kernel for distance which results from one generation of successful breeding (effective dispersal), using the distance separating full siblings and 2nd- and 3rd-degree relatives (close kin). The estimated dispersal distance kernel was exponential (Laplacian), with a mean dispersal distance (and dispersal kernel spread σ) of 45.2 m (95% CI 39.7-51.3 m), and 10% probability of a dispersal > 100 m (95% CI 92-117 m). Our genetically derived estimates matched the parametrized dispersal kernels from previous MRR experiments. If few close kin are captured, a conventional genetic isolation-by-distance analysis can be used, as it can produce σ estimates congruent with the close-kin method if effective population density is accurately estimated. Genetic patch size, estimated by spatial autocorrelation analysis, reflects the spatial extent of the dispersal kernel "tail" that influences, for example, the critical radii of release zones and the speed of Wolbachia spread in mosquito replacement programs.
    CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that spatial genetics can provide a robust characterization of mosquito dispersal. With the decreasing cost of next-generation sequencing, the production of spatial genetic data is increasingly accessible. Given the challenges of conventional MRR methods, and the importance of quantified dispersal in operational vector control decisions, we recommend genetic-based dispersal characterization as the more desirable means of parameterization.
    Keywords:  Close kin; Dispersal kernel; Genome-wide SNPs; IBD; Mosquito dispersal; Spatial autocorrelation
  11. PLoS Comput Biol. 2020 Aug 21. 16(8): e1008136
    Demers J, Bewick S, Agusto F, Caillouët KA, Fagan WF, Robertson SL.
      Management strategies for control of vector-borne diseases, for example Zika or dengue, include using larvicide and/or adulticide, either through large-scale application by truck or plane or through door-to-door efforts that require obtaining permission to access private property and spray yards. The efficacy of the latter strategy is highly dependent on the compliance of local residents. Here we develop a model for vector-borne disease transmission between mosquitoes and humans in a neighborhood setting, considering a network of houses connected via nearest-neighbor mosquito movement. We incorporate large-scale application of adulticide via aerial spraying through a uniform increase in vector death rates in all sites, and door-to-door application of larval source reduction and adulticide through a decrease in vector emergence rates and an increase in vector death rates in compliant sites only, where control efficacies are directly connected to real-world experimentally measurable control parameters, application frequencies, and control costs. To develop mechanistic insight into the influence of vector motion and compliance clustering on disease controllability, we determine the the basic reproduction number R0 for the system, provide analytic results for the extreme cases of no mosquito movement, infinite hopping rates, and utilize degenerate perturbation theory for the case of slow but non-zero hopping rates. We then determine the application frequencies required for each strategy (alone and combined) in order to reduce R0 to unity, along with the associated costs. Cost-optimal strategies are found to depend strongly on mosquito hopping rates, levels of door-to-door compliance, and spatial clustering of compliant houses, and can include aerial spray alone, door-to-door treatment alone, or a combination of both. The optimization scheme developed here provides a flexible tool for disease management planners which translates modeling results into actionable control advice adaptable to system-specific details.
  12. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Aug;14(8): e0008615
    Seabourn P, Spafford H, Yoneishi N, Medeiros M.
      The mosquito microbiome alters the physiological traits of medically important mosquitoes, which can scale to impact how mosquito populations sustain disease transmission. The mosquito microbiome varies significantly within individual mosquitoes and among populations, however the ecological and environmental factors that contribute to this variation are poorly understood. To further understand the factors that influence variation and diversity of the mosquito microbiome, we conducted a survey of the bacterial microbiome in the medically important mosquito, Aedes albopictus, on the high Pacific island of Maui, Hawai'i. We detected three bacterial Phyla and twelve bacterial families: Proteobacteria, Acitinobacteria, and Firmicutes; and Anaplasmataceae, Acetobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Burkholderiaceae, Xanthobacteraceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Beijerinckiaceae, Rhizobiaceae, and Sphingomonadaceae. The Ae. albopictus bacterial microbiota varied among geographic locations, but temperature and rainfall were uncorrelated with this spatial variation. Infection status with an ampicomplexan pathosymbiont Ascogregarina taiwanensis was significantly associated with the composition of the Ae. albopictus bacteriome. The bacteriomes of mosquitoes with an A. taiwanensis infection were more likely to include several bacterial symbionts, including the most abundant lineage of Wolbachia sp. Other symbionts like Asaia sp. and several Enterobacteriaceae lineages were less prevalent in A. taiwanensis-infected mosquitoes. This highlights the possibility that inter- and intra-domain interactions may structure the Ae. albopictus microbiome.
