bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2020‒05‒17
twenty-four papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University


  1. Acta Trop. 2020 May 07. pii: S0001-706X(19)31824-8. [Epub ahead of print] 105472
    Ong NH, Chua CL, Liew JWK, Sulaiman WYW, Chan YF, Sam IC, Vythilingam I.
      Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus with global impact since 2015. Although ZIKV was first isolated from Aedes aegypti in Malaysia in 1965, not much is known about the competency of Malaysian Ae. aegypti to ZIKV. To date only 9 cases of ZIKV have been reported in Malaysia despite the abundance of mosquito vectors. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, and the impact of sequential infections in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) followed by ZIKV. Field-caught urban Ae. aegypti were orally challenged with a Martinique strain of ZIKV, and midgut, head/thorax and saliva were collected at 3, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). At 14 dpi, ZIKV-exposed mosquitoes had infection and dissemination rates of 59% (n=10/17) and 90% (n=9/10), respectively. Average titres of 3.9 and 4.4 log pfu infectious ZIKV were recovered in midgut and head/thorax, respectively. In sequential infection, prior exposure of Ae. aegypti to DENV did not affect the subsequent ZIKV infection in head/thorax albeit with a low sample size. In conclusion, Malaysian urban Ae. aegypti is susceptible to the contemporary Asian lineage of ZIKV. The established and continuous DENV circulation in Ae. aegypti may have a minor role in suppressing ZIKV emergence in Malaysia. Other factors contributing to low level of ZIKV circulation in Malaysia remain to be explored.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Dengue serotype 2 virus; Malaysia; Sequential infection; Zika virus
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105472
  2. Parasit Vectors. 2020 May 11. 13(1): 241
    Mundis SJ, Estep AS, Waits CM, Ryan SJ.
      BACKGROUND: The development of insecticide resistance in disease-vectoring mosquito species can lead to vector control failure and disease resurgence. However, insecticide applications remain an essential public health intervention. In Florida, insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti, an anthropophilic mosquito species capable of transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus, is a major concern. Understanding the location, scale, and driving factors of insecticide resistance can enhance the ability of vector control organizations to target populations effectively.METHODS: We used previously collected data on frequencies of mutations that confer resistance to commonly used pyrethroid insecticides in Ae. aegypti specimens from 62 sites distributed across 18 counties in Florida. To determine the scale of clustering for the most resistant variant, we used a Ripley's K function. We also used a spatial scanning statistic technique to identify locations of clusters where higher than expected frequencies of susceptible or resistant mosquitoes occurred. We then tested for associations between landscape, demographic, and insecticide-use factors using a beta regression modelling approach and evaluated the effect of spatial lag and spatial error terms on overall explanatory power of these models.
    RESULTS: The scale at which maximum clustering of the most resistant variant occurs is approximately 20 kilometers. We identified statistically significant clusters of genotypes associated with resistance in several coastal cities, although some of these clusters were near significant clusters of susceptible mosquitoes, indicating selection pressures vary at the local scale. Vegetation density, distance from roads, and pyrethroid-use by vector control districts were consistently significant predictors of knockdown resistance genotype frequency in the top-performing beta regression models, although pyrethroid use surprisingly had a negatively associated with resistance. The incorporation of spatial lags resulted in improvements to the fit and explanatory power of the models, indicating an underlying diffusion process likely explains some of the spatial patterns observed.
    CONCLUSIONS: The genetic mutations that confer resistance to pyrethroids in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in Florida exhibit spatial autocorrelation and patterns that can be partially explained by landscape and insecticide-use factors. Further work at local scales should be able to identify the mechanisms by which these variables influence selection for alleles associated with resistance.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Beta regression; Insecticide resistance; Knockdown resistance; Spatial scan statistic
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04112-3
  3. Parasit Vectors. 2020 May 11. 13(1): 240
    Pickering P, Hugo LE, Devine GJ, Aaskov JG, Liu W.
      BACKGROUND: Humans are the primary hosts of dengue viruses (DENV). However, sylvatic cycles of transmission can occur among non-human primates and human encroachment into forested regions can be a source of emergence of new strains such as the highly divergent and sylvatic strain of DENV2, QML22, recovered from a dengue fever patient returning to Australia from Borneo. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the vector competence of Australian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for this virus.METHODS: Four- to five-day-old mosquitoes from two strains of Ae. aegypti from Queensland, Australia, were fed a meal of sheep blood containing 108 50% cell culture infectious dose per ml (CCID50/ml) of either QML22 or an epidemic strain of DENV serotype 2 (QML16) isolated from a dengue fever patient in Australia in 2015. Mosquitoes were maintained at 28 °C, 75% relative humidity and sampled 7, 10 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Live virions in mosquito bodies (abdomen/thorax), legs and wings and saliva expectorates from individual mosquitoes were quantified using a cell culture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CCELISA) to determine infection, dissemination and transmission rates.
