bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2020‒07‒05
28 papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University


  1. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 02.
    Chanda J, Saili K, Phiri F, Stevenson JC, Mwenda M, Chishimba S, Mulube C, Mambwe B, Lungu C, Earle D, Bennett A, Eisele TP, Kamuliwo M, Steketee RW, Keating J, Miller JM, Sikaala CH.
      Whereas data on insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanisms exist for parts of Zambia, data remain limited in the southern part of the country. This study investigated the status of insecticide resistance, metabolic mechanisms, and parasite infection in Anopheles funestus along Lake Kariba in southern Zambia. Indoor-resting mosquitoes were collected from 20 randomly selected houses within clusters where a mass drug administration trial was conducted and raised to F1 progeny. Non-blood-fed 2- to 5-day-old female An. funestus were exposed to WHO insecticide-impregnated papers with 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.25% pirimiphos-methyl, or 4% dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). In separate assays, An. funestus were pre-exposed to piperonyl butoxide (PBO) to determine the presence of monooxygenases. Wild-caught An. funestus that had laid eggs for susceptibility assays were screened for circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum by ELISA, and sibling species were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Anopheles funestus showed resistance to deltamethrin and bendiocarb but remained susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl and DDT. The pre-exposure of An. funestus to PBO restored full susceptibility to deltamethrin but not to bendiocarb. The overall sporozoite infection rate in An. funestus populations was 5.8%. Detection of pyrethroid and carbamate resistance in An. funestus calls for increased insecticide resistance monitoring to guide planning and selection of effective insecticide resistance management strategies. To prevent the development of resistance and reduce the underlying vectorial capacity of mosquitoes in areas targeted for malaria elimination, an effective integrated vector management strategy is needed.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0664
  2. Trop Med Health. 2020 ;48 54
    Lamaningao P, Kanda S, Shimono T, Inthavongsack S, Xaypangna T, Nishiyama T.
      Background: Refillable water containers are commonly used in rural areas of Lao PDR, and they act as Aedes mosquito breeding sites. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitos are transmission vectors for the dengue virus, which causes dengue fever.Methods: Two isolated rural villages in the central part of Lao PDR were selected as study sites. In the intervention village, domestic water containers were continuously treated with a long-lasting matrix release formulation, containing pyriproxyfen, named SumiLarv®2MR. In the control village, entomological activity was monitored, but no intervention was performed. Baseline data were collected in both villages during the late rainy season (October 2017) then distributed SumiLarv®2MR disks in intervention village. This data was compared with data collected during the intervention periods in the dry season (February 2018), rainy season (July 2018 and 2019), and late rainy season (September 2018) in the region.
    Results: Compared with the baseline data (20.24%), the percentage of water containers infested with Ae. aegypti larvae was significantly decreased in the treated village, especially in the rainy seasons in July 2018 (4.11%; P < 0.001) and July 2019 (2.46%; P < 0.001), while the percentage of water containers infested with Ae. albopictus larvae did not decrease significantly in prevalence. No reduction in the frequency of Aedes species was seen in the control village. The Ae. albopictus liked to breed in small habitats (the median water volume of its habitats was 5 L and 10 L in the control and treated village, respectively, while the equivalent values for Ae. aegypti were 30 L and 50 L, respectively).
    Conclusion: The treatment of refillable water storage containers in a rural village with SumiLarv®2MR disks led to significant reductions in the Ae. aegypti population. However, the Ae. albopictus population did not decrease in either the control or treated village. This discrepancy was due to differences in habitat-seeking behaviors and preferred breeding sites such as types of water, water container, and water volume, then led to the differences in results of mosquito prevalence after SumiLarv®2MR disk treatments. The SumiLarv®2MR disk treatment was proven to be effective against the primary dengue-virus vector mosquitoes, Ae. aegypti.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Dengue; Lao PDR; Laos; Larvicide; Pyriproxyfen; Rural; SumiLarv®2MR
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00242-7
  3. J Med Entomol. 2020 Jul 02. pii: tjaa132. [Epub ahead of print]
    Ciubotariu II, Jones CM, Kobayashi T, Bobanga T, Muleba M, Pringle JC, Stevenson JC, Carpi G, Norris DE, .
      Despite ongoing malaria control efforts implemented throughout sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains an enormous public health concern. Current interventions such as indoor residual spraying with insecticides and use of insecticide-treated bed nets are aimed at targeting the key malaria vectors that are primarily endophagic and endophilic. Anopheles coustani s.l., an understudied vector of malaria, is a species previously thought to exhibit mostly zoophilic behavior. Like many of these understudied species, An. coustani has greater anthropophilic tendencies than previously appreciated, is often both endophagic and exophagic, and carries Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. The aim of this study was to explore genetic variation of An. coustani mosquitoes and the potential of this species to contribute to malaria parasite transmission in high transmission settings in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Morphologically identified An. coustani specimens that were trapped outdoors in these study sites were analyzed by PCR and sequencing for species identification and bloodmeal sources, and malaria parasite infection was determined by ELISA and qPCR. Fifty An. coustani s.s. specimens were confirmed by analysis of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2). Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of COI and ITS2 sequences revealed two distinct phylogenetic groups within this relatively small regional collection. Our findings indicate that both An. coustani groups have anthropophilic and exophagic habits and come into frequent contact with P. falciparum, suggesting that this potential alternative malaria vector might elude current vector control measures in northern Zambia and southern DRC.
    Keywords:   Anopheles coustani ; malaria; mosquito; transmission
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa132
  4. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Jul 02. 14(7): e0007278
    Msellemu D, Gavana T, Ngonyani H, Mlacha YP, Chaki P, Moore SJ.