  13. Malar J. 2020 Aug 15. 19(1): 293
    Wagman J, Cissé I, Kone D, Fomba S, Eckert E, Mihigo J, Bankineza E, Bah M, Diallo D, Gogue C, Tynuv K, Saibu A, Richardson JH, Fornadel C, Slutsker L, Robertson M.
      BACKGROUND: Ségou Region in central Mali is an area of high malaria burden with seasonal transmission. The region reports high access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), though the principal vector, Anopheles gambiae, is resistant to pyrethroids. From 2011 until 2016, several high-burden districts of Ségou also received indoor residual spraying (IRS), though in 2014 concerns about pyrethroid resistance prompted a shift in IRS products to a micro-encapsulated formulation of the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. Also in 2014, the region expanded a pilot programme to provide seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) to children aged 3-59 months in two districts. The timing of these decisions presented an opportunity to estimate the impact of both interventions, deployed individually and in combination, using quality-assured passive surveillance data.METHODS: A non-randomized, quasi-experimental time series approach was used to analyse monthly trends in malaria case incidence at the district level. Districts were stratified by intervention status: an SMC district, an IRS district, an IRS + SMC district, and control districts that received neither IRS nor SMC in 2014. The numbers of positive rapid diagnostic test (RDT +) results reported at community health facilities were aggregated and epidemiological curves showing the incidence of RDT-confirmed malaria cases per 10,000 person-months were plotted for the total all-ages and for the under 5 year old (u5) population. The cumulative incidence of RDT + malaria cases observed from September 2014 to February 2015 was calculated in each intervention district and compared to the cumulative incidence reported from the same period in the control districts.
    RESULTS: Cumulative peak-transmission all-ages incidence was lower in each of the intervention districts compared to the control districts: 16% lower in the SMC district; 28% lower in the IRS district; and 39% lower in the IRS + SMC district. The same trends were observed in the u5 population: incidence was 15% lower with SMC, 48% lower with IRS, and 53% lower with IRS + SMC. The SMC-only intervention had a more moderate effect on incidence reduction initially, which increased over time. The IRS-only intervention had a rapid, comparatively large impact initially that waned over time. The impact of the combined interventions was both rapid and longer lasting.
    CONCLUSION: Evaluating the impact of IRS with an organophosphate and SMC on reducing incidence rates of passive RDT-confirmed malaria cases in Ségou Region in 2014 suggests that combining the interventions had a greater effect than either intervention used individually in this high-burden region of central Mali with pyrethroid-resistant vectors and high rates of household access to LLINs.
    Keywords:  Combined malaria control strategies; Indoor residual spraying; Observational analysis; Seasonal malaria chemoprevention
  14. Environ Res. 2020 Jun 23. pii: S0013-9351(20)30732-5. [Epub ahead of print]188 109837
    Gangoso L, Aragonés D, Martínez-de la Puente J, Lucientes J, Delacour-Estrella S, Estrada Peña R, Montalvo T, Bueno-Marí R, Bravo-Barriga D, Frontera E, Marqués E, Ruiz-Arrondo I, Muñoz A, Oteo JA, Miranda MA, Barceló C, Arias Vázquez MS, Silva-Torres MI, Ferraguti M, Magallanes S, Muriel J, Marzal A, Aranda C, Ruiz S, González MA, Morchón R, Gómez-Barroso D, Figuerola J.