    RESULTS: The infection and dissemination rates of the sylvatic DENV2 strain, QML22, were significantly lower than that for QML16. While the titres of virus in the bodies of mosquitoes infected with either of these viruses were similar, titres in legs and wings were significantly lower in mosquitoes infected with QML22 at most time points although they reached similar levels by 14 dpi. QML16 was detected in 16% (n = 25) and 28% (n = 25) of saliva expectorates at 10 and 14 dpi, respectively. In contrast, no virus was detected in the saliva expectorates of QML22 infected mosquitoes.
    CONCLUSIONS: Australia urban/peri-urban Ae. aegypti species are susceptible to infection by the sylvatic and highly divergent DENV 2 QML22 but replication of QML22 is attenuated relative to the contemporary strain, QML16. A salivary gland infection or escape barrier may be acting to prevent infection of saliva and would prevent onward transmission of this highly divergent virus in Australia.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus; Sylvatic transmission; Vector competence
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04091-5
  4. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 May 11. 14(5): e0007504
    Murphy A, Rajahram GS, Jilip J, Maluda M, William T, Hu W, Reid S, Devine GJ, Frentiu FD.
      In South East Asia, dengue epidemics have increased in size and geographical distribution in recent years. We examined the spatiotemporal distribution and epidemiological characteristics of reported dengue cases in the predominantly rural state of Sabah, in Malaysian Borneo-an area where sylvatic and urban circulation of pathogens are known to intersect. Using a public health data set of routinely notified dengue cases in Sabah between 2010 and 2016, we described demographic and entomological risk factors, both before and after a 2014 change in the clinical case definition for the disease. Annual dengue incidence rates were spatially variable over the 7-year study period from 2010-2016 (state-wide mean annual incidence of 21 cases/100,000 people; range 5-42/100,000), but were highest in rural localities in the western districts of the state (Kuala Penyu, Nabawan, Tenom and Kota Marudu). Eastern districts exhibited lower overall dengue rates, although a high proportion of severe (haemorrhagic) dengue cases (44%) were focused in Sandakan and Tawau. Dengue incidence was highest for those aged between 10 and 29 years (24/100,000), and was slightly higher for males compared to females. Available vector surveillance data indicated that during large outbreaks in 2015 and 2016 the mosquito Aedes albopictus was more prevalent in both urban and rural households (House Index of 64%) than Ae. aegypti (15%). Demographic patterns remained unchanged both before and after the dengue case definition was changed; however, in the years following the change, reported case numbers increased substantially. Overall, these findings suggest that dengue outbreaks in Sabah are increasing in both urban and rural settings. Future studies to better understand the drivers of risk in specific age groups, genders and geographic locations, and to test the potential role of Ae. albopictus in transmission, may help target dengue prevention and control efforts.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007504
  5. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 May;14(5): e0008250
    Calvez E, Pocquet N, Malau A, Kilama S, Taugamoa A, Labrousse D, Boussès P, Failloux AB, Dupont-Rouzeyrol M, Mathieu-Daudé F.
      BACKGROUND: The French overseas Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands has been affected by several dengue epidemics. Aedes polynesiensis is the main mosquito vector described in this territory. Other Aedes species have been reported, but recent entomological data are missing to infer the presence of other potential arbovirus vectors and to assess the entomological risk factors for transmission of arboviral diseases.METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An entomological prospective study was conducted on the three main islands of the territory to determine the presence and distribution of Aedes spp. Larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes were collected from 54 sampling points in different environments, with a final sampling of 3747 immature stages and 606 adults. The main identified breeding sites were described. Ae. polynesiensis was found in every sampled site in peridomestic and wild habitats. Ae. aegypti was only found on the island of Wallis in peridomestic environments with a limited distribution. Two other Aedes species endemic to the Pacific were recorded, Aedes oceanicus and Aedes futunae. To evaluate the ability of local Ae. polynesiensis to transmit the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), two field populations were analyzed for vector competence using experimental oral exposure of females to CHIKV and infection, dissemination and transmission assays. Results showed that both populations of Ae. polynesiensis were competent for CHIKV (30% at 7 days post-infection).
    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed the ubiquitous distribution and abundance of Ae. polynesiensis on the three islands and demonstrated that local populations were able to transmit CHIKV. Combined with the presence and expansion of Ae. aegypti on the main island of Wallis, these data highlight the risk of transmission of arboviral diseases in the territory of Wallis and Futuna and provide relevant information for entomological surveillance and vector control programs.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008250
  6. Acta Trop. 2020 May 07. pii: S0001-706X(20)30170-4. [Epub ahead of print] 105519
    Sedda L, Taylor BM, Eiras AE, Marques JT, Dillon RJ.
