bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2020‒07‒26
twenty-five papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University


  1. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jul 20. 13(1): 358
    Rigby LM, Rašić G, Peatey CL, Hugo LE, Beebe NW, Devine GJ.
      BACKGROUND: Effective vector control measures are essential in a world where many mosquito-borne diseases have no vaccines or drug therapies available. Insecticidal tools remain the mainstay of most vector-borne disease management programmes, although their use for both agricultural and public health purposes has resulted in selection for resistance. Despite this, little is known about the fitness costs associated with specific insecticide-resistant genotypes and their implications for the management of resistance. In Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, the best-characterised resistance mechanisms are single-point mutations that protect the voltage-gated sodium channel from the action of pyrethroids.METHODS: We evaluated the fitness cost of two co-occurring, homozygous mutations (V1016G and S989P) by back-crossing a resistant strain of A. aegypti from Timor-Leste into a fully susceptible strain from Queensland. The creation of the backcross strain allowed us to isolate these kdr mutations in an otherwise susceptible genetic background.
    RESULTS: In comparison to the susceptible strain, the backcrossed colony exhibited longer larval development times (5 days, P < 0.001), 24% fewer mosquitoes reached the adult stage (P = 0.005), had smaller wing lengths (females, P = 0.019 and males, P = 0.007) and adult female mosquitoes had a shorter average lifespan (6 days, P < 0.0006).
    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest specific and significant fitness costs associated with the double homozygous V1016G/S989P genotype in the absence of insecticides. The susceptibility of a population may recover if the fitness costs of resistant genotypes can be emphasised through the use of insecticide rotations and mosaics or the presence of untreated spatial or temporal refuges.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Backcross; Insecticide resistance; Pyrethroid; Timor-Leste
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04238-4
  2. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Jul 21. 14(7): e0008408
    Donnelly MAP, Kluh S, Snyder RE, Barker CM.
      The spread of Aedes aegypti in California and other regions of the U.S. has increased the need to understand the potential for local chains of Ae. aegypti-borne virus transmission, particularly in arid regions of the state where the ecology of these mosquitoes is less understood. For public health and vector control programs, it is helpful to know whether variation in risk of local transmission can be attributed to socio-demographic factors that could help to target surveillance and control programs. Socio-demographic factors have been shown to influence transmission risk of dengue virus outside the U.S. by modifying biting rates and vector abundance. In regions of the U.S. where Ae. aegypti have recently invaded and where residential areas are structured differently than those in the tropics where Ae. aegypti are endemic, it is unclear how socio-demographic factors modify the abundance of Ae. aegypti populations. Understanding heterogeneities among households in Ae. aegypti abundance will provide a better understanding of local vectorial capacity and is an important component of understanding risk of local Ae. aegypti-borne virus transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Los Angeles County, California during summer 2017 to understand the causes of variation in relative abundance of Ae. aegypti among households. We surveyed 161 houses, representing a wide range of incomes. Surveys consisted of systematic adult mosquito collections, inspections of households and properties, and administration of a questionnaire in English or Spanish. Adult Ae. aegypti were detected at 72% of households overall and were found indoors at 12% of households. An average of 3.1 Ae. aegypti were collected per household. Ae. aegypti abundance outdoors was higher in lower-income neighborhoods and around older households with larger outdoor areas, greater densities of containers with standing water, less frequent yard maintenance, and greater air-conditioner use. We also found that Aedes aegypti abundance indoors was higher in households that had less window and door screening, less air-conditioner usage, more potted plants indoors, more rain-exposed containers around the home, and lower neighborhood human population densities. Our results indicate that, in the areas of southern California studied, there are behavioral and socio-demographic determinants of Ae. aegypti abundance, and that low-income households could be at higher risk for exposure to Ae. aegypti biting and potentially greater risk for Zika, dengue, and chikungunya virus transmission if a local outbreak were to occur.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008408
  3. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Jul 20. 14(7): e0008479
    Mysore K, Hapairai LK, Sun L, Li P, Wang CW, Scheel ND, Lesnik A, Igiede J, Scheel MP, Wei N, Severson DW, Duman-Scheel M.
      The existing mosquito pesticide repertoire faces great challenges to sustainability, and new classes of pesticides are vitally needed to address established and emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases. RNA interference- (RNAi-) based pesticides are emerging as a promising new biorational mosquito control strategy. In this investigation, we describe characterization of an interfering RNA pesticide (IRP) corresponding to the mosquito Shaker (Sh) gene, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved voltage-gated potassium channel subunit. Delivery of the IRP to Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in the form of siRNA that was injected or provided as an attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) led to Sh gene silencing that resulted in severe neural and behavioral defects and high levels of adult mortality. Likewise, when provided to A. aegypti larvae in the form of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) that had been formulated into a dried inactivated yeast tablet, the yeast IRP induced neural defects and larval death. Although the Sh IRP lacks a known target site in humans or other non-target organisms, conservation of the target site in the Sh genes of multiple mosquito species suggested that it may function as a biorational broad-range mosquito insecticide. In support of this, the Sh IRP induced both adult and larval mortality in treated Aedes albopictus, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, but was not toxic to non-target arthropods. These studies indicated that IRPs targeting Sh could one day be used in integrated biorational mosquito control programs for the prevention of multiple mosquito-borne illnesses. The results of this investigation also suggest that the species-specificity of ATSB technology, a new paradigm for vector control, could be enhanced through the use of RNAi-based pesticides.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008479
  4. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jul 20. 13(1): 361
    Huang EYY, Wong AYP, Lee IHT, Qu Z, Yip HY, Leung CW, Yin SM, Hui JHL.
      BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and Zika viruses. Insecticide-resistant mosquito populations have evolved in recent decades, suggesting that new control strategies are needed. Hong Kong has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, which favours the spread of mosquitoes. However, baseline information on the composition and dynamics of the occurrence of endosymbiont Wolbachia in local Ae. albopictus is lacking, hindering the development of scientifically-informed control measures. This study identifies the presence and absence of dengue and Zika viruses, and Wolbachia infection in Aedes albopictus in Hong Kong.METHODS: Oviposition traps were set at 57 areas in Hong Kong, and both immature and adult mosquitoes were collected on a monthly basis between April 2018 and April 2019 as the study sample. Each individual mosquito in this sample was processed and screened for the presence of the dengue and Zika viruses and the endosymbionts Wolbachia wAlbA and wAlbB with PCR.
    RESULTS: Totals of 967 and 984 mosquitoes were tested respectively for the presence of dengue and Zika viruses, and no trace of either infection was found in these samples. The presence of wAlbA and wAlbB was also tested in 1582 individuals. Over 80% of these individuals were found to be stably infected with Wolbachia throughout the thirteen-month collection period (~ 47% singly-infected; ~ 36.8% doubly infected with both wAlbA and wAlbB).
    CONCLUSIONS: The high degree of Wolbachia wAlbA and wAlbB infection in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Hong Kong, coupled with the absence of any signs of infection by dengue and Zika viruses, contrasts significantly with the pattern of mosquito infection in other parts of Asia. Further studies of the infection pattern in local mosquitoes are warranted before mosquito control strategies used in other regions are implemented in Hong Kong.
    Keywords:  Aedes; Dengue; Mosquito; Wolbachia; Zika
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04231-x
  5. Pathogens. 2020 Jul 16. pii: E575. [Epub ahead of print]9(7):
    Fernandes RS, O'Connor O, Bersot MIL, Girault D, Dokunengo MR, Pocquet N, Dupont-Rouzeyrol M, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R.
      Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused severe epidemics in South America beginning in 2015, following its spread through the Pacific. We comparatively assessed the vector competence of ten populations of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Brazil and two of Ae. aegypti and one of Culex quinquefasciatus from New Caledonia to transmit three ZIKV isolates belonging to African, Asian and American lineages. Recently colonized mosquitoes from eight distinct sites from both countries were orally challenged with the same viral load (107 TCID50/mL) and examined after 7, 14 and 21 days. Cx. quinquefasciatus was refractory to infection with all virus strains. In contrast, although competence varied with geographical origin, Brazilian and New Caledonian Ae. aegypti could transmit the three ZIKV lineages, with a strong advantage for the African lineage (the only one reaching saliva one-week after challenge). Brazilian Ae. albopictus populations were less competent than Ae. aegypti populations. Ae. albopictus generally exhibited almost no transmission for Asian and American lineages, but was efficient in transmitting the African ZIKV. Viral surveillance and mosquito control measures must be strengthened to avoid the spread of new ZIKV lineages and minimize the transmission of viruses currently circulating.
    Keywords:  susceptibility; transmission efficiency; vector capacity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070575
  6. ScientificWorldJournal. 2020 ;2020 4801068
    Kessy ST, Mnyone LL, Nyundo BA, Lyimo IN.
      Odor-baited devices are increasingly needed to compliment long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for control of residual malaria transmission. However, the odor-baited devices developed so far are bulky, dependent on the source of electricity and carbon dioxide (CO2), and they are logistically unsuitable for scaling up in surveillance and control of malaria vectors. We designed a passive and portable outdoor host seeking device (POHD) and preliminarily evaluated suitable components against Anopheles arabiensis that maintains residual malaria transmission. Experiments were conducted using semifield reared An. arabiensis within the semifield system at Ifakara Health Institute (IHI) in southeastern Tanzania. These mosquitoes were exposed to Suna traps® baited with BG lures or source of light and augmented with carbon dioxide (CO2) in view of identifying best attractants necessary to improve attractiveness of designed POHD. Two Suna traps® were hanged at the corner but outside the experimental hut in a diagonal line and rotated between four corners to control for the effect of position and wind direction on mosquito catches. Furthermore, mosquitoes were also exposed to either a bendiocarb-treated or bendiocarb-untreated POHD baited with Mbita blend, Ifakara blend, and worn socks and augmented with warmth (i.e., 1.5 liter bottle of warm water) inside an experimental hut or a screened rectangular box. This study demonstrated that mosquitoes were more strongly attracted to Suna trap® baited with BG lures and CO2 relative to those traps baited with a source of light and CO2. The POHD baited with synthetic blends attracted and killed greater proportion of An. arabiensis compared with POHD baited with worn socks. Efficacy of the POHD was unaffected by source of warmth, and it was reduced by about 50% when the device was tested inside a screened rectangular box relative to closed experimental hut. Overall, this study demonstrates that the POHD baited with synthetic blends (Mbita and Ifakara blends) and bendiocarb can effectively attract and kill outdoor biting malaria vector species. Such POHD baited with synthetic blends may require the source of CO2 to enhance attractiveness to mosquitoes. Further trials are, therefore, ongoing to evaluate attractiveness of improved design of POHD baited with slow-release formulation of synthetic blends and sustainable source of CO2 to malaria vectors under semifield and natural environments.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4801068
  7. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 20.