      BACKGROUND: The frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics has increased dramatically throughout the tropics in the past 40 years due to unplanned urbanization, globalization and lack of effective mosquito control. The commercial capital of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, is now experiencing regular dengue outbreaks. Three dengue serotypes have been detected in Dar es Salaam (DNV 1, 2 and 3). Without adequate vector monitoring and control, further outbreaks will certainly occur.METHODS/FINDINGS: A case series study followed 97 individuals with confirmed dengue fever (NS1 and/or IgM on rapid diagnostic test and/or PCR positive) to their households in Kinondoni, Dar es Salaam during the 2014 outbreak from a random sample of 202 confirmed cases at Mwananyamala Hospital. Kinondoni wards of Manzese, Mwananyamala, Tandale and Mabibo had the highest number of confirmed cases: 18, 13, 13 and 9 respectively. Individuals were interviewed by questionnaire on dengue prevention practices and houses were inspected for mosquito breeding sites to validate a Habitat Suitability Score (HSS). This is a tool devised to predict the productivity of any potential breeding habitats (PBHs) before the rains begin. There were 12 /312 positive Aedes breeding habitats. Drums/barrels, flowerpots and tyres were the most common breeding habitats. The HSS correctly identified 9/12 of Aedes breeding habitats. Larviciding is already conducted in urban Tanzania for malaria control and the HSS may be a useful means to train individuals on productive Aedes aegypti breeding sites should this program be extended to include dengue control. The population remains poorly informed about dengue transmission and prevention: 22% of respondents said dengue is spread from one person to another and 60% first heard about dengue when already sick. Less than 20% of respondents used personal protection and >80% thought bednets protected against dengue. Mobile phones were owned by almost all individuals followed up and have the potential of being the prime medium for dissemination of information on dengue prevention.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007278
  5. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jun 29. 13(1): 328
    Balaska S, Fotakis EA, Kioulos I, Grigoraki L, Mpellou S, Chaskopoulou A, Vontas J.
      BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus has a well-established presence in southern European countries, associated with recent disease outbreaks (e.g. chikungunya). Development of insecticide resistance in the vector is a major concern as its control mainly relies on the use of biocides. Data on the species' resistance status are essential for efficient and sustainable control. To date the insecticide resistance status of Ae. albopictus populations from Greece against major insecticides used in vector control remains largely unknown.METHODS: We investigated the insecticide resistance status of 19 Ae. albopictus populations from 11 regions of Greece. Bioassays were performed against diflubenzuron (DFB), Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), deltamethrin and malathion. Known insecticide resistance loci were molecularly analysed, i.e. voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance; presence and frequency of carboxylesterases 3 (CCEae3a) and 6 (CCEae6a) gene amplification associated with organophosphate (OP) resistance and; chitin synthase-1 (CHS-1) for the possible presence of DFB resistance mutations.
    RESULTS: Bioassays showed full susceptibility to DFB, Bti and deltamethrin, but resistance against the OP malathion (range of mortality: 55.30-91.40%). VGSC analysis revealed a widespread distribution of the mutations F1534C (in all populations, with allelic frequencies between 6.6-68.3%), and I1532T (in 6 populations; allelic frequencies below 22.70%), but absence of V1016G. CCE gene amplifications were recorded in 8 out of 11 populations (overall frequency: 33%). Co-presence of the F1534C mutation and CCEae3a amplification was reported in 39 of the 156 samples analysed by both assays. No mutations at the CHS-1 I1043 locus were detected.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate: (i) the suitability of larvicides DFB and Bti for Ae. albopictus control in Greece; (ii) possible incipient pyrethroid resistance due to the presence of kdr mutations; and (iii) possible reduced efficacy of OPs, in a scenario of re-introducing them for vector control. The study highlights the need for systematic resistance monitoring for developing and implementing appropriate evidence-based control programmes.
    Keywords:  Arbovirus; Bioassay; Bti; Diagnostic; Gene amplification; Insecticide resistance; Mosquito tiger; Vector control; kdr
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04204-0
  6. Biosci Trends. 2020 Jun 27.
    Hou J, Liu Q, Wang J, Wu Y, Li T, Gong Z.
      From 2003 until 2018, a total of 12 outbreaks with 1,654 confirmed dengue cases have been reported in Zhejiang Province. The emergence of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes will affect the control of dengue. Our study aims to investigate the current situation of insecticide resistance of Ae. albopictus in Zhejiang Province and compares it with the situation in 2016. Ae. albopictus were collected from 12 Zhejiang Province cities in 2019. Resistance to three major categories of insecticides, including 8 commonly used insecticides, was evaluated according to the tube test protocol recommended by China CDC. Ae. albopictus in all cities, except Hangzhou, Wenzhou, Lishui and Shaoxing, showed decreased susceptibility to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin. For malathion, 3 cities Ae. albopictus have developed resistance, 3 cities Ae. albopictus have decreased susceptibility. For propoxur, in 3 cities Ae. albopictus showed decreased susceptibility with mortality ranging from 94.24% to 96.67%. The resistance to alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and fenitrothion is rare in Ae. albopictus in that only Zhoushan's mosquitoes showed decreased susceptibility to alpha-cypermethrin. The resistance to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin was significantly correlated with each other. Compared to the situation in 2016, the insecticide resistance of Ae. albopictus in Zhejiang Province has become more common in 2019. In the emergency preparedness for future mosquito-borne diseases, two things should be done: 1) the selection of insecticides should be made based on information from insecticide resistance surveillance 2) the use of insecticide should follow scientific guidance.
