bims-moremu Biomed News
on Molecular regulators of muscle mass
Issue of 2022‒07‒24
43 papers selected by
Anna Vainshtein
Craft Science Inc.

  1. BMC Biol. 2022 Jul 18. 20(1): 164
      BACKGROUND: Mitochondria have an essential role in regulating metabolism and integrate environmental and physiological signals to affect processes such as cellular bioenergetics and response to stress. In the metabolically active skeletal muscle, mitochondrial biogenesis is one important component contributing to a broad set of mitochondrial adaptations occurring in response to signals, which converge on the biogenesis transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and is central to the beneficial effects of exercise in skeletal muscle. We investigated the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1), which interacts with PGC-1α in regulating transcriptional responses to exercise in skeletal muscle.RESULTS: In human skeletal muscle, TUG1 gene expression was upregulated post-exercise and was also positively correlated with the increase in PGC-1α gene expression (PPARGC1A). Tug1 knockdown (KD) in differentiating mouse myotubes led to decreased Ppargc1a gene expression, impaired mitochondrial respiration and morphology, and enhanced myosin heavy chain slow isoform protein expression. In response to a Ca2+-mediated stimulus, Tug1 KD prevented an increase in Ppargc1a expression. RNA sequencing revealed that Tug1 KD impacted mitochondrial Ca2+ transport genes and several downstream PGC-1α targets. Finally, Tug1 KD modulated the expression of ~300 genes that were upregulated in response to an in vitro model of exercise in myotubes, including genes involved in regulating myogenesis.
    CONCLUSIONS: We found that TUG1 is upregulated in human skeletal muscle after a single session of exercise, and mechanistically, Tug1 regulates transcriptional networks associated with mitochondrial calcium handling, muscle differentiation and myogenesis. These data demonstrate that lncRNA Tug1 exerts regulation over fundamental aspects of skeletal muscle biology and response to exercise stimuli.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Muscle; Non-coding RNA; Transcriptome
  2. Hum Genomics. 2022 Jul 22. 16(1): 24
      BACKGROUND: More than half of human protein-coding genes have an alternative transcription start site (TSS). We aimed to investigate the contribution of alternative TSSs to the acute-stress-induced transcriptome response in human tissue (skeletal muscle) using the cap analysis of gene expression approach. TSSs were examined at baseline and during recovery after acute stress (a cycling exercise).RESULTS: We identified 44,680 CAGE TSS clusters (including 3764 first defined) belonging to 12,268 genes and annotated for the first time 290 TSSs belonging to 163 genes. The transcriptome dynamically changes during the first hours after acute stress; the change in the expression of 10% of genes was associated with the activation of alternative TSSs, indicating differential TSSs usage. The majority of the alternative TSSs do not increase proteome complexity suggesting that the function of thousands of alternative TSSs is associated with the fine regulation of mRNA isoform expression from a gene due to the transcription factor-specific activation of various alternative TSSs. We identified individual muscle promoter regions for each TSS using muscle open chromatin data (ATAC-seq and DNase-seq). Then, using the positional weight matrix approach we predicted time course activation of "classic" transcription factors involved in response of skeletal muscle to contractile activity, as well as diversity of less/un-investigated factors.
    CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptome response induced by acute stress related to activation of the alternative TSSs indicates that differential TSSs usage is an essential mechanism of fine regulation of gene response to stress stimulus. A comprehensive resource of accurate TSSs and individual promoter regions for each TSS in muscle was created. This resource together with the positional weight matrix approach can be used to accurate prediction of TFs in any gene(s) of interest involved in the response to various stimuli, interventions or pathological conditions in human skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  CAGE; Differential TSSs usage; Promoter shift; Transcription factor; Transcription start site
  3. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2022 Sep;31 101309
      Ribonucleotides are basic monomeric building blocks for RNA considered as conditionally essential nutrients. They are normally produced in sufficient quantity, but can become insufficient upon stressful challenges. The administration of pyrimidine nucleotides, such as cytidine-5'-monophosphate (5'-CMP) and uridine-5'-monophosphate (5'-UMP), enables rats to endure prolonged exercise. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. To investigate these mechanisms, we studied the effect of 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP on muscular differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis in myoblast C2C12 cells. 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP were found to increase the mRNA levels of myogenin, which is a myogenic regulatory protein expressed during the final differentiation step and fusion of myoblasts into myotubes. 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP also promoted myoblast differentiation into myotube cells. 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP further increased the mRNA levels of PGC-1α which regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and skeletal muscle fiber type. In addition, 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and enhanced mRNA levels of slow-muscle myosin heavy chains. Moreover, cytidine and uridine, nucleosides corresponding to 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP, markedly promoted myotube formation in C2C12 cells. Considering the metabolism and absorption of nucleotides, the active bodies underlying the effects observed with 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP could be cytidine and uridine. In conclusion, our results indicate that 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP can promote myogenic differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis, as well as increase slow-twitch fiber via the activation of myogenin and PGC-1α. In addition, 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP may be considered as safe and effective agents to enhance muscle growth and improve the endurance in skeletal muscles.
