bims-mosdis Biomed News
on Mosquito distribution and disease
Issue of 2020‒05‒10
twenty-nine papers selected by
Richard Halfpenny
Staffordshire University


  1. Malar J. 2020 May 03. 19(1): 172
    Nguela RL, Bigoga JD, Armel TN, Esther T, Line D, Boris NA, Frederic T, Kazi R, Williams P, Mbacham WF, Leke RGF.
      BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effectiveness of improved housing on indoor residual mosquito density and exposure to infected Anophelines in Minkoameyos, a rural community in southern forested Cameroon.METHODS: Following the identification of housing factors affecting malaria prevalence in 2013, 218 houses were improved by screening the doors and windows, installing plywood ceilings on open eaves and closing holes on walls and doors. Monthly entomological surveys were conducted in a sample of 21 improved and 21 non-improved houses from November 2014 to October 2015. Mosquitoes sampled from night collections on human volunteers were identified morphologically and their parity status determined. Mosquito infectivity was verified through Plasmodium falciparum CSP ELISA and the average entomological inoculation rates determined. A Reduction Factor (RF), defined as the ratio of the values for mosquitoes collected outdoor to those collected indoor was calculated in improved houses (RFI) and non-improved houses (RFN). An Intervention Effect (IE = RFI/RFN) measured the true effect of the intervention. Chi square test was used to determine variable significance. The threshold for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.
    RESULTS: A total of 1113 mosquitoes were collected comprising Anopheles sp (58.6%), Culex sp (36.4%), Aedes sp (2.5%), Mansonia sp (2.4%) and Coquillettidia sp (0.2%). Amongst the Anophelines were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (95.2%), Anopheles funestus (2.9%), Anopheles ziemanni (0.2%), Anopheles brohieri (1.2%) and Anopheles paludis (0.5%). Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) was the only An. gambiae sibling species found. The intervention reduced the indoor Anopheles density by 1.8-fold (RFI = 3.99; RFN = 2.21; P = 0.001). The indoor density of parous Anopheles was reduced by 1.7-fold (RFI = 3.99; RFN = 2.21; P = 0.04) and that of infected Anopheles by 1.8-fold (RFI = 3.26; RFN = 1.78; P = 0.04). Indoor peak biting rates were observed between 02 a.m. to 04 a.m. in non-improved houses and from 02 a.m. to 06 a.m. in improved houses.
    CONCLUSION: Housing improvement contributed to reducing indoor residual anopheline density and malaria transmission. This highlights the need for policy specialists to further evaluate and promote aspects of house design as a complementary control tool that could reduce indoor human-vector contact and malaria transmission in similar epidemiological settings.
    Keywords:  Anopheles density; Cameroon; Housing improvement; Malaria transmission; Rural community
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03232-6
  2. J Med Entomol. 2020 May 04. pii: tjaa065. [Epub ahead of print]
    Amos BA, Ritchie SA, Cardé RT.
      Aedes aegypti (L.) is an important vector of viruses causing dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever and as such presents a serious threat to public health in tropical regions. Control programs involving 'rear and release' of modified male Ae. aegypti are underway and require effective trapping methods for surveillance of both the released insects and the impacted wild mosquito population. The BG-Sentinel trap (BGS) is widely used in Ae. aegypti surveillance but its level of efficiency, that is, what proportion of the mosquitoes encountering the trap are captured, is unknown. This is especially true for male mosquitoes, the behavior of which is incompletely understood. We tested the efficiency of two versions of the BGS for capturing male Ae. aegypti under semifield conditions with and without CO2 and a human skin odor mimic lure and with these baits combined. A navy-blue BGS trap emitting CO2 and a human skin odor mimic captured 18% of the released male Ae. aegypti, with a capture efficiency of 9 % (of the total encounters with the trap). Male Ae. aegypti had multiple encounters with the BGS that did not result in capture; they crossed over the trap entrance without being captured or landed on the sides of the trap. Swarming behavior around the BGS was also recorded, even when only a visual cue was present. Understanding male Ae. aegypti behaviors during an encounter with the BGS can inform improvement of trap design and therefore capture efficiency for surveillance in control programs.
    Keywords:   Aedes aegypti ; Biogents Sentinel trap; male mosquito; trap efficiency
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa065
  3. Parasit Vectors. 2020 May 08. 13(1): 239
    Sovi A, Keita C, Sinaba Y, Dicko A, Traore I, Cisse MBM, Koita O, Dengela D, Flatley C, Bankineza E, Mihigo J, Belemvire A, Carlson J, Fornadel C, Oxborough RM.
      BACKGROUND: Millions of pyrethroid LLINs have been distributed in Mali during the past 20 years which, along with agricultural use, has increased the selection pressure on malaria vector populations. This study investigated pyrethroid resistance intensity and susceptible status of malaria vectors to alternative insecticides to guide choice of insecticides for LLINs and IRS for effective control of malaria vectors.METHODS: For 3 years between 2016 and 2018, susceptibility testing was conducted annually in 14-16 sites covering southern and central Mali. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) were collected from larval sites and adult mosquitoes exposed in WHO tube tests to diagnostic doses of bendiocarb (0.1%) and pirimiphos-methyl (0.25%). Resistance intensity tests were conducted using CDC bottle bioassays (2016-2017) and WHO tube tests (2018) at 1×, 2×, 5×, and 10× the diagnostic concentration of permethrin, deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin. WHO tube tests were conducted with pre-exposure to the synergist PBO followed by permethrin or deltamethrin. Chlorfenapyr was tested in CDC bottle bioassays at 100 µg active ingredient per bottle and clothianidin at 2% in WHO tube tests. PCR was performed to identify species within the An. gambiae complex.
    RESULTS: In all sites An. gambiae (s.l.) showed high intensity resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin in CDC bottle bioassay tests in 2016 and 2017. In 2018, the WHO intensity tests resulted in survivors at all sites for permethrin, deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin when tested at 10× the diagnostic dose. Across all sites mean mortality was 33.7% with permethrin (0.75%) compared with 71.8% when pre-exposed to PBO (4%), representing a 2.13-fold increase in mortality. A similar trend was recorded for deltamethrin. There was susceptibility to pirimiphos-methyl, chlorfenapyr and clothianidin in all surveyed sites, including current IRS sites in Mopti Region. An. coluzzii was the primary species in 4 of 6 regions.