    Keywords:  Aedes albopictus; Zhejiang Province; dengue fever; insecticide resistance; mosquito-borne disease
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.03194
  7. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jun 29. 13(1): 329
    Davidson JR, Baskin RN, Hasan H, Burton TA, Wardiman M, Rahma N, Saputra FR, Aulya MS, Wahid I, Syafruddin D, Hawkes FM, Lobo NF.
      BACKGROUND: Indonesia has high mosquito diversity, with circulating malaria and arboviruses. Human landing catches (HLC) are ethically questionable where arboviral transmission occurs. The host decoy trap (HDT) is an exposure-free alternative outdoor sampling device. To determine HDT efficacy for local culicids, and to characterize local mosquito fauna, the trapping efficacy of the HDT was compared to that of HLCs in one peri-urban (Lakkang) and one rural (Pucak) village in Sulawesi, Indonesia.RESULTS: In Lakkang the outdoor HLCs collected significantly more Anopheles per night (n = 22 ± 9) than the HDT (n = 3 ± 1), while the HDT collected a significantly greater nightly average of Culex mosquitoes (n = 110 ± 42), than the outdoor HLC (n = 15.1 ± 6.0). In Pucak, there was no significant difference in Anopheles collected between trap types; however, the HDT collected significantly more Culex mosquitoes than the outdoor HLC nightly average (n = 53 ± 11 vs 14 ± 3). Significantly higher proportions of blood-fed mosquitoes were found in outdoor HLC (n = 15 ± 2%) compared to HDT (n = 2 ± 0%). More blood-fed culicines were collected with outdoor HLC compared to the HDT, while Anopheles blood-fed proportions did not differ. For the HDT, 52.6%, 36.8% and 10.5% of identified blood meals were on cow, human, and dog, respectively. Identified blood meals for outdoor HLCs were 91.9% human, 6.3% cow, and 0.9% each dog and cat. Mosquitoes from Pucak were tested for arboviruses, with one Culex pool and one Armigeres pool positive for flavivirus, and one Anopheles pool positive for alphavirus.
    CONCLUSIONS: The HDT collected the highest abundance of culicine specimens. Outdoor HLCs collected the highest abundance of Anopheles specimens. Although the HDT can attract a range of different Asian mosquito genera and species, it remains to be optimized for Anopheles in Asia. The high proportion of human blood meals in mosquitoes collected by outdoor HLCs raises concerns on the potential exposure risk to collectors using this methodology and highlights the importance of continuing to optimize a host-mimic trap such as the HDT.
    Keywords:  Arbovirus; Behaviour; Culex; Host decoy trap; Indonesia; Malaria; Sampling device; Surveillance
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04205-z
  8. Virol Sin. 2020 Jul 02.
    Wang J, Xu H, Song S, Cheng R, Fan N, Fu S, Zhang S, Xu Z, He Y, Lei W, Li F, Wang H, Lu X, Liang G.
      Zika virus (ZIKV) has been isolated from mosquitoes such as Aedes, Mansonia uniformis, and Culex perfuscus; However, the isolation of ZIKV from Anopheles sinensis and Culex tritaeniorhynchus has not yet been reported. In June and July 2018, 22,985 mosquitoes and 57,500 midges were collected in Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. Among them, six strains of ZIKV were isolated from mosquitoes: four from An. sinensis and two from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Molecular genetic analysis showed that the ZIKV isolated from An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus belonged to genotype 2 in the Asian evolutionary branch of ZIKV. In addition, the ZIKV strains isolated from An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus had amino acid substitutions identical to ZIKV strains prevalent in South America since 2015. This study is the first to isolate ZIKV from mosquito specimens collected in the wild of Jiangxi Province, China; This is also the first time that ZIKV has been isolated from An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Given that An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus have a very wide geographical distribution in China and even in eastern and southern Asia, the isolation of several strains of ZIKV from these two mosquitoes poses new challenges for the prevention and control of ZIKV infection in the mainland of China and countries and regions with the same distribution of mosquitoes.
    Keywords:  Anopheles sinensis; Culex tritaeniorhynchus; Zika virus (ZIKV)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12250-020-00239-w
  9. Trends Parasitol. 2020 Jun 30. pii: S1471-4922(20)30142-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Graumans W, Jacobs E, Bousema T, Sinnis P.
      Plasmodium parasites experience significant bottlenecks as they transit through the mosquito and are transmitted to their mammalian host. Oocyst prevalence on mosquito midguts and sporozoite prevalence in salivary glands are nevertheless commonly used to confirm successful malaria transmission, assuming that these are reliable indicators of the mosquito's capacity to give rise to secondary infections. Here we discuss recent insights in sporogonic development and transmission bottlenecks for Plasmodium. We highlight critical gaps in our knowledge and frame their importance in understanding the human and mosquito reservoirs of infection. A better understanding of the events that lead to successful inoculation of infectious sporozoites by mosquitoes is critical to designing effective interventions to shrink the malaria map.
    Keywords:  Anopheles; gametocyte; mosquitoes; oocyst; salivary glands; sporozoite
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2020.05.011
  10. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Jun 30. 14(6): e0008135
    Bakhshi H, Mousson L, Moutailler S, Vazeille M, Piorkowski G, Zakeri S, Raz A, de Lamballerie X, Dinparast-Djadid N, Failloux AB.