    Yap G, Mailepessov D, Lim XF, Chan S, How CB, Humaidi MB, Yeo G, Chong CS, Lam-Phua SG, Lee R, Okumura C, Vythilingam I, Lee Ching NG.
      Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are emerging pathogens of an increasing global public health concern because of their rapid increase in geographical range and the impact of climate change. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are of concern because of the risk of reemergence and introduction by migratory birds. In Singapore, human WNV infection has never been reported and human JEV infection is rare. Four sentinel vector surveillance sites were established in Singapore to understand the potential risk posed by these viruses. Surveillance was carried out from August 2011 to December 2012 at Pulau Ubin, from March 2011 to March 2013 at an Avian Sanctuary (AS), from December 2010 from October 2012 at Murai Farmway, and from December 2010 to December 2013 at a nature reserve. The present study revealed active JEV transmission in Singapore through the detection of JEV genotype II in Culex tritaeniorhynchus collected from an Avian Sanctuary. Culex flavivirus (CxFV), similar to the Quang Binh virus isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in Vietnam and CxFV-LSFlaviV-A20-09 virus isolated in China, was also detected in Culex spp. (vishnui subgroup). No WNV was detected. This study demonstrates the important role that surveillance plays in public health and strongly suggests the circulation of JEV among wildlife in Singapore, despite the absence of reported human cases. A One Health approach involving surveillance, the collaboration between public health and wildlife managers, and control of mosquito populations remains the key measures in risk mitigation of JEV transmission in the enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0377
  8. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 20.
    Nankabirwa JI, Arinaitwe E, Rek J, Kilama M, Kizza T, Staedke SG, Rosenthal PJ, Rodriguez-Barraquer I, Briggs J, Greenhouse B, Bousema T, Drakeley C, Roos DS, Tomko SS, Smith DL, Kamya MR, Dorsey G.
      Tororo, a district in Uganda with historically high malaria transmission intensity, has recently scaled up control interventions, including universal long-lasting insecticidal net distribution in 2013 and 2017, and sustained indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide since December 2014. We describe the burden of malaria in Tororo 5 years following the initiation of IRS. We followed a cohort of 531 participants from 80 randomly selected households in Nagongera subcounty, Tororo district, from October 2017 to October 2019. Mosquitoes were collected every 2 weeks using CDC light traps in all rooms where participants slept, symptomatic malaria was identified by passive surveillance, and microscopic and submicroscopic parasitemia were measured every 4 weeks using active surveillance. Over the 2 years of follow-up, 15,780 female anopheline mosquitos were collected, the majority (98.0%) of which were Anopheles arabiensis. The daily human biting rate was 2.07, and the annual entomological inoculation rate was 0.43 infective bites/person/year. Only 38 episodes of malaria were diagnosed (incidence 0.04 episodes/person/year), and there were no cases of severe malaria or malarial deaths. The prevalence of microscopic parasitemia was 1.9%, and the combined prevalence of microscopic and submicroscopic parasitemia was 10.4%, each highest in children aged 5-15 years (3.3% and 14.0%, respectively). After 5 years of intensive vector control measures in Tororo, the burden of malaria was reduced to very low transmission levels. However, a significant proportion of the population remained parasitemic, primarily school-aged children with submicroscopic parasitemia, providing a potential reservoir for malaria transmission.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0250
  9. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jul 18. 13(1): 356
    Diallo D, Diallo M.
      BACKGROUND: Only the sylvatic and zoophilic population of Aedes aegypti was formerly identified in southeastern Senegal. A newly established anthropophilic population was detected in the urban area of the Kedougou city. Because of its new behavior, this species could play a primary role in the transmission of dengue and other arboviruses in this area. Because these arboviruses have no vaccine and specific treatments, vector control remains the only effective way to control their outbreaks. Effective vector control strategies require to understand some aspects of the bioecology of the vector, specially resting behavior. The aims of this study were to investigate the sites and resting behavior of Ae. aegypti in southeastern Senegal.METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected in several potential resting places (rooms, tires, bricks and scrap metal) by two technicians using a CDC back-pack aspirator in the Kedougou bus station and other sites within the city and the nearby rural area. Collected mosquitoes were identified and classified.