    CONCLUSIONS: Widespread high intensity pyrethroid resistance was recorded during 2016-2018 and is likely to compromise the effectiveness of pyrethroid LLINs in Mali. PBO or chlorfenapyr LLINs should provide improved control of An. gambiae (s.l.). Clothianidin and pirimiphos-methyl insecticides are currently being used for IRS as part of a rotation strategy based on susceptibility being confirmed in this study.
    Keywords:  Anopheles gambiae; CDC bottle bioassay; Indoor residual spraying; Long-lasting insecticidal net; Mali; Piperonyl butoxide; Resistance intensity; Susceptibility test; Vector control; WHO tube test
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04100-7
  4. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2020 Jun;104(2): e21686
    Chen M, Du Y, Nomura Y, Zhorov BS, Dong K.
      Aedes aegypti is the primary mosquito vector of dengue, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya. Current strategies to control Ae. aegypti rely heavily on insecticide interventions. Pyrethroids are a major class of insecticides used for mosquito control because of their fast acting, highly insecticidal activities and low mammalian toxicity. However, Ae. aegypti populations around the world have begun to develop resistance to pyrethroids. So far, more than a dozen mutations in the sodium channel gene have been reported to be associated with pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti. Co-occurrence of resistance-associated mutations is common in pyrethroid-resistant Ae. aegypti populations. As global use of pyrethroids in mosquito control continues, new pyrethroid-resistant mutations keep emerging. In this microreview, we compile pyrethroid resistance-associated mutations in Ae. aegypti in a chronological order, as they were reported, and summarize findings from functional evaluation of these mutations in an in vitro sodium channel expression system. We hope that the information will be useful for tracing possible evolution of pyrethroid resistance in this important human disease vector, in addition to the development of methods for global monitoring and management of pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti.
    Keywords:  Aedes aegypti; knockdown resistance; pyrethroid resistance; pyrethroids; sodium channels
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/arch.21686
  5. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 May 08.
    Kumar D, Kumar P, Singh H, Agrawal V.
      Mosquitoes spread several life-threatening diseases such as malaria, filaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever and are associated with millions of deaths every year across the world. However, insecticides of synthetic origin are conventionally used for controlling various vector-borne diseases but they have various associated drawbacks like impact on non-targeted species, negative effects on the environment, and development of resistance in vector species by alteration of the target site. Plant extracts, phytochemicals, and their nanoformulations can serve as ovipositional attractants, insect growth regulators, larvicides, and repellents with least effects on the environment. Such plant-derived products exhibit broad-spectrum resistance against various mosquito species and are relatively cheaper, environmentally safer, biodegradable, easily accessible, and are non-toxic to non-targeted organisms. Therefore, in this review article, the current knowledge of phytochemical sources exhibiting larvicidal activity and their variations in response to solvents used for their extraction is underlined. Also, different methods such as physical, chemical, and biological for silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) synthesis, their mechanism of synthesis using plant extract, their potent larvicidal activity, and the possible mechanism by which these particles kill mosquito larvae are discussed. In addition, constraints related to commercialization of nanoherbal products at government and academic or research level and barriers from laboratory experiments to field trial have also been discussed. This comprehensive information can be gainfully employed for the development of herbal larvicidal formulations and nanopesticides against insecticide-resistant vector species in the near future. Graphical abstract.
    Keywords:  Insecticides; Plant extract; Scanning electron microscope; Silver nanoparticles; Transmission electron microscopy; Vector-borne diseases
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08444-6
  6. Sci Rep. 2020 May 08. 10(1): 7750
    Miot EF, Calvez E, Aubry F, Dabo S, Grandadam M, Marcombe S, Oke C, Logan JG, Brey PT, Lambrechts L.
      Many emerging arboviruses of global public health importance, such as dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), originated in sylvatic transmission cycles involving wild animals and forest-dwelling mosquitoes. Arbovirus emergence in the human population typically results from spillover transmission via bridge vectors, which are competent mosquitoes feeding on both humans and wild animals. Another related, but less studied concern, is the risk of 'spillback' transmission from humans into novel sylvatic cycles. We colonized a sylvatic population of Aedes malayensis from a forested area of the Nakai district in Laos to evaluate its potential as an arbovirus bridge vector. We found that this Ae. malayensis population was overall less competent for DENV and YFV than an urban population of Aedes aegypti. Olfactometer experiments showed that our Ae. malayensis colony did not display any detectable attraction to human scent in laboratory conditions. The relatively modest vector competence for DENV and YFV, combined with a lack of detectable attraction to human odor, indicate a low potential for this sylvatic Ae. malayensis population to act as an arbovirus bridge vector. However, we caution that opportunistic blood feeding on humans by sylvatic Ae. malayensis may occasionally contribute to bridge sylvatic and human transmission cycles.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64696-9
  7. Nat Ecol Evol. 2020 May 04.
    Suh E, Grossman MK, Waite JL, Dennington NL, Sherrard-Smith E, Churcher TS, Thomas MB.
      Insecticide-treated bed nets reduce malaria transmission by limiting contact between mosquito vectors and human hosts when mosquitoes feed during the night. However, malaria vectors can also feed in the early evening and in the morning when people are not protected. Here, we explored how the timing of blood feeding interacts with environmental temperature to influence the capacity of Anopheles mosquitoes to transmit the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In laboratory experiments, we found no effect of biting time itself on the proportion of mosquitoes that became infectious (vector competence) at constant temperature. However, when mosquitoes were maintained under more realistic fluctuating temperatures, there was a significant increase in competence for mosquitoes feeding in the evening (18:00), and a significant reduction in competence for those feeding in the morning (06:00), relative to those feeding at midnight (00:00). These effects appear to be due to thermal sensitivity of malaria parasites during the initial stages of parasite development within the mosquito, and the fact that mosquitoes feeding in the evening experience cooling temperatures during the night, whereas mosquitoes feeding in the morning quickly experience warming temperatures that are inhibitory to parasite establishment. A transmission dynamics model illustrates that such differences in competence could have important implications for malaria prevalence, the extent of transmission that persists in the presence of bed nets, and the epidemiological impact of behavioural resistance. These results indicate that the interaction of temperature and feeding behaviour could be a major ecological determinant of the vectorial capacity of malaria mosquitoes.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-1182-x
  8. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(5): e0231408
    Withanage GP, Hapuarachchi HC, Viswakula SD, Gunawardena YINS, Hapugoda M.
      Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection disease in Sri Lanka triggering extensive economic and social burden in the country. Even after numerous source reduction programmes, more than 30,000 incidences are reporting in the country every year. The last and greatest dengue epidemic in the country was reported in July, 2017 with more than 300 dengue related deaths and the highest number of dengue incidences were reported from the District of Gampaha. There is no Dengue Virus (DENV) detection system in field specimens in the district yet and therefore the aim of the study is development of entomological surveillance approach through vector survey programmes together with molecular and phylogenetic methods to identify detection of DENV serotypes circulation in order to minimize adverse effects of imminent dengue outbreaks. Entomological surveys were conducted in five study areas in the district for 36 months and altogether, 10,616 potential breeding places were investigated and 423 were positive for immature stages of dengue vector mosquitoes. During adult collections, 2,718 dengue vector mosquitoes were collected and 4.6% (n = 124) were Aedes aegypti. While entomological indices demonstrate various correlations with meteorological variables and reported dengue incidences, the mosquito pools collected during the epidemic in 2017 were positive for DENV. The results of the phylogenetic analysis illustrated that Envelope (E) gene sequences derived from the isolated DENV belongs to the Clade Ib of Cosmopolitan genotype of the DENV serotype 2 which has been the dominant stain in South-East Asian evidencing that a recent migration of DENV strain to Sri Lanka.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231408
  9. Malar J. 2020 May 06. 19(1): 173
    Nignan C, Niang A, Maïga H, Sawadogo SP, Poda BS, Gnankine O, Dabiré KR, Tripet F, Diabaté A.
      BACKGROUND: It is assumed that malaria vectors feed on locally available nectar sources to obtain energy. Sugar feeding is energetically critical for the Anopheles male swarming and mating activities. However, little is known about the impact of local nectar feeding on male physiological development and its consequences on male mosquito life traits in the malaria control context. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of local fruit juices on the life traits of males Anopheles coluzzii.METHODS: Swarming characteristics (number of males in swarm, number of mating pairs, and swarm duration) in semi-field conditions; mating rate and longevity in a laboratory setting were compared between males An. coluzzii fed exclusively with mango, papaya or banana juices. The trophic preference was investigated in semi-field conditions.
    RESULTS: The results of this study showed that in the laboratory, mosquitoes fed with papaya juices lived on average longer (10 days) than those fed with banana or mango juices (5 days) and had higher a mating rate (53%) than those fed with banana juice (40%). In the semi-field, the swarm size of mosquitoes fed with banana juice (85 males) was larger than that of mosquitoes fed with mango juice (60 males). The number of mating pairs formed from banana-fed male swarms (17 mating pairs) was higher than that formed from mango-fed male swarm (8 mating pairs). There was no difference in swarming duration between male treatments. Male mosquitoes had a preference for papaya and banana juices.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the origin of plant-derived feeding is an important factor in the survival and reproduction of mosquitoes. This calls for further investigations of chemical contents of nectars and their impact on the physiological development of mosquitoes.
    Keywords:  Malaria; Mosquito release; Sugar feeding; Trophic preference; Vector control
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03248-y
  10. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 May 04. 14(5): e0008279
    Carvajal TM, Ogishi K, Yaegeshi S, Hernandez LFT, Viacrusis KM, Ho HT, Amalin DM, Watanabe K.
      Dengue is a highly endemic disease in Southeast Asia and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The National Capital Region (NCR) of the Philippines, or Metropolitan Manila, is a highly urbanized area that is greatly affected by this arboviral disease. Urbanization has been shown to increase the dispersal of this mosquito vector. For this reason, we conducted a fine-scale population genetic study of Ae. aegypti in this region. We collected adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes (n = 526 individuals) within the region (n = 21 study areas) and characterized the present population structure and the genetic relatedness among mosquito populations. We genotyped 11 microsatellite loci from all sampled mosquito individuals and analyzed their genetic diversity, differentiation and structure. The results revealed low genetic differentiation across mosquito populations which suggest high gene flow and/or weak genetic drift among mosquito populations. Bayesian analysis indicated multiple genetic structures (K = 3-6), with no clear genetically distinct population structures. This result implies the passive or long-distance dispersal capability nature Ae. aegypti possibly through human-mediated transportation. The constructed dendrogram in this study describes the potential passive dispersal patterns across Metropolitan Manila. Furthermore, spatial autocorrelation analysis showed the limited and active dispersal capability (<1km) of the mosquito vector. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that investigated the genetic structure and dual (active and passive) dispersal capability of Ae. aegypti in a fine-scale highly urbanized area.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008279
  11. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(5): e0232172
    Vivekanandhan P, Swathy K, Kalaimurugan D, Ramachandran M, Yuvaraj A, Kumar AN, Manikandan AT, Poovarasan N, Shivakumar MS, Kweka EJ.
      BACKGROUND: The fungal toxin acts as effective, low-cost chemical substances for pest control worldwide and also an alternative to synthetic insecticides. This study assessed the larvicidal potential of Metarhizium anisopliae fungi derived metabolites against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and non-targeted organisms at 24hr post treatment.METHOD: Isolation of entomopathogenic fungi M. anisopliae from natural traps confirmed by using 18s rDNA biotechnological tools. Crude extracts from M. anisopliae solvent extraction and their secondary metabolites were bio-assayed following WHO standard procedures against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, Artemia nauplii, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Solanum lycopersicum after 24 hr exposure. Histopathological analysis of E. eugeniae treated with fungi metabolites toxicity compared to those treated with Monocrotophos after 24hrpost-treatment. M. anisopliae metabolites were characterized using GC-MS and FT-IR analysis.