      Mosquitoes are vectors of viruses affecting animal and human health. In Iran, the prevalence of mosquito-borne viruses remains poorly investigated. Once infected, mosquito females are infected for all their life making virus detections possible at early steps before infections are reported in vertebrate hosts. In this study, we used a recently developed high-throughput chip based on the BioMark Dynamic arrays system capable of detecting more than 50 arboviruses in a single experiment. A total of 1,212 mosquitoes collected in Mazandaran, North-Khorasan, and Fars provinces of Iran were analyzed. Eighteen species were identified, belonging to five genera; the most prevalent species were Anopheles maculipennis s.l. (42.41%), Culex pipiens (19.39%), An. superpictus (11.72%), and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (10.64%). We detected chikungunya virus (CHIKV) of the Asian genotype in six mosquito pools collected in North Khorasan and Mazandaran provinces. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mosquitoes infected with CHIKV in Iran. Our high-throughput screening method can be proposed as a novel epidemiological surveillance tool to identify circulating arboviruses and to support preparedness to an epidemic in animals and humans.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008135
  11. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 30. pii: S1477-8939(20)30310-0. [Epub ahead of print] 101814
    Dudouet P, Gautret P, Larsen CS, Díaz-Menéndez M, Trigo E, von Sonnenburg F, Gobbi F, Grobusch MP, Malvy D, Field V, Asgeirsson H, Souto IO, Hamer DH, Parola P, Javelle E.
      BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus mainly transmitted in tropical areas by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. It has been responsible for small-to-large outbreaks in temperate areas including southern Europe and North America. Past outbreaks in 2006 on the islands of Maldives, as well as on other islands in the Indian Ocean and in Southeast Asia, demonstrated for the first time the capacity of CHIKV to disseminate through travel and transcontinental commerce, and revealed the major socio-economic impact of CHIKV epidemics. Recently, CHIKV has been circulating in highly touristic areas including the Maldives, where 1,736 cases were notified by the Health Protection Agency during 2019.CASE SERIES: Among EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel patient records, eight CHIKV-confirmed cases imported the Maldives to France, Germany, Denmark, Italy and Spain were identified between February 2019 and February 2020; exceeding the total number of CHIKV infections travel-acquired in Maldives reported to this surveillance network during the previous 10 years.
    CONCLUSIONS: The prevention and control of CHIKV introduction into naïve areas colonised by competent vectors is crucial. CHIKV outbreaks must be detected and reported in a timely manner. This must lead to adapted health information for international travellers and to prompt management of suspected imported cases. Conversely, travellers make for excellent sentinels and increased reports of imported cases might reflect a change in the level of endemicity or even herald an outbreak. Feedback to the local health authorities and matching this with local epidemiological surveillance data may lead to health benefits for the local population.
    Keywords:  Arbovirus; GeoSentinel; Outbreak; Tourism; Travel; Vector-borne disease
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101814
  12. Insects. 2020 Jun 29. pii: E403. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
    Dahmana H, Sambou M, Raoult D, Fenollar F, Mediannikov O.
      Vector-borne deadly pathogens cause more than 700,000 deaths annually. They are transmitted by several vectors, among which the mosquito is the most important. Chemical compounds often have devastating side effects, leading to the abandonment of the majority of them. Biological control has been performed by using formulations of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis, but their intensive use has led to the emergence of resistance. Currently, the development of new alternative molecules is urgently needed, in order to use them in mosaics or in rotation with already known insecticides for the control of vectors, especially mosquitoes. Here, we attempted to identify bacterial species with potential anti-mosquito actions. Among bacterial strains isolated from dry sandy soil from Senegal, eleven strains from the Bacillales and Actinomycetales orders were chosen for the entomopathogenic activity experiments. Then, we tested their secondary metabolites, which were obtained from the supernatant fraction, and their cell wall and cytoplasmic compounds, which were found in the pellet fraction, in Aedes albopictus larvae, and compared the larval mortality rate with that obtained by using a commercial product. A total of 4/11 (36.36%) of the isolated species exhibited insecticidal activity. B. nealsonii, which is not a well-known bacterium, had the highest larvicidal effect with 70% of the larval mortality, which is highlighted for the first time. The Streptomyces species we isolated seem to be potential new species, and 3/5 (60%) of them exhibited insecticidal activity. Our study reports provide potential candidates for the identification of active molecules to be developed for strengthening the biological control of infectious diseases agents transmitted by mosquitoes.
    Keywords:  biological control; insecticide; mosquito borne diseases; secondary metabolites; soil bacteria
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11070403
  13. J Insect Sci. 2020 Jul 01. pii: 1. [Epub ahead of print]20(4):
    Pinch M, Rodriguez SD, Mitra S, Kandel Y, Moore E, Hansen IA.
      The use of insecticides has been a central approach to control disease-transmitting mosquitoes for the last century. The high prevalence of pyrethroid use as public health insecticides has resulted in the evolution of pyrethroid resistance in many populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), throughout its global distribution range. Insecticide resistance is often correlated with an associated fitness cost. In this project, we studied the phenotypes of hybrid mosquitoes derived from crossing a pyrethroid-resistant strain of Ae. aegypti (Puerto Rico [PR]) with a more susceptible one (Rockefeller [ROCK]). We first sequenced and compared the para gene of both original strains. We then crossed males from one strain with females of the other, creating two hybrids (Puertofeller, Rockorico). We used a Y-tube choice assay to measure the attraction of these strains towards a human host. We then compared the levels of pyrethroid resistance in the different strains. We found three known resistance mutations in the para gene sequence of the PR strain. In our attraction assays, PR females showed lower attraction to humans, than the ROCK females. Both hybrid strains showed strong attraction to a human host. In the insecticide resistance bottle assays, both hybrid strains showed marginal increases in resistance to permethrin compared to the more susceptible ROCK strain. These results suggest that hybrids of sensitive and permethrin-resistant mosquitoes have an incremental advantage compared to more susceptible mosquitoes when challenged with permethrin. This explains the rapid spread of permethrin resistance that was observed many times in the field.