    RESULTS: A total of 1291 mosquitoes belonging to 6 genera and 20 species were collected. Aedes aegypti was the dominant species in all the resting places investigated. This species was found resting equally in rooms, bricks, tires and scrap metal. The average number of Ae. aegypti collected in resting places was higher in the bus station (center of the city) compared to the other areas. The rates of unfed and fed females varied significantly in the different resting places while the proportions of gravid females which varied between 7.8% in tires and 1.8% in rooms were comparable.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that Ae. aegypti could be found resting indoors and in several sites, including in used tires outdoors. These data will be helpful in setting better arboviruses surveillance and vector control strategies.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Bricks; Resting places; Rooms; Scrap metal; Southeastern Senegal; Tires
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04223-x
  10. Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 22. 10(1): 12227
    Ngufor C, Agbevo A, Fagbohoun J, Fongnikin A, Rowland M.
      Royal Guard is a new insecticide-treated bed-net incorporated with a mixture of alpha-cypermethrin and pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator). We assessed its efficacy and wash-resistance in laboratory and experimental hut studies following WHO guidelines. Mosquitoes that survived exposure to the net were kept in separate oviposition chambers and observed for the reproductive effects of pyriproxyfen. In laboratory assays, Royal Guard induced > 80% mortality and > 90% blood-feeding inhibition of An. gambiae sl mosquitoes before and after 20 standardised washes and sterilised blood-fed mosquitoes which remained alive after exposure to the net. In an experimental hut trial against wild free-flying pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae sl in Cové Benin, Royal Guard through the pyrethroid component induced comparable levels of mortality and blood-feeding inhibition to a standard pyrethroid-only treated net before and after 20 washes and sterilised large proportions of surviving blood-fed female mosquitoes through the pyriproxyfen component; Royal Guard induced 83% reduction in oviposition and 95% reduction in offspring before washing and 25% reduction in oviposition and 50% reduction in offspring after 20 washes. Royal Guard has the potential to improve malaria vector control and provide better community protection against clinical malaria in pyrethroid-resistant areas compared to standard pyrethroid-only LLINs.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69109-5
  11. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jul 20. 13(1): 359
    Rakotonirina A, Pol M, Kainiu M, Barsac E, Tutagata J, Kilama S, O'Connor O, Tarantola A, Colot J, Dupont-Rouzeyrol M, Richard V, Pocquet N.
      BACKGROUND: Mosquito vectors cause a significant human public health burden through the transmission of pathogens. Due to the expansion of international travel and trade, the dispersal of these mosquito vectors and the pathogens they carry is on the rise. Entomological surveillance is therefore required which relies on accurate mosquito species identification. This study aimed to optimize the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for mosquito identification.METHODS: Aedes aegypti of the Bora-Bora strain and 11 field-sampled mosquito species were used in this study. Analyses were performed to study the impact of the trapping duration on mosquito identification with MALDI-TOF MS. The best preservation methods to use for short, medium and long-term preservation before MALDI-TOF MS analysis were also assessed. In addition, the number of specimens per species required for MALDI-TOF MS database creation was determined. The first MALDI-TOF database of New Caledonian mosquitoes was assembled and the optimal threshold for mosquito species identification according to the sensitivity and specificity of this technique was determined.
    RESULTS: This study showed that the identification scores decreased as the trapping duration increased. High identification scores were obtained for mosquitoes preserved on silica gel and cotton at room temperature and those frozen at - 20 °C, even after two months of preservation. In addition, the results showed that the scores increased according to the number of main spectrum patterns (MSPs) used until they reached a plateau at 5 MSPs for Ae. aegypti. Mosquitoes (n = 67) belonging to 11 species were used to create the MALDI-TOF reference database. During blind test analysis, 96% of mosquitoes tested (n = 224) were correctly identified. Finally, based on MALDI-TOF MS sensitivity and specificity, the threshold value of 1.8 was retained for a secure identification score.
    CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF MS allows accurate species identification with high sensitivity and specificity and is a promising tool in public health for mosquito vector surveillance.
    Keywords:  MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; Mosquitoes’ identification; New Caledonia
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04234-8
  12. Biomed Res Int. 2020 ;2020 6386952
    Udayanga L, Aryaprema S, Gunathilaka N, Iqbal MCM, Fernando T, Abeyewickreme W.
      Background: Early detection of dengue epidemics is a vital aspect in control programmes. Predictions based on larval indices of disease vectors are widely used in dengue control, with defined threshold values. However, there is no set threshold in Sri Lanka at the national or regional levels for Aedes larval indices. Therefore, the current study aimed at developing threshold values for vector indices in two dengue high-risk districts in Sri Lanka.Methods: Monthly vector indices (House Index [HI], Container Index [CI], Breteau Index for Aedes aegypti [BIagp], and Ae. albopictus [BIalb]), of ten selected dengue high-risk Medical Officer of Health (MOH) areas located in Colombo and Kandy districts, were collected from January 2010 to June 2019, along with monthly reported dengue cases. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in SPSS (version 23) was used to assess the discriminative power of the larval indices in identifying dengue epidemics and to develop thresholds for the dengue epidemic management.