    Keywords:  5'-CMP, Cytidine-5′-monophosphate; 5'-UMP, Uridine-5′-monophosphate; BS, Bovine serum; Cytidine-5′-monophosphate; Endurance; FBS, Fetal bovine serum; MRF, Myogenic regulatory factor; Mitochondria; MyHC, Myosin heavy chanin; Myogenic differentiation; Nutrition; Uridine-5′-monophosphate
  4. Cell Commun Signal. 2022 Jul 18. 20(1): 107
      BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a global health problem. It often leads to a decline in the differentiation capacity of myoblasts and progressive loss of muscle mass, which in turn results in deterioration of skeletal muscle function. However, effective therapies against skeletal muscle diseases are unavailable.METHODS: Skeletal muscle mass and differentiation ability were determined in db/+ and db/db mice. Transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches were used to explore the genetic mechanism regulating myoblast differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts.
    RESULTS: In this study, the relatively uncharacterized solute carrier family gene Slc2a6 was found significantly up-regulated during myogenic differentiation and down-regulated during diabetes-induced muscle atrophy. Moreover, RNAi of Slc2a6 impaired the differentiation and myotube formation of C2C12 myoblasts. Both metabolomics and RNA-seq analyses showed that the significantly differentially expressed genes (e.g., LDHB) and metabolites (e.g., Lactate) during the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts post-Slc2a6-RNAi were enriched in the glycolysis pathway. Furthermore, we show that Slc2a6 regulates the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts partly through the glycolysis pathway by targeting LDHB, which affects lactic acid accumulation.
    CONCLUSION: Our study broadens the understanding of myogenic differentiation and offers the Slc2a6-LDHB axis as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes-associated muscle atrophy. Video abstract.
    Keywords:  Lactate; Myogenesis; Slc2a6; T2DM
  5. Mol Med. 2022 Jul 16. 28(1): 81
      BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) that catalyze removal of acetyl groups from histone proteins, are strongly associated with several diseases including diabetes, yet the precise regulatory events that control the levels and activity of the HDACs are not yet well elucidated.METHODS: Levels of H19 and HDACs were evaluated in skeletal muscles of normal and diabetic db/db mice by Western Blot analysis. C2C12 cells were differentiated and transfected with either the scramble or H19 siRNA and the levels of HDACs and Prkab2, Pfkfb3, Srebf1, Socs2, Irs1 and Ppp2r5b were assessed by Western Blot analysis and qRT-PCR, respectively. Levels of H9, HDAC6 and IRS1 were evaluated in skeletal muscles of scramble/ H19 siRNA injected mice and chow/HFD-fed mice.
    RESULTS: Our data show that the lncRNA H19 and HDAC6 exhibit inverse patterns of expression in the skeletal muscle of diabetic db/db mice and in C2C12 cells, H19 inhibition led to significant increase in HDAC activity and in the levels of HDAC6, both at the transcript and protein levels. This was associated with downregulation of IRS1 levels that were prevented in the presence of the HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, and HDAC6 siRNA suggesting the lncRNA H19-HDAC6 axis possibly regulates cellular IRS1 levels. Such patterns of H19, HDAC6 and IRS1 expression were also validated and confirmed in high fat diet-fed mice where as compared to normal chow-fed mice, H19 levels were significantly inhibited in the skeletal muscle of these mice and this was accompanied with elevated HDAC6 levels and decreased IRS1 levels. In-vivo inhibition of H19 led to significant increase in HDAC6 levels and this was associated with a decrease in IRS1 levels in the skeletal muscle.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a critical role for the lncRNA H19-HDAC6 axis in regulating IRS1 levels in the skeletal muscle during diabetes and therefore restoring normal H19 levels might hold a therapeutic potential for the management of aberrant skeletal muscle physiology during insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
    Keywords:  Diabetes; Epigenetics; HDAC6; IRS1; Insulin resistance; Skeletal muscle; lncRNA H19
  6. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 920034
      Recent evidence has shown that mitochondrial respiratory function contributes to exercise performance and metabolic health. Given that lactate is considered a potential signaling molecule that induces mitochondrial adaptations, we tested the hypothesis that lactate would change mitochondrial respiratory function in skeletal muscle. Male ICR mice (8 weeks old) received intraperitoneal injection of PBS or sodium lactate (1 g/kg BW) 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Mitochondria were isolated from freshly excised gastrocnemius muscle using differential centrifugation and were used for all analyses. Lactate administration significantly enhanced pyruvate + malate- and glutamate + malate-induced (complex I-driven) state 3 (maximal/ATP synthesis-coupled) respiration, but not state 2 (basal/proton conductance) respiration. In contrast, lactate administration significantly decreased succinate + rotenone-induced (complex II-driven) state 3 and 2 respiration. No significant differences were observed in malate + octanoyl-l-carnitine-induced state 3 or 2 respiration. The enzymatic activity of complex I was tended to increase and those of complexes I + III and IV were significantly increased after lactate administration. No differences were observed in the activities of complexes II or II + III. Moreover, lactate administration increased the protein content of NDUFS4, a subunit of complex I, but not those of the other components. The present findings suggest that lactate alters mitochondrial respiratory function in skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  lactate; mitochondria; oxygen consumption rate; skeletal muscle; supercomplex
  7. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2022 Jul 21.