    Keywords:  mosquito; pyrethroid; resistance
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/ieaa060
  14. Curr Biol. 2020 Jun 28. pii: S0960-9822(20)30826-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Baik LS, Nave C, Au DD, Guda T, Chevez JA, Ray A, Holmes TC.
      Mosquitoes pose widespread threats to humans and other animals as disease vectors [1]. Day- versus night-biting mosquitoes occupy distinct time-of-day niches [2, 3]. Here, we explore day- versus night-biting female and male mosquitoes' innate temporal attraction/avoidance behavioral responses to light and their regulation by circadian circuit and molecular mechanisms. Day-biting mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, particularly females, are attracted to light during the day regardless of spectra. In contrast, night-biting mosquitoes, Anopheles coluzzii, specifically avoid ultraviolet (UV) and blue light during the day. Behavioral attraction to/avoidance of light in both species change with time of day and show distinct sex and circadian neural circuit differences. Males of both diurnal and nocturnal mosquito species show reduced UV light avoidance in anticipation of evening onset relative to females. The circadian neural circuits of diurnal/day- and nocturnal/night-biting mosquitoes based on PERIOD (PER) and pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) expression show similar but distinct circuit organizations between species. The basis of diurnal versus nocturnal behaviors is driven by molecular clock timing, which cycles in anti-phase between day- versus night-biting mosquitoes. Observed differences at the neural circuit and protein levels provide insight into the fundamental basis underlying diurnality versus nocturnality. Molecular disruption of the circadian clock severely interferes with light-evoked attraction/avoidance behaviors in mosquitoes. In summary, attraction/avoidance behaviors show marked differences between day- versus night-biting mosquitoes, but both classes of mosquitoes are circadian and light regulated, which may be applied toward species-specific control of harmful mosquitoes.
    Keywords:  Aedes; Anopheles; circadian; light avoidance; light choice; mosquito; phototaxis; vector control
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.010
  15. Front Microbiol. 2020 ;11 901
    Ferreira PG, Tesla B, Horácio ECA, Nahum LA, Brindley MA, de Oliveira Mendes TA, Murdock CC.
      Vector-borne flaviviruses are emerging threats to human health. For successful transmission, the virus needs to efficiently enter mosquito cells and replicate within and escape several tissue barriers while mosquitoes elicit major transcriptional responses to flavivirus infection. This process will be affected not only by the specific mosquito-pathogen pairing but also by variation in key environmental variables such as temperature. Thus far, few studies have examined the molecular responses triggered by temperature and how these responses modify infection outcomes, despite substantial evidence showing strong relationships between temperature and transmission in a diversity of systems. To define the host transcriptional changes associated with temperature variation during the early infection process, we compared the transcriptome of mosquito midgut samples from mosquitoes exposed to Zika virus (ZIKV) and non-exposed mosquitoes housed at three different temperatures (20, 28, and 36°C). While the high-temperature samples did not show significant changes from those with standard rearing conditions (28°C) 48 h post-exposure, the transcriptome profile of mosquitoes housed at 20°C was dramatically different. The expression of genes most altered by the cooler temperature involved aspects of blood-meal digestion, ROS metabolism, and mosquito innate immunity. Further, we did not find significant differences in the viral RNA copy number between 24 and 48 h post-exposure at 20°C, suggesting that ZIKV replication is limited by cold-induced changes to the mosquito midgut environment. In ZIKV-exposed mosquitoes, vitellogenin, a lipid carrier protein, was most up-regulated at 20°C. Our results provide a deeper understanding of the temperature-triggered transcriptional changes in Aedes aegypti and can be used to further define the molecular mechanisms driven by environmental temperature variation.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; RNA-seq; Zika virus; immune response; temperature; transcriptome
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00901
  16. Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2020 Jun 04. pii: S2214-5745(20)30078-X. [Epub ahead of print]40 56-61
    Ferreira AG, Fairlie S, Moreira LA.
      Viral diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, known as arboviruses, pose a significant threat to human life and are a major burden on many health systems around the world. Currently, arbovirus control strategies rely on insecticides or vector source reduction and, in the absence of effective, accessible and affordable vaccines, mainly on symptomatic based, non-specific treatments. However, insecticides have the potential to interfere with non-target organisms, cause environmental toxicity and insecticide resistance reduces their effectiveness as a sustainable control method. Complementary and sustainable strategies are urgently needed. Wolbachia, an invertebrate endosymbiont, has been used as an alternative strategy for arboviral control, through suppression or modification of mosquito populations. Here we discuss the burden that arboviruses impose on human populations and how Wolbachia can be used as a sustainable strategy for control, in alignment with the United Nations- 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2020.05.014
  17. Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 02. 10(1): 10880
    Hyde J, Correa MA, Hughes GL, Steven B, Brackney DE.
      The microbiome is an assemblage of microorganisms living in association with a multicellular host. Numerous studies have identified a role for the microbiome in host physiology, development, immunity, and behaviour. The generation of axenic (germ-free) and gnotobiotic model systems has been vital to dissecting the role of the microbiome in host biology. We have previously reported the generation of axenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary vector of several human pathogenic viruses, including dengue virus and Zika virus. In order to better understand the influence of the microbiome on mosquitoes, we examined the transcriptomes of axenic and conventionally reared Ae. aegypti before and after a blood meal. Our results suggest that the microbiome has a much lower effect on the mosquito's gene expression than previously thought with only 170 genes influenced by the axenic state, while in contrast, blood meal status influenced 809 genes. The pattern of expression influenced by the microbiome is consistent with transient changes similar to infection rather than sweeping physiological changes. While the microbiome does seem to affect some pathways such as immune function and metabolism, our data suggest the microbiome is primarily serving a nutritional role in development with only minor effects in the adult.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67811-y
  18. J Med Entomol. 2020 Jun 29. pii: tjaa100. [Epub ahead of print]
    Hutchings RSG, Hutchings RW, Menezes IS, Sallum MAM.