    Results: Only HI and BIagp denoted significant associations with dengue epidemics at lag periods of one and two months. Based on Ae. aegypti, average threshold values were defined for Colombo as Low Risk (2.4 ≤ BIagp < 3.8), Moderate Risk (3.8 ≤ BIagp < 5), High Risk (BIagp ≥ 5), along with BIagp 2.9 ≤ BIagp < 4.2 (Low Risk), 4.2 ≤ BIagp < 5.3 (Moderate Risk), and BIagp ≥ 5.3 (High Risk) for Kandy. Further, 5.5 ≤ HI < 8.9, 8.9 ≤ HI < 11.9, and HI ≥ 11.9 were defined as Low Risk, Moderate Risk, and High Risk average thresholds for HI in Colombo, while 6.9 ≤ HI < 9.1 (Low Risk), 8.9 ≥ HI < 11.8 (Moderate Risk), and HI ≥ 11.8 (High Risk) were defined for Kandy.
    Conclusions: The defined threshold values for Ae. aegypti and HI could be recommended as indicators for early detection of dengue epidemics and to drive vector management activities, with the objective of managing dengue epidemics with optimal usage of financial, technical, and human resources in Sri Lanka.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6386952
  13. Malar J. 2020 Jul 22. 19(1): 263
    Faiman R, Yaro AS, Diallo M, Dao A, Djibril S, Sanogo ZL, Sullivan M, Krishna A, Krajacich BJ, Lehmann T.
      BACKGROUND: In the West African Sahel, mosquito reproduction is halted during the 5-7 month-long dry season, due to the absence of surface waters required for larval development. However, recent studies have suggested that both Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles arabiensis repopulate this region via migration from distant locations where larval sites are perennial. Anopheles coluzzii engages in more regional migration, presumably within the Sahel, following shifting resources correlating with the ever-changing patterns of Sahelian rainfall. Understanding mosquito migration is key to controlling malaria-a disease that continues to claim more than 400,000 lives annually, especially those of African children. Using tethered flight data of wild mosquitoes, the distribution of flight parameters were evaluated as indicators of long-range migrants versus appetitive flyers, and the species specific seasonal differences and gonotrophic states compared between two flight activity modalities. Morphometrical differences were evaluated in the wings of mosquitoes exhibiting high flight activity (HFA) vs. low flight activity (LFA).METHODS: A novel tethered-flight assay was used to characterize flight in the three primary malaria vectors- An. arabiensis, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. The flights of tethered wild mosquitoes were audio-recorded from 21:00 h to 05:00 h in the following morning and three flight aptitude indices were examined: total flight duration, longest flight bout, and the number of flight bouts during the assay.
    RESULTS: The distributions of all flight indices were strongly skewed to the right, indicating that the population consisted of a majority of low-flight activity (LFA) mosquitoes and a minority of high-flight activity (HFA) mosquitoes. The median total flight was 586 s and the maximum value was 16,110 s (~ 4.5 h). In accordance with recent results, flight aptitude peaked in the wet season, and was higher in gravid females than in non-blood-fed females. Flight aptitude was also found to be higher in An. coluzzii compared to An. arabiensis, with intermediate values in An. gambiae s.s., but displaying no statistical difference. Evaluating differences in wing size and shape between LFA individuals and HFA ones, the wing size of HFA An. coluzzii was larger than that of LFAs during the wet season-its length was wider than predicted by allometry alone, indicating a change in wing shape. No statistically significant differences were found in the wing size/shape of An. gambiae s.s. or An. arabiensis.
    CONCLUSIONS: The partial agreement between the tethered flight results and recent results based on aerial sampling of these species suggest a degree of discrimination between appetitive flyers and long-distance migrants although identifying HFAs as long-distance migrants is not recommended without further investigation.
    Keywords:  Anopheles gambiae; Flight-aptitude; Migration; Sahel; Seasonality
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03333-2
  14. Curr Biol. 2020 Jul 23. pii: S0960-9822(20)30978-7. [Epub ahead of print]
    Rose NH, Sylla M, Badolo A, Lutomiah J, Ayala D, Aribodor OB, Ibe N, Akorli J, Otoo S, Mutebi JP, Kriete AL, Ewing EG, Sang R, Gloria-Soria A, Powell JR, Baker RE, White BJ, Crawford JE, McBride CS.
      The majority of mosquito-borne illness is spread by a few mosquito species that have evolved to specialize in biting humans, yet the precise causes of this behavioral shift are poorly understood. We address this gap in the arboviral vector Aedes aegypti. We first collect and characterize the behavior of mosquitoes from 27 sites scattered across the species' ancestral range in sub-Saharan Africa, revealing previously unrecognized variation in preference for human versus animal odor. We then use modeling to show that over 80% of this variation can be predicted by two ecological factors-dry season intensity and human population density. Finally, we integrate this information with whole-genome sequence data from 375 individual mosquitoes to identify a single underlying ancestry component linked to human preference. Genetic changes associated with human specialist ancestry were concentrated in a few chromosomal regions. Our findings suggest that human-biting in this important disease vector originally evolved as a by-product of breeding in human-stored water in areas where doing so provided the only means to survive the long, hot dry season. Our model also predicts that the rapid urbanization currently taking place in Africa will drive further mosquito evolution, causing a shift toward human-biting in many large cities by 2050.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegpyti; behavioral evolution; ecological genomics; host preference; mosquitoes; olfactory behavior; population genomics; public health; urbanization
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.092
  15. BMC Res Notes. 2020 Jul 22. 13(1): 348
    Echodu R, Iga J, Oyet WS, Mireji P, Anena J, Onanyang D, Iwiru T, Lutwama JJ, Opiyo EA.
      OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the level of insecticide resistance and diversity in Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Uganda. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility test assays were used to test for susceptibility to 0.5% malathion, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.05% deltamethrin and 0.75% permethrin on 3-5 day old generation one progeny. We also screened for species diversity and knockdown resistance using PCR assay.RESULTS: Anopheles gambiae s.s. is the predominant malaria vector in northern Uganda followed by An. arabiensis. An. gambiae s.s. was susceptible to malathion and bendiocarb with the observed mortality rate of 100% and 98-100% observed respectively while very high resistance was observed with deltamethrin and permethrin. Minimal KDR-eastern variant homozygous forms of 8.3% in An. gambiae s.s. were detected in Oyam district. In conclusion, this study confirms that An. gambiae s.s. females are susceptible to malathion and bendiocarb while high intensity of resistance was observed with deltamethrin and permethrin in the same area. Use of carbamate and organophosphate insecticides bendiocarb and malathion for indoor residual spraying activities in northern Uganda is highly recommended since high levels of pyrethroids resistance (deltamethrin and permethrin) was detected in the area.
    Keywords:  Bendiocarb; Deltamethrin and permethrin; Malathion; Pyrethroid resistance; Uganda
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05193-0
  16. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 17. pii: E5166. [Epub ahead of print]17(14):
    Vaux AGC, Johnston C, Dallimore T, McGinley L, Strode C, Murchie AK, Iyanger N, Pudney R, Chow Y, Brand M, Rea I, Medlock JM.
      The United Kingdom (UK) has reported a single detection of the eggs of the invasive mosquito vector Aedes albopictus in each of the three years from 2016 to 2018, all in southeast England. Here, we report the detection of mosquito eggs on three occasions at two sites in London and southeast England in September 2019. Mosquito traps were deployed at 56 sites, in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, as part of a coordinated surveillance programme with local authorities, Edge Hill University, and government departments. Response to each detection was coordinated by Public Health England's (PHE) local health protection teams, with technical support from PHE's Medical Entomology group, and control conducted by the respective local authority. Control, including source reduction and larviciding, was conducted within a 300 metre radius of the positive site. The response followed a National Contingency Plan for Invasive Mosquitoes: Detection of Incursions. Although the response to these incidents was rapid and well co-ordinated, recommendations are made to further develop mosquito surveillance and control capability for the UK.
    Keywords:  Aedes albopictus; environmental health; mosquito control; public health; vector-borne disease
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145166
  17. Nat Commun. 2020 Jul 20. 11(1): 3646
    Vinit R, Timinao L, Bubun N, Katusele M, Robinson LJ, Kaman P, Sakur M, Makita L, Reimer L, Schofield L, Pomat W, Mueller I, Laman M, Freeman T, Karl S.
      Papua New Guinea (PNG) has the highest malaria transmission outside of Africa. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are believed to have helped to reduce average malaria prevalence in PNG from 16% in 2008 to 1% in 2014. Since 2015 malaria in PNG has resurged significantly. Here, we present observations documenting decreased bioefficacy of unused LLINs with manufacturing dates between 2013 and 2019 collected from villages and LLIN distributors in PNG. Specifically, we show that of n = 167 tested LLINs manufactured after 2013, only 17% are fulfilling the required World Health Organisation bioefficacy standards of ≥ 80% 24 h mortality or ≥ 95% 60 min knockdown in bioassays with pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles farauti mosquitoes. In contrast, all (100%, n = 25) LLINs with manufacturing dates prior to 2013 are meeting these bioefficacy standards. These results suggest that decreased bioefficacy of LLINs is contributing to the malaria resurgence in PNG and increased scrutiny of LLIN quality is warranted.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17456-2
  18. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2020 ;pii: S0074-02762020000100332. [Epub ahead of print]115 e200218
    Couto-Lima D, Andreazzi CS, Leite PJ, Bersot MIL, Alencar J, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R.
      BACKGROUND: Southeast Brazil has recently experienced a Yellow Fever virus (YFV) outbreak where the mosquito Haemagogus leucocelaenus was a primary vector. Climatic factors influence the abundance of mosquito vectors and arbovirus transmission.OBJECTIVES: We aimed at describing the population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus in a county touched by the recent YFV outbreak.
    METHODS: Fortnightly egg collections with ovitraps were performed from November 2012 to February 2017 in a forest in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The effects of mean temperature and rainfall on the Hg. leucocelaenus population dynamics were explored.