    RESULTS: The larvicidal activity was recorded in highest concentration of 75μg/ml, with 85%, 97% and 89% mortality in Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively. M. anisopliae metabolites produced LC50 values in Ae. aegypti, 59.83μg/ml, in An. stephensi, 50.16μg/ml and in Cx. quinquefasciatus, 51.15μg/ml respectively. M. anisopliae metabolites produced lower toxic effects on A. nauplii, LC50 values were, 54.96μg/ml respectively. Bio-indicator toxicity results show 18% and 58% mortality was recorded in E. eugeniae and A. nauplii and also there is no phytotoxicity that was observed on S. lycopersicum L. under semi-field condition. E. eugeniae histopathological studies shows fungal metabolites showed lower sub-lethal effects compared to synthetic chemical pesticide at 24hrs of the treatment. The GC-MS and FT-IR analysis identified five major components of active ingredients.
    CONCLUSION: Findings of this study indicate that, M. anisopliae ethyl acetate derived secondary metabolites are effective against larvae of Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito species, lower toxicity effects were observed on non-target organisms such as, Artemia nauplii, Eudrilus eugeniae as well as, no toxicity effect were observed on Solanum lycopersicum. Further research should be conducted in laboratory for separation of single pure molecule and be tested semifield conditions.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232172
  12. Malar J. 2020 May 07. 19(1): 174
    Degefa T, Yewhalaw D, Zhou G, Atieli H, Githeko AK, Yan G.
      BACKGROUND: Surveillance of outdoor host-seeking malaria vectors is crucial to monitor changes in vector biting behaviour and evaluate the impact of vector control interventions. Human landing catch (HLC) has been considered the most reliable and gold standard surveillance method to estimate human-biting rates. However, it is labour-intensive, and its use is facing an increasing ethical concern due to potential risk of exposure to infectious mosquito bites. Thus, alternative methods are required. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of human-odour-baited CDC light trap (HBLT) and human-baited double net trap (HDNT) for outdoor host-seeking malaria vector surveillance in Kenya and Ethiopia.METHODS: The sampling efficiency of HBLT and HDNT was compared with CDC light trap and HLC using Latin Square Design in Ahero and Iguhu sites, western Kenya and Bulbul site, southwestern Ethiopia between November 2015 and December 2018. The differences in Anopheles mosquito density among the trapping methods were compared using generalized linear model.
    RESULTS: Overall, 16,963 female Anopheles mosquitoes comprising Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), Anopheles funestus s.l., Anopheles pharoensis, Anopheles coustani and Anopheles squamosus were collected. PCR results (n = 552) showed that Anopheles arabiensis was the only member of An. gambiae s.l. in Ahero and Bulbul, while 15.7% An. arabiensis and 84.3% An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) constituted An. gambiae s.l. in Iguhu. In Ahero, HBLT captured 2.23 times as many An. arabiensis and 2.11 times as many An. funestus as CDC light trap. In the same site, HDNT yielded 3.43 times more An. arabiensis and 3.24 times more An. funestus than HBLT. In Iguhu, the density of Anopheles mosquitoes did not vary between the traps (p > 0.05). In Bulbul, HBLT caught 2.19 times as many An. arabiensis as CDC light trap, while HDNT caught 6.53 times as many An. arabiensis as CDC light trap. The mean density of An. arabiensis did not vary between HDNT and HLC (p = 0.098), whereas the HLC yielded significantly higher density of An. arabiensis compared to HBLT and CDC light trap. There was a significant density-independent positive correlation between HDNT and HLC (r = 0.69).
    CONCLUSION: This study revealed that both HBLT and HDNT caught higher density of malaria vectors than conventional CDC light trap. Moreover, HDNT yielded a similar vector density as HLC, suggesting that it could be an alternative tool to HLC for outdoor host-seeking malaria vector surveillance.
    Keywords:  Ethiopia; Human-baited double net trap; Human-odour-baited CDC light trap; Kenya; Malaria vectors; Outdoor host-seeking; Surveillance
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03244-2
  13. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020 Apr 30. 14(4): 387-393
    Oliveira Noleto JV, Moura do Nascimento Moraes HL, De Moura Lima T, Mendes Rodrigues JG, Tavares Cardoso D, Chaves Lima K, Soares de Souza Melo R, Miranda GS.
      INTRODUCTION: Due to recent outbreaks of Dengue and Chikungunya and an absence of effective monitoring of the mosquito Aedes spp. in the municipality of São Raimundo das Mangabeiras, State of Maranhão, we aimed to demonstrate the potential of ovitraps used together with mathematical models and geotechnology to improve control of this mosquito.METHODOLOGY: From January to December of 2017, ovitraps were set up in five different neighborhoods (Centro, Vila Cardoso, Nazaré, São José e São Francisco). Positivity indices were calculated for each ovitraps, besides the egg density and average number of eggs. Some of the eggs were used for species identification. Mathematical models of correlation and logistic regression were used to evaluate the influence of abiotic factors on egg distribution during each month. Spatial analysis was carried out using georeferencing.
    RESULTS: A total of 4,453 eggs were counted, with A. aegypti and A. albopictus present in each month and neighborhood. The mathematical models show that rainfall can result in a significant increase in the number of eggs. Entomological calculation indicates that there is a high risk of dissemination of arboviruses in the area. Spatially, it was possible to indicate sites with the largest number of collected eggs, which may facilitate future interventions.
    CONCLUSIONS: As such, ovitraps have proven to be an effective and low cost method for the monitoring of Aedes spp., and that its use may help in arboviruses prevention campaigns.
    Keywords:  Arboviruses; Mosquitoes; Traps; Vectors
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12245
  14. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2019 Dec;13(4): 420-425
    Benallal KE, Garni R, Bouiba L, Harrat Z.
      Background: Based on the reporting of the presence of stripped mosquitoes by a citizen in the Algiers residential neighborhood of Bir-Khadem, where residents experienced huge daytime mosquito nuisance an entomological investigation was carried out in July 2016.Methods: Ovitraps and BG sentinel traps baited with Lure were used during three consecutive days to collect adult mosquitoes. Eighteen residential houses of the Bir-Khadem neighborhood were also inspected to search larvae breeding sites such as water fountains, baskets and flowerpots.