      The mosquito community from remote locations toward the southern border of the Brazilian State of Amazonas, in four localities along the Liberdade and Gregório Rivers, was sampled using CDC and Malaise traps, complemented with net sweeping and immature collections. During May 2011, 190 collections yielded 13,012 mosquitoes, from 15 genera and 112 different species, together with 10 morphospecies, which may represent new undescribed taxa. Among the species collected, there are two new geographical distribution records for the State of Amazonas. Culex, the most abundant genus, also had the highest number of species. Both Aedes and Uranotaenia had the second highest number of species, although they were the second and seventh most abundant, respectively. The most abundant species were Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) nubilus (Theobald), Culex (Culex) mollis Dyar & Knab, Nyssorhynchus (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi sensu lato, Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin, and Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Hutchings & Ferreira. The epidemiological implications of mosquito species are discussed and compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. These results represent the first standardized mosquito inventories of the Liberdade and Gregório Rivers, with the identification of 112 species and 10 morphospecies, within the municipalities of Ipixuna and Eirunepé, from which we have only few records in the published literature.
    Keywords:  Amazonia; distribution; diversity; tropical rain forest; vector mosquitoes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa100
  19. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Jul 02. 14(7): e0008385
    Syafruddin D, Lestari YE, Permana DH, Asih PBS, St Laurent B, Zubaidah S, Rozi IE, Kosasih S, Shinta , Sukowati S, Hakim L, Haryanto E, Mangunwardoyo W, Bangs MJ, Lobo NF.
      Anopheles sundaicus s.l. is an important malaria vector primarily found in coastal landscapes of western and central Indonesia. The species complex has a wide geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and exhibits ecological and behavioural variability over its range. Studies on understanding the distribution of different members in the complex and their bionomics related to malaria transmission might be important guiding more effective vector intervention strategies. Female An. sundaicus s.l. were collected from seven provinces, 12 locations in Indonesia representing Sumatra: North Sumatra, Bangka-Belitung, South Lampung, and Bengkulu; in Java: West Java; and the Lesser Sunda Islands: West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara provinces. Sequencing of ribosomal DNA ITS2 gene fragments and two mitochondrial DNA gene markers, COI and cytb, enabled molecular identification of morphologically indistinguishable members of the complex. Findings allowed inference on the distribution of the An. sundaicus s.l. present in Indonesia and further illustrate the phylogenetic relationships of An. epiroticus within the complex. A total of 370 An. sundaicus s.l specimens were analysed for the ITS2 fragment. The ITS2 sequence alignment revealed two consistent species-specific point mutations, a T>C transition at base 479 and a G>T transversion at base 538 that differentiated five haplotypes: TG, CG, TT, CT, and TY. The TG haplotype matched published An. epiroticus-indicative sequences from Thailand, Vietnam and peninsular Malaysia. The previously described insertion event (base 603) was observed in all identified specimens. Analysis of the COI and cytb genes revealed no consistent nucleotide variations that could definitively distinguish An. epiroticus from other members in the Sundaicus Complex. The findings indicate and support the existence of An. epiroticus in North Sumatra and Bangka-Belitung archipelago. Further studies are recommended to determine the full distributional extent of the Sundaicus complex in Indonesia and investigate the role of these species in malaria transmission.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008385
  20. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jul 01. 13(1): 333
    Escobar D, Ascencio K, Ortiz A, Palma A, Fontecha G.
      BACKGROUND: Anopheles mosquitoes are the vectors of malaria, one of the most important infectious diseases in the tropics. More than 500 Anopheles species have been described worldwide, and more than 30 are considered a public health problem. In Honduras, information on the distribution of Anopheles spp. and its genetic diversity is scarce. This study aimed to describe the distribution and genetic diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes in Honduras.METHODS: Mosquitoes were captured in 8 locations in 5 malaria endemic departments during 2019. Two collection methods were used. Adult anophelines were captured outdoors using CDC light traps and by aspiration of mosquitoes at rest. Morphological identification was performed using taxonomic keys. Genetic analyses included the sequencing of a partial region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (cox1) and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2).
    RESULTS: A total of 1320 anophelines were collected and identified through morphological keys. Seven Anopheles species were identified. Anopheles albimanus was the most widespread and abundant species (74.02%). To confirm the morphological identification of the specimens, 175 and 122 sequences were obtained for cox1 and ITS2, respectively. Both markers confirmed the morphological identification. cox1 showed a greater nucleotide diversity than ITS2 in all species. High genetic diversity was observed within the populations of An. albimanus while An. darlingi proved to be a highly homogeneous population. Phylogenetic analyses revealed clustering patterns in An. darlingi and An. neivai in relation to specimens from South America. New sequences for An. crucians, An. vestitipennis and An. neivai are reported in this study.
    CONCLUSIONS: Here we report the distribution and genetic diversity of Anopheles species in endemic areas of malaria transmission in Honduras. According to our results, both taxonomic and molecular approaches are useful tools in the identification of anopheline mosquitoes. However, both molecular markers differ in their ability to detect intraspecific genetic diversity. These results provide supporting data for a better understanding of the distribution of malaria vectors in Honduras.