      Understanding geographic population dynamics of mosquitoes is an essential requirement for estimating the risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission and geographically targeted interventions. However, the use of population dynamics measures as predictors in spatio-temporal point processes has not been investigated before. In this work we compared the model fitting statistics of four spatio-temporal log-Gaussian Cox models: (i) with no predictors; (ii) mosquito abundance as predictor; (iii) intrinsic growth rate as predictor; (iv) intrinsic growth rate and density of mosquitoes as predictors. This analysis is based on Aedes aegypti mosquito surveillance and human dengue data obtained from the urban area of Caratinga, Brazil. We used a statistical Moran Curve approach to estimate the intrinsic growth rate and a zero inflated Poisson kriging model for estimating mosquito abundance at locations of dengue cases. The incidence of dengue cases were positively associated with mosquito intrinsic growth rate and this model outperformed, in terms of predictive accuracy, the abundance and the null models. The latter includes only the spatio-temporal random effect but no predictors. In the light of these results we suggest that the intrinsic growth rate should be investigated further as a potential tool for predicting the risk of dengue transmission and targeting health interventions for vector-borne diseases.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Density dependent and independent mortalities; Log-Gaussian cox process; Moran curve;Ricker model
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105519
  7. J Parasitol Res. 2020 ;2020 3560310
    Githinji EK, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Machani MG, Amito RO, Kemei BJ, Murima PN, Ombui GM, Wanjoya AK, Mbogo CM, Mathenge EM.
      Introduction: Knockdown resistance (kdr) is strongly linked to pyrethroid insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae in Africa, which may have vital significance to the current increased use of pyrethroid-treated bed net programmes. The study is aimed at determining species composition, levels of insecticide resistance, and knockdown patterns in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in areas with and areas without insecticide resistance in Teso North and Teso South subcounties, Western Kenya.Materials and Methods: For WHO vulnerability tests, mosquito larvae were sampled using a dipper, reared into 3-5-day-old female mosquitoes (4944 at 100 mosquitoes per insecticide) which were exposed to 0.75% permethrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, and 0.1% bendiocarb using the WHO tube assay method. Species identification and kdr East gene PCRs were also performed on randomly selected mosquitoes from the collections; including adult mosquitoes (3448) sampled using standard collection methods.
    Results: Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto were the majority in terms of species composition at 78.9%. Bendiocarb caused 100% mortality while deltamethrin had higher insecticidal effects (77%) on female mosquitoes than permethrin (71%). Susceptible Kengatunyi cluster had higher proportion of An. arabiensis (20.9%) than resistant Rwatama (10.7%). Kengatunyi mosquitoes exposed to deltamethrin had the highest KDT50 R of 8.2. Both Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis had equal S allelic frequency of 0.84. Indoor resting mosquitoes had 100% mortality rate after 24 h since exposure. Overall SS genotypic frequency in Teso North and Teso South subcounties was 79.4% against 13.7% homozygous LL genotype and 6.9% heterozygous LS genotype. There was a significant difference (ρ < 0.05) in S allele frequencies between Kengatunyi (0.61) and Rwatama (0.95). Mosquito samples collected in 2013 had the highest S allelic frequency of 0.87. Discussion. Most likely, the higher the selection pressure exerted indoors by insecticidal nets, the higher were the resistance alleles. Use of pyrethroid impregnated nets and agrochemicals may have caused female mosquitoes to select for pyrethroid resistance. Different modes of action and chemical properties in different types of pyrethroids aggravated by a variety of edaphic and climatic factors may have caused different levels of susceptibility in both indoor and outdoor vectors to pyrethroids and carbamate. Species composition and populations in each collection method may have been influenced by insecticide resistance capacity in different species. Conclusions and Recommendations. Both phenotypic and genotypic insecticide resistance levels have been confirmed in Teso North and Teso South subcounties in Western Kenya. Insecticide resistance management practices in Kenya should be fast tracked and harmonized with agricultural sector agrochemical-based activities and legislation, and possibly switch to carbamate use in order to ease selection pressure on pyrethroids which are useable in insecticidal nets and indoor residual spray due to their low human toxicity. The implication of such high resistance levels in mosquitoes collected in Teso subcounties is that resistance is likely to persist and or even increase if monomolecules of permethrin and deltamethrin or both continue to be used in all net- and nonnet-based mosquito control purposes. Usage of mutually reinforcing piperonyl butoxide (PBO) that prohibits particular enzymes vital in metabolic activities inside mosquito systems and has been integrated into pyrethroid-LLINs to create pyrethroid-PBO nets is an extremely viable option.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/3560310
  8. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 11.
    Barradas Mores G, Schuler-Faccini L, Hasenack H, Fetzer LO, Souza GD, Ferraz G.