    Results: A total of 57 Aedes albopictus specimens were collected in five villas, consisting of 21 eggs, 20 larvae and 16 adults.
    Conclusion: This is the first record of this invasive species in Algiers.
    Keywords:  Aedes albopictus; Algeria; Algiers; Arbovirus; Mosquitoes
  15. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 May 08. 14(5): e0008216
    Ayres CFJ, Seixas G, Borrego S, Marques C, Monteiro I, Marques CS, Gouveia B, Leal S, Troco AD, Fortes F, Parreira R, Pinto J, Sousa CA.
      The extensive use of insecticides for vector control has led to the development of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations on a global scale, which has significantly compromised control actions. Insecticide resistance, and its underlying mechanisms, has been investigated in several countries, mostly in South American and Asian countries. In Africa, however, studies reporting insecticide resistance are rare and data on resistance mechanisms, notably knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations, is scarce. In this study, the recently described V410L kdr mutation is reported for the first time in old world Ae. aegypti populations, namely from Angola and Madeira island. Two additional kdr mutations, V1016I and F1534C, are also reported for the first time in populations from Angola and Cape Verde. Significant associations with the resistance phenotype were found for both V410L and V1016I individually as well as for tri-locus genotypes in the Angolan population. However, no association was found in Madeira island, probably due to the presence of a complex pattern of multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in the local Ae. aegypti population. These results suggest that populations carrying the same kdr mutations may respond differently to the same insecticide, stressing the need for complementary studies when assessing the impact of kdr resistance mechanisms in the outcome of insecticide-based control strategies.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008216
  16. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020 May 01. pii: E67. [Epub ahead of print]5(2):
    Ahmad Zaki Z, Che Dom N, Ahmed Alhothily I.
      Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is an effective biological insecticide for killing mosquito larvae. However, choosing the suitable application method for larviciding is critical in increasing its effectiveness. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Bti (VectoBac®) WG using various applications at high-rise buildings. Three different applications of Bti treatment were applied at three high-rise buildings in Bandar Saujana Putra. The ULV machine is used for Pangsapuri Impian, a mist blower for Pangsapuri Seri Saujana and a pressured sprayer for BSP 21. BSP Skypark does not undergo treatment and acts as a control. The efficacy of Bti treatment was measured by analyzing the ovitrap surveillance data collected (POI and MLT) for pre and post-treatment. Post-treatment ovitrap surveillance indicates that the Aedes sp. mosquito density was lower than the density at the time of pre-treatment surveillance. Overall, the Aedes albopictus species in both an indoor and outdoor environment setting had shown a reduction. The highest Aedes sp. density reduction is seen through the use of mist blowers in outdoor settings for Aedes albopictus, (%POI reduction = 87.4%; %MLT reduction = 93.8%). The mist blower yielded results that is significantly higher compared to other larviciding applications; the order from greatest to the least was mist blower > pressured sprayer > ULV. It can be concluded that each application produces different degrees of effectiveness in reducing the Aedes sp. density in different environmental settings.
    Keywords:  Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti); high-rise buildings; larviciding applications
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020067
  17. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 May 04.
    Skinner EB, Murphy A, Jansen CC, Shivas MA, McCallum H, Onn MB, Reid SA, Peel AJ.
      Transmission of vector-borne pathogens can vary in complexity from single-vector, single-host systems through to multivector, multihost vertebrate systems. Understanding the dynamics of transmission is important for disease prevention efforts, but is dependent on disentangling complex interactions within coupled natural systems. Ross River virus (RRV) is a multivector multihost pathogen responsible for the greatest number of notified vector-borne pathogen infections in humans in Australia. Current evidence suggests that nonhuman vertebrates are critical for the maintenance and spillover of RRV into mosquito populations. Yet, there is a limited knowledge of which mosquito vector species and amplifying vertebrate host species are most important for transmission of RRV to humans. We conducted field surveys of nonhuman vertebrates and mosquitoes in the RRV endemic city of Brisbane, Australia, to assess the effect of vector and host community structure on human RRV notifications. Six suburbs were selected across a gradient of human disease notification rates. Differences in vertebrate and mosquito compositions were observed across all suburbs. Suburbs with higher RRV notification rates contained greater vertebrate biomass (dominated by the presence of horses) and higher mosquito abundances. This study suggests that horse-mosquito interactions should be considered in more detail and that vertebrate biomass and mosquito abundance be incorporated into future RRV modeling studies and considered in public health strategies for RRV management.
    Keywords:  abundance; arbovirus ecology; competence; diversity; mosquito; vertebrate
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2585
  18. Parasit Vectors. 2020 May 06. 13(1): 228
    Gunathilaka N, Ranathunga T, Hettiarachchi D, Udayanga L, Abeyewickreme W.
      BACKGROUND: Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are considered a novel group of insecticides to control mosquitoes. Novaluron is an IGR with benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, which inhibits chitin synthesis in insects and can reduce insect population density; it is also known to have a high margin of safety for mammals.METHODS: The effective minimum concentration of novaluron formulation EC10 was tested. Six pineapple plantations [control (n = 3) and test (n = 3)] were selected from Meerigama Medical Officer of Health area in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka. Fifteen plots (10 × 10 m) were demarcated in each site with a 200 m distance apart. Leaf axils of 450 pineapple plants (30 plants × 15 plots) were screened for immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes weekly for 12 weeks. The required concentration (20 ppm) of novaluron was sprayed onto the selected pineapple plants (n = 1350) individually in 3 selected test sites for 5-10 s. The reduction in the vector population was interpreted as the percentage of reduction in immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes.
    RESULTS: The 100% mortality of the Ae. aegypti larvae within 24 h was observed at 20 ppm (0.05 ml of novaluron 100 g/l in 250 ml of water) as the minimum dose. Variation in the number of Aedes larvae present in the control and intervention sites was found to be significantly different throughout the entire observational period (χ2 = 128.29, df = 11, P < 0.001). The total elimination of Aedes larvae continued for up to 2 weeks and a 50% reduction was observed until the 8th week.