      The diaphragm is the main skeletal muscle responsible for inspiration and is susceptible to age-associated decline in function and morphology. Satellite cells in diaphragm fuse into unperturbed muscle fibers throughout life, yet their role in adaptations to hypoxia in diaphragm is unknown. Given their continual fusion, we hypothesize that satellite cell depletion will negatively impact adaptations to hypoxia in the diaphragm, particularly with aging. We used the Pax7CreER/CreER:R26RDTA/DTA genetic mouse model of inducible satellite cell depletion to investigate diaphragm responses to hypoxia in adult (6 months) and aged (22 months) male mice. The mice were subjected to normobaric hypoxia at 10% FiO2 or normoxia for 4 weeks. We showed that satellite cell depletion had no effect on diaphragm muscle fiber cross-sectional area, fiber type distribution, myonuclear density, or regulation of extracellular matrix in either adult or aged mice. Further, we showed lower muscle fiber cross-sectional area with hypoxia and age (main effects), while extracellular matrix content was higher and satellite cell abundance was lower with age (main effect) in diaphragm. Lastly, a greater number of Pax3-mRNA+ cells was observed in diaphragm muscle of satellite cell depleted mice independent of hypoxia (main effect), potentially as a compensatory mechanism for the loss of satellite cells. We conclude that satellite cells are not required for diaphragm muscle adaptations to hypoxia in either adult or aged mice.
    Keywords:  Aging; Diaphragm; Hypoxia; Pax3; Satellite cells
  8. Nat Commun. 2022 Jul 20. 13(1): 4184
      The NAD+-dependent SIRT1-7 family of protein deacetylases plays a vital role in various molecular pathways related to stress response, DNA repair, aging and metabolism. Increased activity of individual sirtuins often exerts beneficial effects in pathophysiological conditions whereas reduced activity is usually associated with disease conditions. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT6 deacetylates H3K56ac in myofibers to suppress expression of utrophin, a dystrophin-related protein stabilizing the sarcolemma in absence of dystrophin. Inactivation of Sirt6 in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice reduced damage of myofibers, ameliorated dystrophic muscle pathology, and improved muscle function, leading to attenuated activation of muscle stem cells (MuSCs). ChIP-seq and locus-specific recruitment of SIRT6 using a CRISPR-dCas9/gRNA approach revealed that SIRT6 is critical for removal of H3K56ac at the Downstream utrophin Enhancer (DUE), which is indispensable for utrophin expression. We conclude that epigenetic manipulation of utrophin expression is a promising approach for the treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD).
  9. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 880787
      Purpose: Although the role of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT3) in cachexia due to the association of circulating IL-6 and muscle wasting has been extensively demonstrated, the effect of resistance training on STAT3 in mediating muscle atrophy in tumor-bearing mice is unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on inflammatory cytokines and oxidative-mediated STAT3 activation and muscle loss prevention in tumor-bearing mice.Methods: Male Swiss mice were inoculated with Ehrlich tumor cells and exposed or not exposed to resistance exercise protocol of ladder climbing. Skeletal muscle STAT3 protein content was measured, compared between groups, and tested for possible association with plasma interleukins and local oxidative stress markers. Components of the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy pathways were assessed by real-time PCR or immunoblotting.
    Results: Resistance training prevented STAT3 excessive activation in skeletal muscle mediated by the overabundance of plasma IL-6 and muscle oxidative stress. These mechanisms contributed to preventing the increased key genes and proteins of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy pathways in tumor-bearing mice, such as Atrogin-1, LC3B-II, and Beclin-1. Beyond preventing muscle atrophy, RT also prevented strength loss and impaired locomotor capacity, hallmarks of sarcopenia.
    Conclusion: Our results suggest that STAT3 inhibition is central in resistance exercise protective effects against cancer-induced muscle atrophy and strength loss.
    Keywords:  autophagy; cancer cachexia; muscle wasting; strength; ubiquitin-proteasome
  10. Physiol Genomics. 2022 Jul 18.
      Mechanical overload and nutrients influence skeletal muscle phenotype, with the combination sometimes having a synergistic effect. Muscle phenotypes influenced by these stimuli are mediated in part by changes to the muscle mRNA signature. However, the mechanical overload-sensitive gene programs that are influenced by nutrients remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify mechanical overload-sensitive gene programs that are influenced by nutrients and identify potential transcription factors that may differentiate the change in mRNA in response to mechanical overload versus nutrients. Nutrient deprived 12-week-old male mice were randomized to remain fasted or allowed access to food. All mice underwent a single bout of unilateral high force contractions of the tibialis anterior (TA). Four hours post-contractions TA muscles were extracted and content of 12 contraction-sensitive mRNAs were analyzed. The mRNA content of genes associated with Transcription, PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway, Z-Disc, Intracellular Signal Transduction, Cell Cycle, and Amino Acid Transport was altered by contractions without influence of nutrient consumption. Conversely, the mRNA content of genes associated with Transcription, Cell Cycle, FoxO Signaling Pathway, and Amino Acid Transport was altered by contractions with nutrition consumption influencing the change. We identified Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Activator protein 1 (AP-1) as transcription factors common amongst mRNAs that were primarily altered by mechanical overload regardless of feeding. Overall, these data provide a deeper molecular basis for the specific muscle phenotypes exclusive to mechanical overload versus those regulated by the addition of nutrients.