      The Aedes aegypti mosquito inhabits most tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, where it transmits arboviral diseases of substantial public health relevance, such as dengue fever. In subtropical regions, Ae. aegypti often presents an annual abundance cycle driven by weather conditions. Because different population states may show varying responses to control, we are interested in studying what time of the year is most appropriate for control. To do so, we developed two dynamic site-occupancy models based on more than 200 weeks of mosquito trapping data from nearly 900 sites in a subtropical Brazilian city. Our phenomenological, Markovian models, fitted to data in a Bayesian framework, accounted for failure to detect mosquitoes in two alternative ways and for temporal variation in dynamic rates of local extinction and colonization of new sites. Infestation varied from nearly full cover of the city area in late summer, to between 10% and 67% of sites occupied in winter depending on the model. Sensitivity analysis reveals that changes in dynamic rates should have the greatest impact on site occupancy during autumn and early winter months, when the mosquito population is declining. We discuss the implications of this finding to the timing of mosquito control.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0366
  9. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 May 11. 14(5): e0008320
    Jourdain F, Roiz D, de Valk H, Noël H, L'Ambert G, Franke F, Paty MC, Guinard A, Desenclos JC, Roche B.
      BACKGROUND: The global spread of Aedes albopictus has exposed new geographical areas to the risk of dengue and chikungunya virus transmission. Several autochthonous transmission events have occurred in recent decades in Southern Europe and many indicators suggest that it will become more frequent in this region in the future. Environmental, socioeconomic and climatic factors are generally considered to trigger the emergence of these viruses. Accordingly, a greater knowledge of the determinants of this emergence in a European context is necessary to develop adapted surveillance and control strategies, and public health interventions.METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using French surveillance data collected from between 2010 and 2018 in areas of Southern France where Ae. albopictus is already established, we assessed factors associated with the autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya. Cases leading to autochthonous transmission were compared with those without subsequent transmission using binomial regression. We identified a long reporting delay (≥ 21 days) of imported cases to local health authorities as the main driver for autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya in Southern France. The presence of wooded areas around the cases' place of residence and the accumulation of heat during the season also increased the risk of autochthonous arbovirus transmission.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could inform policy-makers when developing strategies to the emerging threats of dengue and chikungunya in Southern Europe and can be extrapolated in this area to other viruses such as Zika and yellow fever, which share the same vector. Furthermore, our results allow a more accurate characterization of the environments most at risk, and highlight the importance of implementing surveillance systems which ensure the timely reporting and of imported cases and swift interventions.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008320
  10. BMC Biol. 2020 May 12. 18(1): 50
    Sánchez C HM, Bennett JB, Wu SL, Rašić G, Akbari OS, Marshall JM.
      BACKGROUND: The discovery of CRISPR-based gene editing and its application to homing-based gene drive systems has been greeted with excitement, for its potential to control mosquito-borne diseases on a wide scale, and concern, for the invasiveness and potential irreversibility of a release. Gene drive systems that display threshold-dependent behavior could potentially be used during the trial phase of this technology, or when localized control is otherwise desired, as simple models predict them to spread into partially isolated populations in a confineable manner, and to be reversible through releases of wild-type organisms. Here, we model hypothetical releases of two recently engineered threshold-dependent gene drive systems-reciprocal chromosomal translocations and a form of toxin-antidote-based underdominance known as UDMEL-to explore their ability to be confined and remediated.RESULTS: We simulate releases of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue, Zika, and other arboviruses, in Yorkeys Knob, a suburb of Cairns, Australia, where previous biological control interventions have been undertaken on this species. We monitor spread to the neighboring suburb of Trinity Park to assess confinement. Results suggest that translocations could be introduced on a suburban scale, and remediated through releases of non-disease-transmitting male mosquitoes with release sizes on the scale of what has been previously implemented. UDMEL requires fewer releases to introduce, but more releases to remediate, including of females capable of disease transmission. Both systems are expected to be confineable to the release site; however, spillover of translocations into neighboring populations is less likely.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis supports the use of translocations as a threshold-dependent drive system capable of spreading disease-refractory genes into Ae. aegypti populations in a confineable and reversible manner. It also highlights increased release requirements when incorporating life history and population structure into models. As the technology nears implementation, further ecological work will be essential to enhance model predictions in preparation for field trials.
    Keywords:  Biosafety; Chromosomal translocations; Field trials; Metapopulation; Population dynamics; Population replacement; Underdominance
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-0759-9
  11. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 May 11. 14(5): e0008239
    Forsyth JE, Mutuku FM, Kibe L, Mwashee L, Bongo J, Egemba C, Ardoin NM, LaBeaud AD.