    CONCLUSIONS: The present study emphasizes that novaluron (10% EC) can be used as an effective larvicide at the treatment dose of 20 ppm. The residual effect of the IGR lasted for 12 weeks with a functional efficacy of 8 weeks. The 100% reduction of larval breeding was observed up to the 2nd week after application and the percentage reduction of immature stages remained > 50% until the 8th week. The lowest reduction (34.2%) was observed at 12 weeks after the initial treatment. Therefore, re-treatment may be recommended based on the reduction in the efficacy of the IGR.
    Keywords:  Aedes; Field efficacy; Insect growth regulator; Novaluron; Pineapple plantation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04109-y
  19. Sci Rep. 2020 May 04. 10(1): 7482
    Fagbohun IK, Idowu ET, Otubanjo OA, Awolola TS.
      Susceptibility and PBO synergist bioassays were done using 3-5 days old female Anopheles mosquito collected from Lagos State, Nigeria with WHO test papers DDT (4%), permethrin (0.75%), Bendiocarb (1%) and PBO (4%) according to standard procedures. The activities of cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterases were determined using biochemical assays. The presence of kdr-w, kdr-e and Ace-1R mutations were examined using molecular assays. Resistance to DDT and permethrin in An gambiae s.s from the four Local Government Areas (LGAs) was recorded while suspected resistance to bendiocarb was recorded in mosquitoes from Alimosho and Kosofe LGAs. PBO synergist reduced the knockdown time and also recorded significantly (P < 0.05) higher 24 hrs percentage mortality compared to non-synergized bioassays. Increased activities of detoxifying enzymes was recorded in wild mosquito compared to the insecticides susceptible laboratory strain and this was significant (P < 0.05) in P450s, esterase α and β. Kdr-w was detected in An. gambiae s.s from all the LGAs, kdr-e (L1014S) was detected in Alimosho, Kosofe and Ibeju-Lekki, while the Ace-1R gene was detected in Alimosho and Kosofe. Results from this study provide evidence for resistance of An. gambiae from Lagos State to multiple classes of neurotoxic insecticides with multiple resistance mechanisms to these insecticides.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64412-7
  20. Sci Rep. 2020 May 05. 10(1): 7504
    Yurchenko AA, Masri RA, Khrabrova NV, Sibataev AK, Fritz ML, Sharakhova MV.
      Understanding the population structure and mechanisms of taxa diversification is important for organisms responsible for the transmission of human diseases. Two vectors of West Nile virus, Culex pipiens pipiens and Cx. p. molestus, exhibit epidemiologically important behavioral and physiological differences, but the whole-genome divergence between them was unexplored. The goal of this study is to better understand the level of genomic differentiation and population structures of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. molestus from different continents. We sequenced and compared the whole genomes of 40 individual mosquitoes from two locations in Eurasia and two in North America. Principal Component, ADMIXTURE, and neighbor joining analyses of the nuclear genomes identified two major intercontinental, monophyletic clusters of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. molestus. The level of genomic differentiation between the subspecies was uniform along chromosomes. The ADMIXTURE analysis determined signatures of admixture in Cx. p. pipens populations but not in Cx. p. molestus populations. Comparison of mitochondrial genomes among the specimens showed a paraphyletic origin of the major haplogroups between the subspecies but a monophyletic structure between the continents. Thus, our study identified that Cx. p. molestus and Cx. p. pipiens represent different evolutionary units with monophyletic origin that have undergone incipient ecological speciation.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63305-z
  21. Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2020 Aug;10 e00149
    Esayas E, Woyessa A, Massebo F.
      Malaria is a complex disease and its distribution is not random in endemic areas, and hence areas with low malaria transmission require fine spatial sampling and careful follow-up to identify the hot spots for effective resource utilization to control malaria. The present study is aimed to assess malaria infection in both humans and mosquitoes in a small residential lowland area of southern Ethiopia from July to December 2016. A repeated cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Kolla-Shara Kebele (village) to describe the distribution of malaria and infectious mosquitoes. For the parasitological surveys, a total of 90 households were randomly selected from five sub-villages in equal proportion. About a quarter of the total households included for the surveys were randomly selected for entomological surveys. A P-value of <0.05 was used as a cut-off point for statistical significance. More than a third (35.1%, 46 of 131) febrile cases were microscopically confirmed malaria positive. Above half (58.7%, 27 of 46) of those positive cases were due to P. falciparum and the rest (41.3%, 19 of 46) were due to P. vivax. This study identified two of the five sub-villages as independent clusters with higher risk of malaria infection. Four times higher relative risk (RR) of malaria infection was documented in Abullo sub-village compared to the others (RR = 3.87; P = 0.002). Most of the falciparum malaria cases were aggregated in these sub-villages. About six infectious bites of An. arabiensis per person was recorded during the survey. The infectious bite per person was 17.0 in Abullo and 10.6 in Erze clusters where higher human infections were detected. It is clearly indicated that a smaller portion of the population carry higher malaria cases and infectious bites. Malaria interventions targeting such areas could be effective in the context of malaria elimination strategy in Ethiopia, which consider district as a planning and implementing unit. Future research would preferably be designed to perform long duration of follow-up to identify the appropriate period for interventions and more participants with more heterogeneous villages and districts.
    Keywords:  Anopheles arabiensis; Infectious bites; Kolla-Shara village; Malaria clustering; Malaria infection
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2020.e00149
  22. Nat Commun. 2020 May 04. 11(1): 2187
    Herren JK, Mbaisi L, Mararo E, Makhulu EE, Mobegi VA, Butungi H, Mancini MV, Oundo JW, Teal ET, Pinaud S, Lawniczak MKN, Jabara J, Nattoh G, Sinkins SP.