    Keywords:  AP-1 complex; STAT3; c-Jun; muscle function; transcription factor
  11. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2022 Jul 18.
      Satellite cells are required for muscle regeneration, remodeling, and repair through their activation, proliferation, and differentiation; however, how dietary factors regulate this process remains poorly understood. The L-Type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) transports amino acids, such as leucine, into mature myofibers, which then stimulates protein synthesis and anabolic signaling. However, whether LAT1 is expressed on myoblasts and is involved in regulating myogenesis is unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression and functional relevance of LAT1 during different stages of myogenesis and in response to growth and atrophic conditions in vitro. We determined that LAT1 is expressed by C2C12 and human primary myoblasts, and its gene expression is lower during differentiation (p<0.05). Pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown of LAT1 impaired myoblast viability, differentiation, and fusion (all p<0.05). LAT1 protein content in C2C12 myoblasts was not significantly altered in response to different leucine concentrations in cell culture media or in two in vitro atrophy models. However, LAT1 content was decreased in myotubes under atrophic conditions in vitro (p<0.05). These findings indicate that LAT1 is stable throughout myogenesis and in response to several in vitro conditions that induce muscle remodeling. Further, amino acid transport through LAT1 is required for normal myogenesis in vitro.
    Keywords:  Satellite cell; leucine; muscle stem cell; myoblast; protein
  12. Front Mol Biosci. 2022 ;9 904737
      The pursuit of better therapies for disorders creating deficiencies in skeletal muscle regeneration is in progress, and several biotoxins are used in skeletal muscle research. Since recombinant proteins derived from Lonomia obliqua bristles, recombinant Lonomia obliqua Stuart-factor activator (rLosac) and recombinant Lonomia obliqua prothrombin activator protease (rLopap) act as cytoprotective agents and promote cell survival, we hypothesize that both rLosac and rLopap favour the skeletal muscle regeneration process. In the present work, we investigate the ability of these recombinant proteins rLosac and rLopap to modulate the production of key mediators of the myogenic process. The expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), cell proliferation, the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the protein expression of cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2 were evaluated in C2C12 mouse myoblasts pre-treated with rLosac and rLopap. We found an increased proliferation of myoblasts, stimulated by both recombinant proteins. Moreover, these proteins modulated PGE2 release and MRFs activities. We also found an increased expression of the EP4 receptor in the proliferative phase of C2C12 cells, suggesting the involvement of this receptor in the effects of PGE2 in these cells. Moreover, the recombinant proteins inhibited the release of IL-6 and PGE2, which is induced by an inflammatory stimulus by IL-1β. This work reveals rLopap and rLosac as promising proteins to modulate processes involving tissue regeneration as occurs during skeletal muscle injury.
    Keywords:  differentiation; inflammation; myoblast; proliferation; prostaglandin E2
  13. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2022 Jul 22.
      6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) is a powerful driver of angiogenesis through its modulation of glycolytic metabolism within endothelial cells. Recent work has demonstrated that PFKFB3 modulates the response to muscle ischemia, however the cell specificity of these effects is not fully understood. In this study, we tested the impact of viral mediated expression of PFKFB3, driven by gene promoters specific for myofibers or endothelial cells, on ischemic hindlimb revascularization and muscle function. We hypothesized that both endothelium- and muscle-specific expression of PFKFB3 would attenuate limb pathology following femoral artery ligation. Male and female BALB/cJ mice were injected with adeno-associated virus encoding the either a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or PFKFB3 driven by either the human skeletal actin (ACTA1) or cadherin-5 (Cdh5) promoters. Four weeks after AAV treatment, mice were subjected to unilateral femoral artery ligation and limb perfusion and muscle function were assessed. Both endothelium- and muscle-specific PFKFB3 expression resulted in significantly more perfused capillaries within the ischemic limb muscle, but neither changed myofiber size/area. Muscle-, but not endothelium-specific, PFKFB3 expression significantly improved maximal force production in ischemic muscle (P=0.0005). Notably, there was a significant effect of sex on maximal force levels in both cohorts of mice (P=0.0075 and P=0.0481), indicating that female mice had higher ischemic muscle strength compared to male mice, regardless of treatment group. Taken together, these data demonstrate that while both muscle- and endothelium-specific expression of PFKFB3 enhanced ischemic revascularization, only muscle-specific PFKFB3 expression improved muscle function.