      Changes in environmental conditions, whether related or not to human activities, are continuously modifying the geographic distribution of vectors, which in turn affects the dynamics and distribution of vector-borne infectious diseases. Determining the main ecological drivers of vector distribution and how predicted changes in these drivers may alter their future distributions is therefore of major importance. However, the drivers of vector populations are largely specific to each vector species and region. Here, we identify the most important human-activity-related and bioclimatic predictors affecting the current distribution and habitat suitability of the mosquito Culex pipiens and potential future changes in its distribution in Spain. We determined the niche of occurrence (NOO) of the species, which considers only those areas lying within the range of suitable environmental conditions using presence data. Although almost ubiquitous, the distribution of Cx. pipiens is mostly explained by elevation and the degree of urbanization but also, to a lesser extent, by mean temperatures during the wettest season and temperature seasonality. The combination of these predictors highlights the existence of a heterogeneous pattern of habitat suitability, with most suitable areas located in the southern and northeastern coastal areas of Spain, and unsuitable areas located at higher altitude and in colder regions. Future climatic predictions indicate a net decrease in distribution of up to 29.55%, probably due to warming and greater temperature oscillations. Despite these predicted changes in vector distribution, their effects on the incidence of infectious diseases are, however, difficult to forecast since different processes such as local adaptation to temperature, vector-pathogen interactions, and human-derived changes in landscape may play important roles in shaping the future dynamics of pathogen transmission.
    Keywords:  Climate change; Culicidae; Habitat suitability; Species distribution model; Vector-borne pathogens
  15. Acta Trop. 2020 Aug 14. pii: S0001-706X(20)31043-3. [Epub ahead of print]212 105669
    Ceretti-Junior W, Oliveira-Christe R, Wilk-da-Silva R, Mucci LF, Duarte AMRC, Fernandes A, Barrio-Nuevo KM, Carvalho MP, Marrelli MT, Medeiros-Sousa AR.
      Cantareira State Park (CSP) is located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, one of the most densely populated areas on the planet. Recently, a yellow-fever epidemic practically annihilated the howler monkey population in this park, and human infections were reported in the vicinity. As simian and human plasmodia also circulate in CSP, the present study sought to provide an update on the mosquito fauna in this park, including an analysis of the diversity in areas with different degrees of conservation and a comparison of the yields achieved with different collection techniques. From October 2015 to April 2017, adult mosquitoes were collected with CDC traps, hand-held battery-powered aspirators and Shannon traps, and larvae and pupae were collected with larval dippers and suction samplers in natural and artificial breeding sites. In total, 11,038 specimens distributed in 103 taxa represented by 16 genera were collected. Both the observed species richness and diversity were greater in the environments with the highest degree of preservation. The 'wild' (most preserved) area in CSP had the greatest species richness, followed by the transition area and human-impacted area. The estimated richness indicated that the three environments may have a greater number of species than observed in this study, and Sorensen's index showed that the average degree of similarity varies little between areas. In the inventory of local species, the Shannon trap was the most efficient collection technique for adult mosquitoes, and the suction sampler the most efficient for immatures. The results highlight the increase in the number of different taxa collected as different mosquito capture techniques were included, confirming the importance of using several strategies to sample the local mosquito fauna satisfactorily when exploring a greater number of ecotopes. CSP is a refuge and shelter for native and introduced mosquito species where new biocenoses including pathogens, vertebrate hosts and vectors can form, allowing zoonotic outbreaks in the local human population to occur.
    Keywords:  Cantareira State Park; Diversity; Green areas; Mosquito assembly; Richness
  16. J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 21. pii: jiaa526. [Epub ahead of print]
    Rosas-Aguirre A, Guzman-Guzman M, Chuquiyauri R, Moreno M, Manrique P, Ramirez R, Carrasco-Escobar G, Rodriguez H, Speybroeck N, Conn JE, Gamboa D, Vinetz JM, Llanos-Cuentas A.
      BACKGROUND: Malaria is highly heterogeneous; its changing malaria micro-epidemiology needs to be addressed to support malaria elimination efforts at the regional level.METHODS: A three-year, population-based cohort study in two settings in the Peruvian Amazon (Lupuna, Cahuide) followed participants by passive and active case detection from January 2013 to December 2015. Incidence and prevalence rates were estimated using microscopy and PCR.