    FINDINGS: Hg. leucocelaenus eggs were continuously collected throughout the study, with a peak in the warmer months (December-March). The climatic variables had a time-lagged effect and four weeks before sampling was the best predictor for the positivity of ovitraps and total number of eggs collected. The probability of finding > 50% positive ovitraps increased when the mean temperature was above 24ºC. The number of Hg. leucocelaenus eggs expressively increase when the mean temperature and accumulated precipitation surpassed 27ºC and 100 mm, respectively, although the effect of rainfall was less pronounced.
    MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus and climatic factors in YFV risk areas, especially mean temperature, may assist in developing climate-based surveillance procedures to timely strengthening prophylaxis and control.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760200218
  19. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jul 20.
    Almadiy AA.
      To seek new mosquito control agents while avoiding the environmental impacts and toxicity hazards of conventional pesticides, the essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using GC-FID and GC-MS. The compounds 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-2,3-dioxabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene (cis-ascaridole), 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl) benzene (р-cymene), and 1-isopropyl-4-methyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene (p-mentha-1,3-diene also known as α-terpinene) were identified as the major components. The EO and the major fractions showed remarkable mosquitocidal activity against third instar larvae and adults of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The oil and fractions were assayed at 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 μl/l. Mortality was time- and dose-dependent. At 24 h post-exposure at an assayed concentration of 50 μl/l, the larval and adult mortalities ranged between 80.11-100% and 91.22-100%, respectively. Strong larvicidal and adulticidal activities were recorded in the cases of the crude oil and cis-ascaridole. The LC50 values after 24 h of treatment ranged between 6.2-20.1 μl/l and 5.1-13.9 μl/l against larvae and adults, respectively. The corrected percentage mortalities increased over time with the tested plant oil and the major fractions relative to the control. The time required to achieve 50% mortality (LT50) decreased remarkably with all treatments. The tested EO and major fractions effectively inhibited larval acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values ranging from 8.44 to 64.80 mM compared with 2.08 × 10-3 mM for the reference standard, methomy. The results indicate the potential of developing natural mosquitocides against C. quinquefasciatus based on the tested EO and its major fractions. Graphical abstract.
    Keywords:  Culex quinquefasciatus; Dysphania ambrosioides; Essential oil; Mosquitocidal activity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10137-z
  20. Insects. 2020 Jul 16. pii: E450. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
    Escobar D, Ascencio K, Ortiz A, Palma A, Sánchez A, Fontecha G.
      Malaria remains a life-threatening disease in many tropical countries. Honduras has successfully reduced malaria transmission as different control methods have been applied, focusing mainly on indoor mosquitoes. The selective pressure exerted by the use of insecticides inside the households could modify the feeding behavior of the mosquitoes, forcing them to search for available animal hosts outside the houses. These animal hosts in the peridomicile could consequently become an important factor in maintaining vector populations in endemic areas. Herein, we investigated the blood meal sources and Plasmodium spp. infection on anophelines collected outdoors in endemic areas of Honduras. Individual PCR reactions with species-specific primers were used to detect five feeding sources on 181 visibly engorged mosquitoes. In addition, a subset of these mosquitoes was chosen for pathogen analysis by a nested PCR approach. Most mosquitoes fed on multiple hosts (2 to 4), and 24.9% of mosquitoes had fed on a single host, animal or human. Chicken and bovine were the most frequent blood meal sources (29.5% and 27.5%, respectively). The average human blood index (HBI) was 22.1%. None of the mosquitoes were found to be infected with Plasmodium spp. Our results show the opportunistic and zoophilic behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes in Honduras.
    Keywords:  Anopheles spp.; Honduras; Plasmodium spp.; blood meal source; malaria
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11070450
  21. Int J Environ Health Res. 2020 Jul 20. 1-26
    Trájer AJ.
      It has great importance to study the potential effects of climate change on Plasmodium vivax malaria in Greece because the country can be the origin of the spread of vivax malaria to the northern areas. The potential lengths of the transmission seasons of Plasmodium vivax malaria were forecasted for 2041-2060 and 2061-2080 and were combined. The potential ranges were predicted by Climate Envelope Modelling Method. The models show moderate areal increase and altitudinal shift in the malaria-endemic areas in Greece in the future. The length of the transmission season is predicted to increase by 1 to 2 months, mainly in the mid-elevation regions and the Aegean Archipelago. The combined factors also predict the decrease of vivax malaria-free area in Greece. It can be concluded that rather the elongation of the transmission season will lead to an increase of the malaria risk in Greece than the increase in the suitability values.
    Keywords:   Plasmodium vivax ; Resurgence; bioclimatic variables; risk; transmission
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2020.1793918
  22. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Aug;26(8): 1749-1758
    Hocking SE, Divis PCS, Kadir KA, Singh B, Conway DJ.