    Keywords:  Anopheles spp.; Honduras; ITS2; Phylogeny; cox1
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04203-1
  21. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(7): e0235322
    Chisenga CC, Bosomprah S, Musukuma K, Mubanga C, Chilyabanyama ON, Velu RM, Kim YC, Reyes-Sandoval A, Chilengi R.
      INTRODUCTION: The re-emergence of vector borne diseases affecting millions of people in recent years has drawn attention to arboviruses globally. Here, we report on the sero-prevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV), mayaro virus (MAYV) and zika virus (ZIKV) in a swamp community in Zambia.METHODS: We collected blood and saliva samples from residents of Lukanga swamps in 2016 during a mass-cholera vaccination campaign. Over 10,000 residents were vaccinated with two doses of Shanchol™ during this period. The biological samples were collected prior to vaccination (baseline) and at specified time points after vaccination. We tested a total of 214 baseline stored serum samples for IgG antibodies against NS1 of DENV and ZIKV and E2 of CHIKV and MAYV on ELISA. We defined sero-prevalence as the proportion of participants with optical density (OD) values above a defined cut-off value, determined using a finite mixture model.
    RESULTS: Of the 214 participants, 79 (36.9%; 95% CI 30.5-43.8) were sero-positive for Chikungunya; 23 (10.8%; 95% CI 6.9-15.7) for Zika, 36 (16.8%; 95% CI 12.1-22.5) for Dengue and 42 (19.6%; 95% CI 14.5-25.6) for Mayaro. Older participants were more likely to have Zika virus whilst those involved with fishing activities were at greater risk of contracting Chikungunya virus. Among all the antigens tested, we also found that Chikungunya saliva antibody titres correlated with baseline serum titres (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.222; p = 0.03).
    CONCLUSION: Arbovirus transmission is occurring in Zambia. This requires proper screening tools as well as surveillance data to accurately report on disease burden in Zambia.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235322
  22. J Biol Dyn. 2020 Dec;14(1): 515-542
    Liu Y, Guo Z, El Smaily M, Wang L.
      Scientists have been seeking ways to use Wolbachia to eliminate the mosquitoes that spread human diseases. Could Wolbachia be the determining factor in controlling the mosquito-borne infectious diseases? To answer this question mathematically, we develop a reaction-diffusion model with free boundary in a one-dimensional environment. We divide the female mosquito population into two groups: one is the uninfected mosquito population that grows in the whole region while the other is the mosquito population infected with Wolbachia that occupies a finite small region. The mosquito population infected with Wolbachia invades the environment with a spreading front governed by a free boundary satisfying the well-known one-phase Stefan condition. For the resulting free boundary problem, we establish criteria under which spreading and vanishing occur. Our results provide useful insights on designing a feasible mosquito releasing strategy that infects the whole mosquito population with Wolbachia and eradicates the mosquito-borne diseases eventually.
    Keywords:   Wolbachia infection; free boundary; reaction-diffusion systems; spreading-vanishing dichotomy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/17513758.2020.1784474
  23. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 02.
    Bennett A, Porter TR, Mwenda MC, Yukich JO, Finn TP, Lungu C, Silumbe K, Mambwe B, Chishimba S, Mulube C, Bridges DJ, Hamainza B, Slutsker L, Steketee RW, Miller JM, Eisele TP.
      Rigorous evidence of effectiveness is needed to determine where and when to apply mass drug administration (MDA) or focal MDA (fMDA) as part of a malaria elimination strategy. The Zambia National Malaria Elimination Centre recently completed a community-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province to evaluate MDA and fMDA for transmission reduction. To assess the role of MDA and fMDA on infection incidence, we enrolled a longitudinal cohort for an 18-month period of data collection including monthly malaria parasite infection detection based on polymerase chain reaction and compared time to first infection and cumulative infection incidence outcomes across study arms using Cox proportional hazards and negative binomial models. A total of 2,026 individuals from 733 households were enrolled and completed sufficient follow-up for inclusion in analysis. Infection incidence declined dramatically across all study arms during the period of study, and MDA was associated with reduced risk of first infection (hazards ratio: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.16-0.80) and cumulative infection incidence during the first rainy season (first 5 months of follow-up) (incidence rate ratio: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.12-0.95). No significant effect was found for fMDA or for either arm over the full study period. Polymerase chain reaction infection status at baseline was strongly associated with follow-up infection. The short-term effects of MDA suggest it may be an impactful accelerator of transmission reduction in areas with high coverage of case management and vector control and should be considered as part of a malaria elimination strategy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0657
  24. Res Rep Trop Med. 2020 ;11 37-44
    Aikambe JN, Mnyone LL.
      Background: Malaria is increasingly characterized by appreciable fine-scale variability in ecology and topography, and it is likely that we are missing some salient foci with unprecedented malaria transmission intensity in different parts of Tanzania. Therefore, efforts aimed at identifying area-specific malaria situation and intervening are needed to preserve the realized health gains and achieve elimination. Mkuyuni and Kiroka, adjacent wards within Morogoro Rural District, are purported to form one of such foci.Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to determine six-year (2014-2019) malaria prevalence rates based on outpatients and laboratory registers obtained from two health facilities, one per ward, carrying out diagnosis of malaria either through microscopy or malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT). These data were checked for completeness before carrying out statistical analysis.
    Results: Overall, 35,386 (46.19%) out of 76,604 patients were positive for malaria. The average proportion of malaria cases was significantly higher in Mkuyuni (51.23%; n=19,438) than Kiroka (41.21%; n = 15,938) (P <0.001). Females were more affected than males (P <0.001);, and irrespective of the sex, most malaria cases were recorded in children <5 years of age (P <0.001) except at Mkuyuni. Malaria was recorded virtually all year round; however, the highest proportion of cases was recorded in April and July (P <0.001).