      A possible malaria control approach involves the dissemination in mosquitoes of inherited symbiotic microbes to block Plasmodium transmission. However, in the Anopheles gambiae complex, the primary African vectors of malaria, there are limited reports of inherited symbionts that impair transmission. We show that a vertically transmitted microsporidian symbiont (Microsporidia MB) in the An. gambiae complex can impair Plasmodium transmission. Microsporidia MB is present at moderate prevalence in geographically dispersed populations of An. arabiensis in Kenya, localized to the mosquito midgut and ovaries, and is not associated with significant reductions in adult host fecundity or survival. Field-collected Microsporidia MB infected An. arabiensis tested negative for P. falciparum gametocytes and, on experimental infection with P. falciparum, sporozoites aren't detected in Microsporidia MB infected mosquitoes. As a microbe that impairs Plasmodium transmission that is non-virulent and vertically transmitted, Microsporidia MB could be investigated as a strategy to limit malaria transmission.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16121-y
  23. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2019 Dec;13(4): 378-390
    Nikookar SH, Fazeli-Dinan M, Ziapour SP, Ghorbani F, Salim-Abadi Y, Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Enayati AA.
      Background: Culex pipiens play an important role in transmission of infectious diseases. Vector control by chemical pesticides, leads inevitably to resistance development. Understanding the underlying resistance mechanisms can help improve the control programmes and insecticide resistance management.Methods: The total contents of cytochrome p450s and the activities of glutathione S-transferases, alpha- and beta-esterases and inhibition rates of acetylcholine esterase (by propoxur) were measured in the field population of Cx. pipiens collected from Sari County, North of Iran, in 2016 and the results were compared with those of the laboratory susceptible strain according to the biochemical assay methods of WHO for adult mosquitoes. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the mean values of enzyme activities/contents between filed and laboratory susceptible populations.
    Results: The enzyme ratio of cytochrome p450s, alpha- and beta-esterases in the field population was 2.07, 3.72 and 1.36 respectively when compared with the results of the laboratory population. Although not statistically significant, the mean GSTs activities in the field population was marginally less than the laboratory population (ER=0.92). Acetylcholinesterase was insensitive to propoxur in 62.82% of the individuals of the tested field population. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) between all values of the activities/contents of the enzyme in the field population except for GSTs compared with the laboratory susceptible strain. The highest enzyme activity was related to alpha esterase.
    Conclusion: The present study showed a range of metabolic mechanisms, comprising p450s and esterases combined with target site insensitivity of AChE, contributing to organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid resistance in the field population of Cx. pipiens.
    Keywords:  Culex pipiens; Enzyme; Insecticide resistance; Iran
  24. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2019 Dec;13(4): 362-368
    Ileke KD, Adesina JM.
      Background: Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) transmit malaria parasite that causes malaria fever in humans, causing millions of deaths every year among infants in tropical countries. This study was undertaken to assess the toxicity of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum against pre-adult stages and adult malaria vector, An. gambiae and non-targeted aquatic organism, fingerlings of Clarias garipienus.Methods: Ethalonic extracts of O. basilicum and O. gratissimum were prepared according to the method described by WHO. The larvae and pupae of An. gambiae were exposed to plant extracts for 24h and their mortality was recorded. Toxicity of Ocimum species on non-targeted organism, fingerlings of C. garipienus was also investigated.
    Results: Ocimum basilicum showed remarkably potency against pre-adult stages and adults An. gambiae causing 100% mortality at 0.4% concentration within 24h of treatment. The LC50 and LC90 of O. basilicum were lower than O. grattisimum in all stages of An. gambiae studied. Ocimum basilicum and O. gratissimum extracts significantly reduced the number of bites by the vector given a range of 72.25% to 81.75% protection. Ocimum species at the tested concentrations did not significantly reduce the number of fingerlings introduced.
    Conclusion: Ocimum species at the tested concentrations did not significantly reduce the numbers of non-targeted organisms, fingerlings introduced. Therefore, O. basilicum and O. gratissimum could be used to reduce malaria prevalence in the endemic areas of Nigeria as it poses no threat to aquatic organisms.
    Keywords:  Anopheles gambiae; Clarias garipienus; Insecticide; Ocimum basilicum; Ocimum gratissimum
  25. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol. 2020 Jun;pii: S1877-5845(20)30014-9. [Epub ahead of print]33 100336
    Poh KC, Medeiros MCI, Hamer GL.
      In 2012, the United States experienced one of the largest outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV)-associated deaths, with the majority occurring in Dallas County (Co.), Texas (TX) and surrounding areas. In this study, logistic mixed models were used to identify associations between the landscape, human population, and WNV-infected Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes during the 2012 WNV epidemic in Dallas Co. We found increased probabilities for WNV-positive mosquitoes in north and central Dallas Co. The most significant predictors of the presence of WNV in Cx. quinquefasciatus pools were increased urbanization (based on an index composed of greater population density, lower normalized difference vegetation index, higher coverage of urban land types, and more impervious surfaces), older human populations, and lower elevation. These relationships between the landscape, sociodemographics, and risk of enzootic transmission identified regions of Dallas Co., TX with highest risk of spillover to human disease during the 2012 WNV epidemic.
    Keywords:  Culex quinquefasciatus; Demographics; Landscape; Risk; West Nile virus
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sste.2020.100336
  26. Front Immunol. 2020 ;11 592
    Schrauf S, Tschismarov R, Tauber E, Ramsauer K.
      Arboviruses represent major challenges to public health, particularly in tropical, and subtropical regions, and a substantial risk to other parts of the world as respective vectors extend their habitats. In recent years, two viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, Chikungunya and Zika virus, have gathered increased interest. After decades of regionally constrained outbreaks, both viruses have recently caused explosive outbreaks on an unprecedented scale, causing immense suffering and massive economic burdens in affected regions. Chikungunya virus causes an acute febrile illness that often transitions into a chronic manifestation characterized by debilitating arthralgia and/or arthritis in a substantial subset of infected individuals. Zika infection frequently presents as a mild influenza-like illness, often subclinical, but can cause severe complications such as congenital malformations in pregnancy and neurological disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome. With no specific treatments or vaccines available, vector control remains the most effective measure to manage spread of these diseases. Given that both viruses cause antibody responses that confer long-term, possibly lifelong protection and that such responses are cross-protective against the various circulating genetic lineages, the development of Zika and Chikungunya vaccines represents a promising route for disease control. In this review we provide a brief overview on Zika and Chikungunya viruses, the etiology and epidemiology of the illnesses they cause and the host immune response against them, before summarizing past and current efforts to develop vaccines to alleviate the burden caused by these emerging diseases. The development of the urgently needed vaccines is hampered by several factors including the unpredictable epidemiology, feasibility of rapid clinical trial implementation during outbreaks and regulatory pathways. We will give an overview of the current developments.