      Most malaria in Malaysia is caused by Plasmodium knowlesi parasites through zoonotic infection from macaque reservoir hosts. We obtained genome sequences from 28 clinical infections in Peninsular Malaysia to clarify the emerging parasite population structure and test for evidence of recent adaptation. The parasites all belonged to a major genetic population of P. knowlesi (cluster 3) with high genomewide divergence from populations occurring in Borneo (clusters 1 and 2). We also observed unexpected local genetic subdivision; most parasites belonged to 2 subpopulations sharing a high level of diversity except at particular genomic regions, the largest being a region of chromosome 12, which showed evidence of recent directional selection. Surprisingly, we observed a third subpopulation comprising P. knowlesi infections that were almost identical to each other throughout much of the genome, indicating separately maintained transmission and recent genetic isolation. Each subpopulation could evolve and present a broader health challenge in Asia.
    Keywords:  Borneo; Malaysia; Peninsular Malaysia; Plasmodium knowlesi; epidemiology; genomics; malaria; mosquito-borne diseases; mosquitoes; parasites; parasitic infections; population genetics; selection; sequencing; transmission; vector-borne diseases; zoonoses
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2608.190864
  23. Trials. 2020 Jul 20. 21(1): 665
    Zhou G, Lee MC, Atieli HE, Githure JI, Githeko AK, Kazura JW, Yan G.
      BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, the massive scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) has led to significant reductions in malaria mortality and morbidity. Nonetheless, the malaria burden remains high, and a dozen countries in Africa show a trend of increasing malaria incidence over the past several years. This underscores the need to improve the effectiveness of interventions by optimizing first-line intervention tools and integrating newly approved products into control programs. Because transmission settings and vector ecologies vary from place to place, malaria interventions should be adapted and readapted over time in response to evolving malaria risks. An adaptive approach based on local malaria epidemiology and vector ecology may lead to significant reductions in malaria incidence and transmission risk.METHODS/DESIGN: This study will use a longitudinal block-cluster sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) design with longitudinal outcome measures for a period of 3 years to develop an adaptive intervention for malaria control in western Kenya, the first adaptive trial for malaria control. The primary outcome is clinical malaria incidence rate. This will be a two-stage trial with 36 clusters for the initial trial. At the beginning of stage 1, all clusters will be randomized with equal probability to either LLIN, piperonyl butoxide-treated LLIN (PBO Nets), or LLIN + IRS by block randomization based on their respective malaria risks. Intervention effectiveness will be evaluated with 12 months of follow-up monitoring. At the end of the 12-month follow-up, clusters will be assessed for "response" versus "non-response" to PBO Nets or LLIN + IRS based on the change in clinical malaria incidence rate and a pre-defined threshold value of cost-effectiveness set by the Ministry of Health. At the beginning of stage 2, if an intervention was effective in stage 1, then the intervention will be continued. Non-responders to stage 1 PBO Net treatment will be randomized equally to either PBO Nets + LSM (larval source management) or an intervention determined by an enhanced reinforcement learning method. Similarly, non-responders to stage 1 LLIN + IRS treatment will be randomized equally to either LLIN + IRS + LSM or PBO Nets + IRS. There will be an 18-month evaluation follow-up period for stage 2 interventions. We will monitor indoor and outdoor vector abundance using light traps. Clinical malaria will be monitored through active case surveillance. Cost-effectiveness of the interventions will be assessed using Q-learning.
    DISCUSSION: This novel adaptive intervention strategy will optimize existing malaria vector control tools while allowing for the integration of new control products and approaches in the future to find the most cost-effective malaria control strategies in different settings. Given the urgent global need for optimization of malaria control tools, this study can have far-reaching implications for malaria control and elimination.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: US National Institutes of Health, study ID NCT04182126 . Registered on 26 November 2019.
    Keywords:  Active case surveillance; Adaptive intervention; Block-cluster randomized; Clinical malaria incidence rate; Cost-effectiveness; Indoor residual spraying; Larval source management; Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN); Piperonyl butoxide-treated LLIN; Q-learning; Sequential multiple assignment randomized trial
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04573-y
  24. Pathogens. 2020 Jul 19. pii: E589. [Epub ahead of print]9(7):
    Habarugira G, Suen WW, Hobson-Peters J, Hall RA, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H.
      West Nile virus (WNV) is an important zoonotic flavivirus responsible for mild fever to severe, lethal neuroinvasive disease in humans, horses, birds, and other wildlife species. Since its discovery, WNV has caused multiple human and animal disease outbreaks in all continents, except Antarctica. Infections are associated with economic losses, mainly due to the cost of treatment of infected patients, control programmes, and loss of animals and animal products. The pathogenesis of WNV has been extensively investigated in natural hosts as well as in several animal models, including rodents, lagomorphs, birds, and reptiles. However, most of the proposed pathogenesis hypotheses remain contentious, and much remains to be elucidated. At the same time, the unavailability of specific antiviral treatment or effective and safe vaccines contribute to the perpetuation of the disease and regular occurrence of outbreaks in both endemic and non-endemic areas. Moreover, globalisation and climate change are also important drivers of the emergence and re-emergence of the virus and disease. Here, we give an update of the pathobiology, epidemiology, diagnostics, control, and "One Health" implications of WNV infection and disease.
    Keywords:  West Nile virus; control; one health; pathogenesis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070589