    Conclusion: This study revealed high malaria endemicity in Mkuyuni and Kiroka, with prevalence rate as high as 60.98%, which is far higher than the overall national average prevalence of 9%. More studies are needed in these and other putatively high endemic foci in Tanzania in order to inform the future course of action in disease surveillance and control.
    Keywords:  Mkuyuni and Kiroka wards; high endemic; malaria; retrospective analysis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2147/RRTM.S254577
  25. J Adv Vet Anim Res. 2020 Jun;7(2): 218-219
    Rahman MT, Sobur MA, Islam MS, Toniolo A, Nazir KHMNH.
      COVID-19 is now a pandemic. Like other countries, Bangladesh is putting all its efforts to combat this pandemic. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection causing a severe flu-like illness and, sometimes causing a potentially lethal complication called severe dengue. At this very crisis moment, there are reports on new cases of dengue in Bangladesh. More efforts now need to be taken for the control of dengue along with COVID-19 control measures.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; dengue; epidemic; preparedness
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2020.g412
  26. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 02.
    Miller JM, Eisele TP, Fraser MS, Lewis MT, Slutsker L, Chizema Kawesha E.
      From December 2014 to February 2016, a cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out in 60 health facility catchment areas along Lake Kariba in Zambia's Southern Province. The trial sought to evaluate the impact of four rounds of a mass drug administration (MDA) intervention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) or focal MDA with DHAP at the household level compared with a control population that received the standard of care. This study was the first randomized controlled trial with DHAP for MDA in sub-Saharan Africa and was conducted through a collaboration between the National Malaria Elimination Programme in the Zambian Ministry of Health, the PATH Malaria Control and Elimination Partnership in Africa, and the Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation at Tulane University. This article serves as an introduction to a collection of articles designed to explore different aspects of the intervention. By describing the recent history of malaria control in Zambia leading up to the trial-from the scale-up of point-of-care diagnosis and treatment, vector control, and indoor residual spraying early in the twenty-first century, to the efforts made to sustain the gains achieved with that approach-it provides a rationale for the implementation of a trial that has informed a new national strategic plan and solidified malaria elimination as Zambia's national goal.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0669
  27. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 02.
    Daniels RF, Schaffner SF, Bennett A, Porter TR, Yukich JO, Mulube C, Mambwe B, Mwenda MC, Chishimba S, Bridges DJ, Moonga H, Hamainza B, Chizema Kawesha E, Miller JM, Steketee RW, Wirth DF, Eisele TP, Hartl DL, Volkman SK.
      A mass drug administration trial was carried out in Southern Province, Zambia, between 2014 and 2016, in conjunction with a standard of care package that included improved surveillance, increased access to malaria case management, and sustained high levels of vector control coverage. This was preceded by mass test and treatment in the same area from 2011 to 2013. Concordant decreases in malaria prevalence in Southern Province and deaths attributed to malaria in Zambia over this time suggest that these strategies successfully reduced the malaria burden. Genetic epidemiological studies were used to assess the consequences of these interventions on parasite population structure. Analysis of parasite material derived from 1,620 rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-positive individuals obtained from studies to evaluate trial outcomes revealed a reduction in the average complexity of infection and consequential increase in the proportion of infections that harbored a single parasite genome (monogenomic infections). Highly related parasites, consistent with inbreeding, were detected after interventions were deployed. Geographical analysis indicated that the highly related infections were both clustered focally and dispersed across the study area. These findings provide genetic evidence for a reduced parasite population, with indications of inbreeding following the application of comprehensive interventions, including drug-based campaigns, that reduced the malaria burden in Southern Province. Genetic data additionally revealed the relationship between individual infections in the context of these population-level patterns, which has the potential to provide useful data for stratification and targeting of interventions to reduce the malaria burden.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0666
  28. J Anim Ecol. 2020 Jun 29.
    Sherpa S, Renaud J, Guéguen M, Besnard G, Mouyon L, Rey D, Després L.
      Environmental features impacting the spread of invasive species after introduction can be assessed using population genetic structure as a quantitative estimation of effective dispersal at the landscape scale. However, in the case of an ongoing biological invasion, deciphering whether genetic structure represents landscape connectivity or founder effects is particularly challenging. We examined the modes of dispersal (natural and human-aided) and the factors (landscape or founders history) shaping genetic structure in range edge invasive populations of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in the region of Grenoble (Southeast France). Based on detailed occupancy-detection data and environmental variables (climatic, topographic, land-cover), we modelled A. albopictus potential suitable area and its expansion history since first introduction. The relative role of dispersal modes was estimated using biological dispersal capabilities and landscape genetics approaches using genome-wide SNP dataset. We demonstrate that both natural and human-aided dispersal have promoted the expansion of populations. Populations in diffuse urban areas, representing highly suitable habitat for A. albopictus, tend to disperse less, while roads facilitate long-distance dispersal. Yet demographic bottlenecks during introduction played a major role in shaping the genetic variability of these range edge populations. The present study is one of the few investigating the role of founder effects and ongoing expansion processes in shaping spatial patterns of genetic variation in an invasive species at the landscape scale. The combination of several dispersal modes and large proportions of continuous suitable habitats for A. albopictus promoted range filling of almost its entire potential distribution in the region of Grenoble only few years after introduction.
    Keywords:   Aedes albopictus ; Dispersal; Invasive species; Landscape genetics; Range expansion; Species distribution modelling
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13284