      Understanding mosquito breeding behavior as well as human perspectives and practices are crucial for designing interventions to control Aedes aegypti mosquito-borne diseases as these mosquitoes primarily breed in water-holding containers around people's homes. The objectives of this study were to identify productive mosquito breeding habitats in coastal Kenya and to understand household mosquito management behaviors and their behavioral determinants. The field team conducted entomological surveys in 444 households and semi-structured interviews with 35 female caregivers and 37 children in Kwale County, coastal Kenya, between May and December 2016. All potential mosquito habitats with or without water were located, abundances of mosquito immatures measured and their characteristics recorded. Interviews explored household mosquito management behaviors and their behavioral determinants. 2,452 container mosquito habitats were counted containing 1,077 larvae and 390 pupae, predominantly Aedes species. More than one-third of the positive containers were found outside houses in 1 of the 10 villages. Containers holding water with no intended purpose contained 55.2% of all immature mosquitoes. Containers filled with rainwater held 95.8% of all immature mosquitoes. Interviews indicated that households prioritize sleeping under bednets as a primary protection against mosquito-borne disease because of concern about night-time biting, malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes. Respondents had limited knowledge about the mosquito life cycle, especially with respect to day-time biting, container-breeding Aedes mosquitoes. Therefore, respondents did not prioritize source reduction. Most mosquitoes breed in containers that have no direct or immediate purpose ("no-purpose containers"). These containers may be left unattended for several days allowing rainwater to collect, and creating ideal conditions for mosquito breeding. An intervention that requires little effort and targets only the most productive containers could effectively reduce mosquito indices and, relatedly, mosquito-borne disease risk.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008239
  12. Parasit Vectors. 2020 May 15. 13(1): 257
    Gonzalez PV, Harburguer L.
      BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya viruses. A new method for controlling this mosquito has been developed based on the possibility that wild adult mosquitoes exposed to artificial resting sites contaminated with a larvicide, can disseminate it to larval breeding sites, is named "auto-dissemination". The present study was undertaken to evaluate if a chitin synthesis inhibitor like lufenuron can be disseminated to larval breeding sites and prevent adult emergence and also if forced contact of Ae. aegypti females with treated surfaces can affect its fertility, fecundity, and blood intake capacity.METHODS: Larval susceptibility to lufenuron was measured through EI50 and EI90. On the other hand, gravid females were exposed by tarsal contact to lufenuron-treated papers, we used the WHO susceptibility test kit tube to line the papers, and 1, 3 or 5 females for the transference. We also evaluated if the exposure of female mosquitoes to lufenuron-treated papers (0.4 and 1 mg a.i./cm2) has an effect on their fertility, fecundity or in the ability to feed on blood. In each assay 12-15 female mosquitoes were exposed to lufenuron for 1 h, 24 h before blood meal (BBM) or 24 h after a blood meal (ABM).
    RESULTS: Lufenuron proved to be very active against Ae. aegypti larvae with an EI50 of 0.164 ppb and EI90 of 0.81 ppb. We also found that lufenuron can be transferred by females from treated surfaces to clean containers causing the inhibition of emergence of the larvae (between 30 and 50%). This effect was dependent on the concentration applied on the paper and the number of females added to each cage.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study introduces an innovation by first exploring the possibility that an insect growth regulator (IGR) belonging to the group of benzoylphenyl ureas, such as lufenuron, can be transferred by gravid females to breeding sites and that at the same time can have an effect on fertility, fecundity and blood intake capacity of adult mosquitoes.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Auto-disemination; Fecundity; Fertility; Lufenuron
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04130-1
  13. Bull Entomol Res. 2020 May 15. 1-8
    Hamid NA, Alexander N, Suer R, Ahmed NW, Mudin RN, Omar T, Dapari R, Che Mat Din SNA, Rahman RA, Jaraee R, Baur F, Schmitt F, Hamon N, Richardson JH, Langlois-Jacques C, Muriel R, Saadatian-Elahi M.
      Currently, dengue control relies largely on reactive vector control programmes. Proactive vector-control using a rational, well-balanced integrated vector management approach may prove more successful for dengue control. As part of the development of a cluster randomized controlled epidemiological trial, a study was conducted in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The study included one control site (three buildings) and three intervention sites which were treated as follows: targeted outdoor residual spraying only (TORS site, two buildings); deployment of autodissemination devices only (ADD site, four buildings); and the previous two treatments combined (TORS + ADD site, three buildings). The primary entomological measurement was per cent of positive ovitraps-ovitrap index (OI). The effect of each intervention on OI was analyzed by a modified ordinary least squares regression model. Relative to the control site, the TORS and ADD sites showed a reduction in the Aedes OI (-6.5%, P = 0.04 and -8.3%, P = 0.10, respectively). Analysis by species showed that, relative to control, the Ae. aegypti OI was lower in ADD (-8.9%, P = 0.03) and in TORS (-10.4%, P = 0.02). No such effect was evident in the TORS + ADD site. The present study provides insights into the methods to be used for the main trial. The combination of multiple insecticides with different modes of action in one package is innovative, although we could not demonstrate the additive effect of TORS + ADD. Further work is required to strengthen our understanding of how these interventions impact dengue vector populations and dengue transmission.