    RESULTS: Lupuna registered 1,828 infections (1,708 P. vivax, 120 P. falciparum; incidence was 80.7 infections/100 person-years (95%CI [77.1-84.5]). Cahuide detected 1,046 infections (1,024 P. vivax, 20 P. falciparum, two mixed); incidence was 40.2 infections/100 person-years (95%CI [37.9-42.7]). Recurrent P. vivax infections predominated onwards from 2013. According to PCR data, submicroscopic predominated over microscopic infections, especially in periods of low transmission. The integration of parasitological, entomological and environmental observations evidenced an intense and seasonal transmission resilient to standard control measures in Lupuna, and a persistent residual transmission after severe outbreaks were intensively handled in Cahuide.
    CONCLUSIONS: In two exemplars of complex local malaria transmission, standard control strategies failed to eliminate submicroscopic and hypnozoite reservoirs, enabling persistent transmission.
    Keywords:  Amazon; Peru; cohort study; heterogeneity; human biting rate; incidence; malaria; prevalence; transmission
  17. Med Vet Entomol. 2020 Aug 22.
    Garzón MJ, Maffey L, Lizuain A, Soto D, Diaz PC, Leporace M, Salomón OD, Schweigmann NJ.
      Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) distribution is bounded to a subtropical area in Argentina, while Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) covers both temperate and subtropical regions. We assessed thermal and photoperiod conditions on dormancy status, development time and mortality for these species from subtropical Argentina. Short days (8 light : 16 dark) significantly increased larval development time for both species, an effect previously linked to diapause incidence. Aedes albopictus showed higher mortality than Ae. aegypti at 16 °C under long day treatments (16 light : 8 dark), which could indicate a lower tolerance to a sudden temperature decrease during the summer season. Aedes albopictus showed a slightly higher percentage of dormant eggs from females exposed to a short day, relative to previous research in Brazilian populations. Since we employed more hours of darkness, this could suggest a relationship between day-length and dormancy intensity. Interestingly, local Ae. aegypti presented dormancy similar to Ae. albopictus, in accordance with temperate populations. The minimum dormancy in Ae. albopictus would not be sufficient to extend its bounded distribution. We believe that these findings represent a novel contribution to current knowledge about the ecophysiology of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, two species with great epidemiological relevance in this subtropical region.
    Keywords:  adaptation; development; distribution; dormancy; mortality
  18. Am Nat. 2020 Sep;196(3): E61-E70
    Hoi AG, Gilbert B, Mideo N.
      AbstractRecent years have seen significant progress in understanding the impact of host community assemblage on disease risk, yet diversity in disease vectors has rarely been investigated. Using published malaria and mosquito surveys from Kenya, we analyzed the relationship between malaria prevalence and multiple axes of mosquito diversity: abundance, species richness, and composition. We found a net amplification of malaria prevalence by vector species richness, a result of a strong direct positive association between richness and prevalence alongside a weak indirect negative association between the two, mediated through mosquito community composition. One plausible explanation of these patterns is species niche complementarity, whereby less competent vector species contribute to disease transmission by filling spatial or temporal gaps in transmission left by dominant vectors. A greater understanding of vector community assemblage and function, as well as any interactions between host and vector biodiversity, could offer insights to both fundamental and applied ecology.
    Keywords:  amplification effect; biodiversity-ecosystem function; community ecology; dilution effect; malaria; vector management
  19. Res Rep Trop Med. 2020 ;11 53-60
    Kapesa A, Basinda N, Nyanza EC, Monge J, Ngallaba SE, Mwanga JR, Kweka EJ.