    Keywords:  endothelium; metabolism; myopathy; peripheral artery disease; vascular
  14. FASEB J. 2022 Aug;36(8): e22458
      Mechanosensors control muscle integrity as demonstrated in mice. However, no information is available in human muscle about the distribution of mechanosensors and their adaptations to mechanical loading and environmental conditions (hypoxia). Here, we hypothesized that mechanosensors show fiber-type-specific distributions and that loading and environmental conditions specifically regulate mechanosensors. We randomly subjected 28 healthy males to one of the following groups (n = 7 each) consisting of nine loading sessions within 3 weeks: normoxia moderate (NM), normoxia intensive (NI), hypoxia moderate (HM), and hypoxia intensive (HI). We took six biopsies: pre (T0), 4 h (T1), and 24 h (T2) after the third as well as 4 h (T3), 24 h (T4), and 72 h (T5) after the ninth training session. We analyzed subjects' maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2 max), maximal power output (Pmax), muscle fiber types and cross-sectional areas (CSA), fiber-type-specific integrin-linked kinase (ILK) localizations as well as ILK, vinculin and talin protein and gene expressions in dependence on loading and environmental conditions. V̇O2 max increased upon NM and HM, Pmax upon all interventions. Fiber types did not change, whereas CSA increased upon NI and HI, but decreased upon HM. ILK showed a type 2-specific fiber type localization. ILK, vinculin, and talin protein and gene expressions differed depending on loading and environmental conditions. Our data demonstrate that mechanosensors show fiber type-specific distributions and that exercise intensities rather than environmental variables influence their profiles in human muscles. These data are the first of their kind in human muscle and indicate that mechanosensors manage the mechanosensing at a fiber-type-specific resolution and that the intensity of mechanical stimulation has a major impact.
    Keywords:  exercise; humans; hypoxia; mechanical loading; skeletal muscle
  15. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2022 Jul 23. pii: glac139. [Epub ahead of print]
      Sarcopenia is an age-related condition of slow, progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, which contributes to frailty, increased risk of hospitalisation and mortality, and increased health care costs. The incidence of sarcopenia is predicted to increase to >200 million affected older adults worldwide over the next 40 years, highlighting the urgency for understanding biological mechanisms and developing effective interventions. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying sarcopenia remains incomplete. Iron in the muscle is important for various metabolic functions including oxygen supply and electron transfer during energy production, yet these same chemical properties of iron may be deleterious to the muscle when either in excess or when biochemically unshackled (e.g., in ferroptosis), it can promote oxidative stress and induce inflammation. This review outlines the mechanisms leading to iron overload in muscle with aging and evaluates the evidence for the iron overload hypothesis of sarcopenia. Based on current evidence, studies are needed to: 1) determine the mechanisms leading to iron overload in skeletal muscle during aging; and 2) investigate whether skeletal muscles are functionally deficient in iron during aging leading to impairments in oxidative metabolism.
    Keywords:  ferroptosis; mitochondrial function; muscle wasting; oxidative stress; sarcopenia
  16. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2022 Jul 18.
      BACKGROUND: Activation of sphingomyelinase (SMase) as a result of a general inflammatory response has been implicated as a mechanism underlying disease-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in several clinical conditions including heart failure. Here, for the first time, we characterize the effects of SMase activity on human muscle fibre contractile function and assess skeletal muscle SMase activity in heart failure patients.METHODS: The effects of SMase on force production and intracellular Ca2+ handling were investigated in single intact human muscle fibres. Additional mechanistic studies were performed in single mouse toe muscle fibres. RNA sequencing was performed in human muscle bundles exposed to SMase. Intramuscular SMase activity was measured from heart failure patients (n = 61, age 69 ± 0.8 years, NYHA III-IV, ejection fraction 25 ± 1.0%, peak VO2 14.4 ± 0.6 mL × kg × min) and healthy age-matched control subjects (n = 10, age 71 ± 2.2 years, ejection fraction 60 ± 1.2%, peak VO2 25.8 ± 1.1 mL × kg × min). SMase activity was related to circulatory factors known to be associated with progression and disease severity in heart failure.
    RESULTS: Sphingomyelinase reduced muscle fibre force production (-30%, P < 0.05) by impairing sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release (P < 0.05) and reducing myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity. In human muscle bundles exposed to SMase, RNA sequencing analysis revealed 180 and 291 genes as up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, at a FDR of 1%. Gene-set enrichment analysis identified 'proteasome degradation' as an up-regulated pathway (average fold-change 1.1, P = 0.008), while the pathway 'cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins' (average fold-change 0.8, P < 0.0001) and factors involving proliferation of muscle cells (average fold-change 0.8, P = 0.0002) where identified as down-regulated. Intramuscular SMase activity was ~20% higher (P < 0.05) in human heart failure patients than in age-matched healthy controls and was positively correlated with markers of disease severity and progression, and with several circulating inflammatory proteins, including TNF-receptor 1 and 2. In a longitudinal cohort of heart failure patients (n = 6, mean follow-up time 2.5 ± 0.2 years), SMase activity was demonstrated to increase by 30% (P < 0.05) with duration of disease.