    Keywords:  Aedes; Malaysia; dengue; integrated vector management; vector control
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485320000188
  14. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 May 14. 14(5): e0008303
    O'Connor O, Calvez E, Inizan C, Pocquet N, Richard V, Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
      In New Caledonia (NC), Aedes aegypti is the only proven vector of dengue virus (DENV), which is the most prevalent arbovirosis in NC. Since World War II, the four DENV serotypes have circulated regularly in NC. The epidemiological profile, however, has evolved over the last ten years, with the persistence of DENV-1 circulation and the co-circulation of several DENV serotypes. The current study evaluated the ability of Ae. aegypti from NC to transmit four DENV serotypes (and two DENV-1 genotypes) isolated during recent outbreaks in NC. An Ae. aegypti F1 generation was twice independently orally challenged with each DENV strain (107 FFU/ml). Infection, dissemination and transmission rates and transmission efficiency were measured at day 7 and 14 post-exposure, as well as the quantity of infectious virus particles. Mosquito infection was observed as early as 7 days post-infection. Infection rates between 18 and 58% were measured for all DENV serotypes/genotypes tested. Although dissemination rates ranged from 78 to 100%, transmission efficiencies were low, with values not exceeding 21% at 14 days post-infection for all DENV strains. This study shows that NC Ae. aegypti are moderately competent for DENV in laboratory conditions. In link with epidemiological data, these results suggest implication of other factors in the sustained circulation of DENV-1 in New Caledonia.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008303
  15. Methods Ecol Evol. 2019 Aug;10(8): 1357-1370
    Obolski U, Perez PN, Villabona-Arenas CJ, Thézé J, Faria NR, Lourenço J.
      Viruses, such as dengue, Zika, yellow fever and chikungunya, depend on mosquitoes for transmission. Their epidemics typically present periodic patterns, linked to the underlying mosquito population dynamics, which are known to be driven by natural climate fluctuations. Understanding how climate dictates the timing and potential of viral transmission is essential for preparedness of public health systems and design of control strategies. While various alternative approaches have been proposed to estimate local transmission potential of such viruses, few open-source, ready to use and freely available software tools exist.We developed the Mosquito-borne Viral Suitability Estimator (MVSE) software package for the R programming environment. MVSE estimates the index P, a novel suitability index based on a climate-driven mathematical expression for the basic reproductive number of mosquito-borne viruses. By accounting for local humidity and temperature, as well as viral, vector and human priors, the index P can be estimated for specific host and viral species in different regions of the globe.We describe the background theory, empirical support and biological interpretation of the index P. Using real-world examples spanning multiple epidemiological contexts, we further demonstrate MVSE's basic functionality, research and educational potentials.
    Keywords:  community ecological modelling; community ecology; disease ecological modelling; disease ecology; microbial ecology; mosquito-borne Viral Suitability Estimator; mosquitoes; viruses
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.13205
  16. J Parasitol Res. 2020 ;2020 9053741
    Eden WT, Alighiri D, Supardi KI, Cahyono E.
      This study examines the active component of Cymbopogon winterianus (Java citronella) oil, as a green mosquito repellent, obtained through a steam distillation method. Java citronella oil, which contains citronellol, citronellal, and geraniol, was isolated by batch vacuum fractional distillation, and their effect was tested against the dengue fever (DF) vector, known as Aedes aegypti. Furthermore, air freshener gels were formulated with Java citronella oil, carrageenan, gum, sodium benzoate, ethylene glycol, polysorbate 20, sodium chloride, and distilled water, at varying concentrations. The results show that formula I has the best controlled release evaporation for citronellal, citronellol, and geraniol, as well as the best storage time of 16.82 days and 12.77 days for geraniol and citronellol, respectively. The most significant specific gravity (0.0136) was recorded in formula V, while gel formula I exhibited the highest level of instability at 35°C, with a syneresis value of 77.11% in t = 72 h and pH 5.33. In addition, formula IV at 5°C demonstrated the highest syneresis (75.34%) in t = 72 h, with pH 7.04, while a peak viscosity of 100,958 cP was recorded in formula IV. The repellent activity of each active component was measured based on the period of protection conferred against the bites of Aedes aegypti within one hour, and the results showed geraniol and citronellol, with respective activity of 78.00% ± 4.83 and 77.34% ± 3.57, as the most effective.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/9053741
  17. Malar J. 2020 May 12. 19(1): 180
    Yared S, Gebressielasie A, Damodaran L, Bonnell V, Lopez K, Janies D, Carter TE.
      BACKGROUND: The movement of malaria vectors into new areas is a growing concern in the efforts to control malaria. The recent report of Anopheles stephensi in eastern Ethiopia has raised the necessity to understand the insecticide resistance status of the vector in the region to better inform vector-based interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate insecticide resistance in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia using two approaches: (1) World Health Organization (WHO) bioassay tests in An. stephensi; and (2) genetic analysis of insecticide resistance genes in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia.METHODS: Mosquito larvae and pupae were collected from Kebri Dehar. Insecticide susceptibility of An. stephensi was tested with malathion 5%, bendiocarb 0.1%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.05%, permethrin 0.75%, pirimiphos-methyl 0.25% and DDT 4%, according to WHO standard protocols. In this study, the knockdown resistance locus (kdr) in the voltage gated sodium channel (vgsc) and ace1R locus in the acetylcholinesterase gene (ace-1) were analysed in An. stephensi.