    Keywords:  Chikungunya virus; Zika virus; arbovirus; emerging diseases; vaccine development
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00592
  27. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 May 06.
    Zheng X, Cai W, Xu X, Jia Z, Wei Y.
      Background: Aedes albopictus is a major vector for transmission of many viral pathogens. Deltamethrin resistance was analyzed by catching A. albopictus in the field; the analysis effect is affected by many insecticides that often interact with A. albopictus in the field environment. Materials and Methods: This study examined the development of deltamethrin resistance in A. albopictus mosquitoes under controlled laboratory conditions, focusing on morphological changes, reproductive fitness, and mutation of the knockdown resistance (kdr) gene. Deltamethrin-resistant strains were selected up to the 20th generation. To determine the level of resistance, the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of deltamethrin in the larvae was obtained, followed by the resistance ratio (RR), and in adult mosquitoes, mortality rates were calculated using the contact tube method. Results: An increase in the LC50 from 0.0070 to 0.0563 mg/L was observed in resistant versus sensitive strains, with an increase of 11.26 in the RR. Overall, the results of the larval resistance bioassay showed that resistant larvae had medium resistance; however, by the 20th generation, adult mosquitoes showed strong resistance. PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of sodium channel domain III gene fragments were subsequently carried out using selected resistant and sensitive female mosquitoes. As a result, a number of base mutations were observed in the kdr gene in the resistant strain; however, no amino acid sequence mutations were observed, suggesting that base sequence changes did not affect protein expression. Results of morphological changes between resistant and sensitive strains showed that significant differences in the body, foreleg, mid leg, and hind leg length, as well as wing length and width, antenna length, and proboscis length were observed between 18th-generation resistant and sensitive strains of A. albopictus. On analysis of reproductive fitness associated with deltamethrin resistance in selection of mosquitoes, observation results showed differences between resistant and sensitive strains; the female/male ratio of mosquitoes decreased after pupa hatching, with more females and fewer males. Conclusions: The model of deltamethrin-resistant selection of A. albopictus was successfully established in the laboratory. The morphological phenotypes of the deltamethrin-resistant population of A. albopictus mosquitoes had changed. The kdr gene of the 19th and 20th generations of deltamethrin-resistant A. albopictus mosquitoes had silent mutations at several sites. After deltamethrin resistance selection, the female/male ratio of mosquitoes increased after pupa hatching, with more females and fewer males, hinting at increased chances of more female mosquitoes transmitting diseases.
    Keywords:  A. albopictus; deltamethrin; kdr gene; morphology; resistance screening
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2584
  28. Prev Med Rep. 2020 Jun;18 101097
    Trotochaud M, Kirk Sell T, Ravi SJ, Andrada CI, Nuzzo JB.
      In 2015 and 2016, outbreaks of the Zika virus began occurring in the Americas and the Caribbean. Following the introduction of this new threat, the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued testing guidance for the nation's state public health laboratories. We collected and analyzed testing guidance for all fifty states and the District of Columbia for both 2017 and 2018. In both years, state testing guidance was consistent for men and non-pregnant women, but there was notable variation in guidance for pregnant women. In addition, there were changes between the two years as testing algorithms shifted toward guidance that recommended testing in more limited circumstances. States adopted large, or complete, portions of CDC testing guidance, but were not required to conform completely, 33% of states had identical guidance in 2017 and 49% in 2018. Some of these trends, such as specifying that testing be contingent on travel, or sexual contact with an individual who has recently traveled, to an area where the Zika virus was circulating, presents a potential deficiency in the United States surveillance capacity. Understanding variations in state testing guidance enables public health professionals to better understand ongoing surveillance. This analysis provides insight into the testing practices for the various states across the country. Better understanding of how states approach Zika testing, and how that testing changes over time, will increase the public health community's ability to interpret future Zika case counts.
    Keywords:  CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; DC, Washington District of Columbia; Testing guidance; US, United States; United States; Zika virus
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2020.101097
  29. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020 May 02. pii: E68. [Epub ahead of print]5(2):
    Douglas KO, Dutta SK, Martina B, Anfasa F, Samuels TA, Hilaire MG.
      Analysis of the temporal, seasonal and demographic distribution of dengue virus (DENV) infections in Barbados was conducted using national surveillance data from a total of 3994 confirmed dengue cases. Diagnosis was confirmed either by DENV-specific real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), or non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests; a case fatality rate of 0.4% (10/3994) was observed. The prevalence rate of dengue fever (DF) varied from 27.5 to 453.9 cases per 100,000 population among febrile patients who sought medical attention annually. DF cases occurred throughout the year with low level of transmission observed during the dry season (December to June), then increased transmission during rainy season (July to November) peaking in October. Three major dengue epidemics occurred in Barbados during 2010, 2013 and possibly 2016 with an emerging three-year interval. DF prevalence rate among febrile patients who sought medical attention overall was highest among the 10-19 years old age group. The highest DF hospitalisation prevalence rate was observed in 2013. Multiple serotypes circulated during the study period and Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) was the most prevalent serotype during 2010, whilst DENV-1 was the most prevalent serotype in 2013. Two DENV-1 strains from the 2013 DENV epidemic were genetically more closely related to South East Asian strains, than Caribbean or South American strains, and represent the first ever sequencing of DENV strains in Barbados. However, the small sample size (n = 2) limits any meaningful conclusions. DF prevalence rates were not significantly different between females and males. Public health planning should consider DENV inter-epidemic periodicity, the current COVID-19 pandemic and similar clinical symptomology between DF and COVID-19. The implementation of routine sequencing of DENV strains to obtain critical data can aid in battling DENV epidemics in Barbados.
    Keywords:  Barbados; Caribbean; DENV; arbovirus; dengue; epidemics; epidemiology; genetic sequencing; public health; severe dengue
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020068