    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings implicate activation of skeletal muscle SMase as a mechanism underlying human heart failure-related loss of muscle mass and function. Moreover, our findings strengthen the idea that SMase activation may underpin disease-related loss of muscle mass and function in other clinical conditions, acting as a common patophysiological mechanism for the myopathy often reported in diseases associated with a systemic inflammatory response.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ sensitivity RNAseq; Heart failure; Skeletal muscle; Sphingomyelinas
  17. Aging Cell. 2022 Jul 18. e13673
      Muscle satellite cells (SCs) are responsible for muscle homeostasis and regeneration and lncRNAs play important roles in regulating SC activities. Here, in this study, we identify PAM (Pax7 Associated Muscle lncRNA) that is induced in activated/proliferating SCs upon injury to promote SC proliferation as myoblast cells. PAM is generated from a myoblast-specific super-enhancer (SE); as a seRNA it binds with a number of target genomic loci predominantly in trans. Further studies demonstrate that it interacts with Ddx5 to tether PAM SE to its inter-chromosomal targets Timp2 and Vim to activate the gene expression. Lastly, we show that PAM expression is increased in aging SCs, which leads to enhanced inter-chromosomal interaction and target genes upregulation. Altogether, our findings identify PAM as a previously unknown lncRNA that regulates both SC proliferation and aging through its trans gene regulatory activity.
    Keywords:  Ddx5; PAM; muscle aging; muscle satellite cell; seRNA
  18. BMC Pulm Med. 2022 Jul 19. 22(1): 278
      BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third cause of death worldwide. COPD is characterised by dyspnoea, limited exercise tolerance, and muscle dysfunction. Muscle dysfunction has been linked to dysregulation between muscle protein synthesis, myogenesis and degradation mechanisms. Conventional concentric cycling has been shown to improve several clinical outcomes and reduce muscle wasting in COPD patients. Eccentric cycling is a less explored exercise modality that allows higher training workloads imposing lower cardio-metabolic demand during exercise, which has shown to induce greater muscle mass and strength gains after training. Interestingly, the combination of eccentric and concentric cycling training has scarcely been explored. The molecular adaptations of skeletal muscle after exercise interventions in COPD have shown equivocal results. The mechanisms of muscle wasting in COPD and whether it can be reversed by exercise training are unclear. Therefore, this study aims two-fold: (1) to compare the effects of 12 weeks of eccentric (ECC), concentric (CONC), and combined eccentric/concentric (ECC/CONC) cycling training on muscle mass and function, cardiometabolic health, physical activity levels and quality of life in severe COPD patients; and (2) to examine the molecular adaptations regulating muscle growth after training, and whether they occur similarly in specific muscle fibres (i.e., I, IIa and IIx).METHODS: Study 1 will compare the effects of 12 weeks of CONC, ECC, versus ECC/CONC training on muscle mass and function, cardiometabolic health, levels of physical activity and quality of life of severe COPD patients using a multicentre randomised trial. Study 2 will investigate the effects of these training modalities on the molecular adaptations regulating muscle protein synthesis, myogenesis and muscle degradation in a subgroup of patients from Study 1. Changes in muscle fibres morphology, protein content, genes, and microRNA expression involved in skeletal muscle growth will be analysed in specific fibre-type pools.
    DISCUSSION: We aim to demonstrate that a combination of eccentric and concentric exercise could maximise the improvements in clinical outcomes and may be ideal for COPD patients. We also expect to unravel the molecular mechanisms underpinning muscle mass regulation after training in severe COPD patients.
    TRIAL REGISTRY: Deutshches Register Klinischer Studien; Trial registration: DRKS00027331; Date of registration: 12 January 2022. .
    Keywords:  Aerobic training; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Respiratory disease
  19. Peptides. 2022 Jul 13. pii: S0196-9781(22)00106-1. [Epub ahead of print] 170840
      MOTS-c (mitochondrial open reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c) is a newly discovered peptide that has been shown to have a protective role in whole-body metabolic homeostasis. This could be a consequence of the effect of MOTS-c on muscle tissue. Here, we investigated the role of MOTS-c in the differentiation of human (LHCN-M2) and murine (C2C12) muscle progenitor cells. Cells were treated with peptides at the onset of differentiation or after myotubes had been formed. We identified in silico a putative Src Homology 2 (SH2) binding motif in the YIFY region of the MOTS-c sequence, and created a Y8F mutant MOTS-c peptide to explore the role of this region. In both cellular models, treatment with wild-type MOTS-c peptide increased myotube formation whereas treatment with the Y8F peptide did not. MOTS-c wild-type, but not Y8F peptide, also protected against interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced reduction of nuclear myogenin staining in myocytes. Thus, we investigated whether MOTS-c interacts with the IL-6/Janus kinase/ Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway, and found that MOTS-c, but not the Y8F peptide, blocked the transcriptional activity of STAT3 induced by IL-6. Altogether, our findings suggest that, in muscle cells, MOTS-c interacts with STAT3 via the putative SH2 binding motif in the YIFY region to reduce STAT3 transcriptional activity, which enhances myotube formation. This newly discovered mechanism of action highlights MOTS-c as a potential therapeutic target against muscle-wasting in several diseases.