    RESULTS: All An. stephensi samples were resistant to carbamates, with mortality rates of 23% and 21% for bendiocarb and propoxur, respectively. Adult An. stephensi was also resistant to pyrethroid insecticides with mortality rates 67% for deltamethrin and 53% for permethrin. Resistance to DDT and malathion was detected in An. stephensi with mortality rates of 32% as well as An. stephensi was resistance to pirimiphos-methyl with mortality rates 14%. Analysis of the insecticide resistance loci revealed the absence of kdr L1014F and L1014S mutations and the ace1R G119S mutation.
    CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings support that An. stephensi is resistant to several classes of insecticides, most notably pyrethroids. However, the absence of the kdr L1014 gene may suggest non-target site resistance mechanisms. Continuous insecticide resistance monitoring should be carried out in the region to confirm the documented resistance and exploring mechanisms conferring resistance in An. stephensi in Ethiopia.
    Keywords:  Anopheles stephensi; Insecticide resistance; Kebri Dehar; Malaria; Somali Region
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03252-2
  18. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 11.
    Alam MS, Al-Amin HM, Khan WA, Haque R, Nahlen BL, Lobo NF.
      According to the WHO, unmanaged insecticide resistance may lead to increases in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Bangladesh, having made significant progress in malaria control efforts, has recently seen an upswing in malaria cases-58% of which occurred in Bandarban district. Toward identifying entomological drivers of increased malaria, an entomological survey including Anopheles susceptibility to the insecticides in use was conducted in Bandarban. Anopheles vagus, the primary vector of malaria, was found to be resistant to both permethrin and deltamethrin-with only 29% and 55% mortality at 30 minutes, respectively. Intervention strategies in this area-all based on pyrethroids, may need to be reevaluated toward closing this gap in protection and increasing intervention efficacy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0146
  19. BMC Public Health. 2020 May 12. 20(1): 655
    Dufera M, Dabsu R, Tiruneh G.
      BACKGROUND: Although much progress has been made in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide in the last decade, nationally malaria remains the third leading cause of death and still considered a major public health problem. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess malaria as a public health problem in and around the sugar cane plantation area of Arjo Didhessa sugar factory, Western Ethiopia.METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study supplemented with clinical retrospective data, which included 452 study subjects was recruited and the study period was extended from May 2016 up to November of 2017. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess malaria risk factors and blood samples were received from all study participants and further subjected to Giemsa staining for determination of malaria prevalence. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Malaria risk factors were identified by multivariate logistic regression at a significance level of P < 0.05.
    RESULTS: The overall malaria prevalence was 3.1%; Plasmodium vivax is the main type of malaria parasite. Overnight outdoor sleeping and improper utilization of mosquito bed nets were found to be statistically significant as malaria risk factors in the community. In the retrospective studies of five years, the peak malaria cases (13.84%) were reported in 2013 and the lowest cases (1.24%) in 2017.
    CONCLUSIONS: The figure for malaria witnessed in this area remains higher than the observed national malaria prevalence indicating malaria remains a public health problem. Therefore, we suggest the factory administrators and health care professionals work more on raising awareness to avoid night outdoor sleeping and promote frequent and appropriate utilization of insecticide-treated nets in line with regular indoor residual spraying.
    Keywords:  Arjo Didhessa; Malaria; Malaria risk factors
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08784-5
  20. Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2020 Apr 13. pii: S2214-5745(20)30046-8. [Epub ahead of print]39 101-108
    Caputo B, Manica M.
      Surveillance programs are needed to guide mosquito-control operations to reduce both nuisance and the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Understanding the thresholds for action to reduce both nuisance and the risk of arbovirus transmission is becoming critical. To date, mosquito surveillance is mainly implemented to inform about pathogen transmission risks rather than to reduce mosquito nuisance even though lots of control efforts are aimed at the latter. Passive surveillance, such as digital monitoring (validated by entomological trapping), is a powerful tool to record biting rates in real time. High-quality data are essential to model the risk of arbovirus diseases. For invasive pathogens, efforts are needed to predict the arrival of infected hosts linked to the small-scale vector to host contact ratio, while for endemic pathogens efforts are needed to set up region-wide highly structured surveillance measures to understand seasonal re-activation and pathogen transmission in order to carry out effective control operations.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2020.03.009
  21. Trends Parasitol. 2020 Jun;pii: S1471-4922(20)30074-X. [Epub ahead of print]36(6): 560-570
    Price RN, Commons RJ, Battle KE, Thriemer K, Mendis K.