      Background: Surveillance of the clinical morbidity of malaria remains key for disease monitoring for subsequent development of appropriate interventions. This case study presents the current status of malaria morbidities following a second round of mass distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) on Ukerewe Island, northwestern Tanzania.Methods: A retrospective review of health-facility registers to determine causes of inpatient morbidities for every admitted child aged <5 years was conducted to ascertain the contribution of malaria before and after distribution of LLINs. This review was conducted from August 2016 to July 2018 in three selected health facilities. To determine the trend of malaria admissions in the selected facilities, additional retrospective collection of all malaria and other causes of admission was conducted for both <5- and >5-year-old patients from July 2014 to June 2018. For comparison purposes, monthly admissions of malaria and other causes from all health facilities in the district were also collected. Moreover, an LLIN-coverage study was conducted among randomly selected households (n=684).
    Results: Between August 2016 and July 2018, malaria was the leading cause of inpatient morbidity, accounting for 44.1% and 20.3% among patients <5 and >5 years old, respectively. Between October 2017 and January 2018, the mean number of admissions of patients aged <5 years increased 2.7-fold at one health center and 1.02-fold for all admissions in the district. Additionally, approximately half the households in the study area had poor of LLIN coverage 1 year after mass distribution.
    Conclusion: This trend analysis of inpatient morbidities among children aged <5 years revealed an upsurge in malaria admissions in some health facilities in the district, despite LLIN intervention. This suggests the occurrence of an unnoticed outbreak of malaria admissions in all health facilities.
    Keywords:  Tanzania; children <5 years old; inpatient morbidity; malaria surveillance
  20. Biodivers Data J. 2020 ;8 e55059
    Hribar LJ.
      Background: The Florida Keys Mosquito Control District has used dry ice-baited light traps to monitor mosquito populations on Vaca Key since 1998. The first site sampled was monitored continuously for almost 20 years until all vegetation was removed.New information: This paper describes a dataset compiled over almost 20 years of continuous trapping along Manor Lane on Vaca Key, Florida.
    Keywords:   Culicidae ; Diptera ; relative abundance; seasonal distribution; species composition
  21. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Aug 17.
    Ahmed S, Reithinger R, Kaptoge SK, Ngondi JM.
      By sustaining transmission or causing malaria outbreaks, imported malaria undermines malaria elimination efforts. Few studies have examined the impact of travel on malaria epidemiology. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis of studies investigating travel as a risk factor for malaria infection in sub-Saharan Africa using PubMed. We identified 22 studies and calculated a random-effects meta-analysis pooled odds ratio (OR) of 3.77 (95% CI: 2.49-5.70), indicating that travel is a significant risk factor for malaria infection. Odds ratios were particularly high in urban locations when travel was to rural areas, to more endemic/high transmission areas, and in young children. Although there was substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of association across the studies, the pooled estimate and directional consistency support travel as an important risk factor for malaria infection.
  22. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Aug 19. 14(8): e0008535
    Castillo Signor LDC, Edwards T, Escobar LE, Mencos Y, Matope A, Castaneda-Guzman M, Adams ER, Cuevas LE.
      Dengue fever occurs worldwide and about 1% of cases progress to severe haemorrhage and shock. Dengue is endemic in Guatemala and its surveillance system could document long term trends. We analysed 17 years of country-wide dengue surveillance data in Guatemala to describe epidemiological trends from 2000 to 2016.Data from the national dengue surveillance database were analysed to describe dengue serotype frequency, seasonality, and outbreaks. We used Poisson regression models to compare the number of cases each year with subsequent years and to estimate incidence ratios within serotype adjusted by age and gender. 91,554 samples were tested. Dengue was confirmed by RT-qPCR, culture or NS1-ELISA in 7097 (7.8%) cases and was IgM ELISA-positive in 19,290 (21.1%) cases. DENV1, DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4 were detected in 2218 (39.5%), 2580 (45.9%), 591 (10.5%), and 230 (4.1%) cases. DENV1 and DENV2 were the predominant serotypes, but all serotypes caused epidemics. The largest outbreak occurred in 2010 with 1080 DENV2 cases reported. The incidence was higher among adults during epidemic years, with significant increases in 2005, 2007, and 2013 DENV1 outbreaks, the 2010 DENV2 and 2003 DENV3 outbreaks. Adults had a lower incidence immediately after epidemics, which is likely linked to increased immunity.