    Keywords:  Atrophy; Mitochondria derived peptides; Muscle
  20. Biol Chem. 2022 Jul 18.
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of L-theanine (LT) on muscle fiber type transformation in C2C12 myotubes. Our data showed that LT exhibited significantly higher slow oxidative muscle fiber expression and lower glycolytic fibers expression. In addition, LT significantly increased the activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), and decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, the calcineurin (CaN) activity and the protein expressions of nuclear factor of activated T cell 1 (NFATc1), prospero-related homeobox1 (prox1), and calcineurin A (CnA) were significantly increased. However, inhibition of CaN activity by cyclosporine A (CsA) abolished LT-induced increase of slow oxidative muscle fiber expression and decrease of glycolytic fibers expression. Moreover, inhibition of prox1 expression by prox1-siRNA disrupted LT-induced activation of CaN signaling pathway and muscle fiber type transformation. Taken together, these results indicated that LT could promote skeletal muscle fiber type transformation from type II to type I via activation of prox1/CaN signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  C2C12 myotubes; L-theanine; fiber type transformation; prox1/CaN signaling pathway
  21. Cancer Sci. 2022 Jul 18.
      Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial disease that causes continuous skeletal muscle wasting. Thereby, it seems to be a key determinant of cancer-related death. Although anamorelin, a ghrelin receptor agonist, has been approved in Japan for the treatment of cachexia, few medical treatments for cancer cachexia are currently available. Myostatin (MSTN)/growth differentiation factor 8, which belongs to the TGF-β family, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, and inhibition of MSTN signaling is expected to be a therapeutic target for muscle-wasting diseases. Indeed, we have reported that peptide-2, an MSTN-inhibiting peptide from the MSTN prodomain, alleviates muscle wasting due to cancer cachexia. Herein, we evaluated the therapeutic benefit of myostatin inhibitory D-peptide-35 (MID-35), whose stability and activity were more improved than those of peptide-2 in cancer cachexia model mice. The biologic effects of MID-35 were better than those of peptide-2. Intramuscular administration of MID-35 effectively alleviated skeletal muscle atrophy in cachexia model mice, and the combination therapy of MID-35 with anamorelin increased food intake and maximized grip strength, resulting in longer survival. Our results suggest that this combination might be a novel therapeutic tool to suppress muscle wasting in cancer cachexia.
    Keywords:  anamorelin; cancer cachexia; muscle wasting; myostatin
  22. FEBS Open Bio. 2022 Jul 20.
      Effective amelioration of type II diabetes requires therapies that increase both glucose uptake activity per cell and skeletal muscle mass. Myristic acid (14:0) increases diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) δ protein levels and enhances glucose uptake in myotubes in a DGKδ-dependent manner. However, it is still unclear whether myristic acid treatment affects skeletal muscle mass. In the present study, we found that myristic acid treatment increased the protein level of β-tubulin, which constitutes microtubules and is closely related to muscle mass, in C2C12 myotubes but not in the proliferation stage in C2C12 myoblasts. However, lauric (12:0), palmitic (16:0) and oleic (18:1) acids failed to affect DGKδ and β-tubulin protein levels in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, knockdown of DGKδ by siRNA significantly inhibited the increased protein level of β-tubulin in the presence of myristic acid, suggesting that the increase in β-tubulin protein by myristic acid depends on DGKδ. These results indicate that myristic acid selectively affects β-tubulin protein levels in C2C12 myotubes via DGKδ, suggesting that this fatty acid improves skeletal muscle mass in addition to increasing glucose uptake activity per cell.
    Keywords:  Diacylglycerol kinase; Myotube; Myristic acid; Type II diabetes; β-Tubulin
  23. J Physiol. 2022 Jul 17.
      KEY POINTS: Adipose-derived cytokines (adipokines) have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obesity but likely have other under-appreciated roles in muscle physiology Here we use a fat-free mouse to show that adipose tissue is necessary for the normal development of muscle mass and strength Through add-back of genetically modified adipose tissue we show that leptin is the key adipokine mediating this regulation This expands our understanding of leptin's role in adipose-muscle signaling to include development and homeostasis and adds the surprising finding that leptin is the sole mediator of the maintenance of muscle mass and strength by adipose tissue ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue secretes numerous cytokines (termed "adipokines") that have known or hypothesized actions on skeletal muscle. The majority of adipokines have been implicated in the pathological link between excess adipose and muscle insulin resistance, but approximately half also have documented in-vitro effects on myogenesis and/or hypertrophy. This complexity suggests a potential dual role for adipokines in the regulation of muscle mass in homeostasis and the development of pathology. In this study, we used lipodystrophic 'fat-free' mice to demonstrate that adipose tissue is indeed necessary for the development of normal muscle mass and strength. Fat-free mice had significantly reduced mass (∼15%) and peak contractile tension (∼20%) of fast-twitch muscles, a slowing of contractile dynamics and decreased cross-sectional area of fast twitch fibers compared to wildtype littermates. These deficits in mass and contractile tension were fully rescued by reconstitution of ∼10% of normal adipose mass, indicating that this phenotype is the direct consequence of absent adipose. We then showed that the rescue is solely mediated by the adipokine leptin, as similar reconstitution of adipose from leptin-knockout mice fails to rescue mass or strength. Together, these data indicate that the development of muscle mass and strength in wildtype mice is dependent on adipose-secreted leptin. This finding extends our current understanding of the multiple roles of adipokines in physiology as well as disease pathophysiology to include a critical role for the adipokine leptin in muscle homeostasis. Abstract figure legend Adipokines help maintain healthy muscle physiology in wildtype (WT) mice (far left panel). Mice lacking adipose tissue (Fat-free (FF) mice) experience muscle atrophy and contractile dysfunction (middle left panel). Add-back of a small quantity of adipose tissue to FF mice can fully restore WT muscle physiology (middle right panel). However, add-back of adipose tissue lacking the adipokine leptin fails to rescue the FF muscle phenotype (far right panel). Therefore we conclude that adipose-derived leptin is required to develop and maintain full muscle mass and strength. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  adipokines; anabolic; fat-muscle cross-talk; muscle contraction