      Plasmodium vivax is an important cause of malaria, associated with a significant public health burden. Whilst enhanced malaria-control activities have successfully reduced the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many areas, there has been a consistent increase in the proportion of malaria due to P. vivax in regions where both parasites coexist. This article reviews the epidemiology and biology of P. vivax, how the parasite differs from P. falciparum, and the key features that render it more difficult to control and eliminate. Since transmission of the parasite is driven largely by relapses from dormant liver stages, its timely elimination will require widespread access to safe and effective radical cure.
    Keywords:  Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium vivax; epidemiology; primaquine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2020.03.009
  22. Epidemiol Serv Saude. 2020 ;pii: S2237-96222020000201100. [Epub ahead of print]29(2): e2019028
    Paiva Júnior EF, Vaz TDS, Rosa M, Garcia ILBE.
      OBJECTIVE: to present a methodological sequence resulting from multicriteria analysis indicating areas with different Aedes aegypti intervention priorities.METHODS: a Female Aedes Displacement Index (IDFAedes) was created, consolidated according to urban blocks, representing interaction between population densities, Aedes aegypti oviposition sites and dengue case notifications; a graphical model (Model Builder) was developed with QGIS software using the Kernel mapping algorithm and IDFAedes as the weighting factor.
    RESULTS: stratification for the evaluated example - Anápolis, GO, Brazil - indicated intervention priority levels for urban blocks - 17.5%, very low priority; 37.3%, low; 33.6%, medium; 10.2%, high; 1.4%, very high -; blocks with medium, high, and very high priority accounted for 22.53,% of the territory in the area.
    CONCLUSION: the spatial block method proposed in this article can be included in health surveillance programs for intensified targeting and planning of control actions.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5123/s1679-49742020000200004
  23. Acta Trop. 2020 May 11. pii: S0001-706X(20)30334-X. [Epub ahead of print] 105503
    Wilai P, Ali RSM, Saingamsook J, Saeung A, Junkum A, Walton C, Harbach RE, Somboon P.
      The Anopheles subpictus complex consists of four species informally designated, based on fixed inversions of polytene chromosomes and morphology, as species A, B, C and D in India. However, recent studies revealed the presence of only species A and B in Sri Lanka. Little is known about the specific identity of the taxon in other countries in Asia. This paper reports the results of a molecular and morphological study of An. subpictus in Thailand and South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The maxillary palpi of most females from Thailand have the apical pale band longer than the subapical dark band, seta 7-I of pupae branched and short, and eggs with 18-22 float ridges. These characters do not agree with those described for species A, B, C and D in India. The females of An. subpictus from South Sulawesi usually have the subapical dark band of the maxillary palpus equal in length to the apical pale band. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rDNA and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mtDNA of specimens from Thailand, and South Sulawesi, and from various localities in GenBank, were conducted. ITS2 sequences of specimens from all localities in Thailand were identical, except for a small divergence in specimens from Phang Nga Province. Three distinct COI clades were detected in specimens from the northern province of Chiang Mai. However, crossing experiments between the three clades revealed no genetic incompatibility, suggesting that they were conspecific. ITS2 and COI sequences of most specimens from Thailand fell in clades other than those of An. subpictus species A and B and An. subpictus from Indonesia (East Nusa Tenggara, Java, South Sulawesi) and the Philippines. ITS2 sequences from South Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara were very similar, and fell in a clade consisting of specimens from Phang Nga in southern Thailand and sequences of some specimens from Cambodia and Vietnam, but their COI sequences were distinct. DNA sequences and morphological differences suggest the presence of two species within An. subpictus in Thailand, and more than one species in Indonesia.
    Keywords:  Anopheles subpictus; COI; ITS2; Indonesia; Thailand; mosquito; systematics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105503
  24. Pathogens. 2020 May 11. pii: E366. [Epub ahead of print]9(5):
    Manuel M, Missé D, Pompon J.
      While the Zika virus (ZIKV) 2014-2017 pandemic has subsided, there remains active transmission. Apart from horizontal transmission to humans, the main vector Aedes aegypti can transmit the virus vertically from mother to offspring. Large variation in vertical transmission (VT) efficiency between studies indicates the influence of parameters, which remain to be characterized. To determine the roles of extrinsic incubation time and gonotrophic cycle, we deployed an experimental design that quantifies ZIKV in individual progeny and larvae. We observed an early infection of ovaries that exponentially progressed. We quantified VT rate, filial infection rate, and viral load per infected larvae at 10 days post oral infection (d.p.i.) on the second gonotrophic cycle and at 17 d.p.i. on the second and third gonotrophic cycle. As compared to previous reports that studied pooled samples, we detected a relatively high VT efficiency from 1.79% at 10 d.p.i. and second gonotrophic cycle to 66% at 17 d.p.i. and second gonotrophic cycle. At 17 d.p.i., viral load largely varied and averaged around 800 genomic RNA (gRNA) copies. Longer incubation time and fewer gonotrophic cycles promoted VT. These results shed light on the mechanism of VT, how environmental conditions favor VT, and whether VT can maintain ZIKV circulation.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; Zika virus; vertical transmission
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050366