  24. J Cell Physiol. 2022 Jul 21.
      The cannabinoid system is ubiquitously present and is classically considered to engage in neural and immunity processes. Yet, the role of the cannabinoid system in the whole body and tissue metabolism via central and peripheral mechanisms is increasingly recognized. The present review provides insights in (i) how cannabinoid signaling is regulated via receptor-independent and -dependent mechanisms and (ii) how these signaling cascades (might) affect skeletal muscle plasticity and physiology. Receptor-independent mechanisms include endocannabinoid metabolism to eicosanoids and the regulation of ion channels. Alternatively, endocannabinoids can act as ligands for different classic (cannabinoid receptor 1 [CB1 ], CB2 ) and/or alternative (e.g., TRPV1, GPR55) cannabinoid receptors with a unique affinity, specificity, and intracellular signaling cascade (often tissue-specific). Antagonism of CB1 might hold clues to improve oxidative (mitochondrial) metabolism, insulin sensitivity, satellite cell growth, and muscle anabolism, whereas CB2 agonism might be a promising way to stimulate muscle metabolism and muscle cell growth. Besides, CB2 ameliorates muscle regeneration via macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype, induction of MyoD and myogenin expression and antifibrotic mechanisms. Also TRPV1 and GPR55 contribute to the regulation of muscle growth and metabolism. Future studies should reveal how the cannabinoid system can be targeted to improve muscle quantity and/or quality in conditions such as ageing, disease, disuse, and metabolic dysregulation, taking into account challenges that are inherent to modulation of the cannabinoid system, such as central and peripheral side effects.
    Keywords:  GPR55; MAPK; TRPV1; cannabinoid receptors; mTORC1; satellite cells
  25. Cell Biosci. 2022 Jul 22. 12(1): 112
      As the understanding of skeletal muscle inflammation is increasingly clarified, the role of Treg cells in the treatment of skeletal muscle diseases has attracted more attention in recent years. A consensus has been reached that the regulation of Treg cells is the key to completing the switch of inflammation and repair of skeletal muscle, whose presence directly determine the repairing quality of the injured skeletal muscle. However, the functioning process of Treg cells remains unreported, thereby making it necessary to summarize the current role of Treg cells in skeletal muscle. In this review, the characteristics, origins, and cellular kinetics of these Treg cells are firstly described; Then, the relationship between Treg cells and muscle satellite cells (MuSCs), conventional T cells (Tconv) is discussed (the former is involved in the entire repair and regeneration process, while the latter matters considerably in causing most skeletal muscle autoimmune diseases); Next, focus is placed on the control of Treg cells on the phenotypic switch of macrophages, which is the key to the switch of inflammation; Finally, factors regulating the functional process of Treg cells are analyzed, and a regulatory network centered on Treg cells is summarized. The present study summarizes the cell-mediated interactions in skeletal muscle repair over the past decade, and elucidates the central role of regulatory T cells in this process, so that other researchers can more quickly and comprehensively understand the development and direction of this very field. It is believed that the hereby proposed viewpoints and problems can provide fresh visions for the latecomers.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; Macrophage; MuSCs; Muscle injury; Muscle regeneration; Treg cells
  26. J Orthop Translat. 2022 Jul;35 23-36
      Objective: Osteoporosis is associated with senescence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Extracellular vesicles derived from senescent BMSCs (BMSC-EVs) could be uptaken by muscle satellite cells (SCs). We hypothesized that inhibiting the uptake of harmful BMSC-EVs by SCs could prevent patients with osteoporosis complicated with sarcopenia.Methods: Bioinformatics analysis was used to analyze senescent SCs. Myogenic potential of SCs was measured using myogenesis assay and immunofluorescence while muscle atrophy was measured using histological evaluation. And the interaction of cluster of differentiation (CD) 81 and the membrane proteins of SCs was verified using biotin pulldown assay.. CD81-specific siRNA (si-CD81) was used to knockdown CD81 and anti-CD81 antibody (anti-CD81 Ab) was used to block CD81.
    Results: Differentially expressed genes in senescent SCs were enriched in muscle cell differentiation. The myogenic potential of senescent SCs was significantly decreased. Senescent BMSC-EVs impaired myogenesis of SCs. CD81 on the surface of BMSC-EVs could bind to membrane proteins of SCs. Both knockdown of CD81 and blocking CD81 prevented the uptake of senescent BMSC-EVs by SCs, thus relieving harmful effects of senescent BMSC-EVs on muscle atrophy.
    Conclusion: Blocking CD81 on the surface of senescent BMSC-EVs attenuates sarcopenia in aged mice, which could be useful for prevention of sarcopenia in patients with osteoporosis in clinical practice.
    Translational potential of this article: Inhibiting uptake of extracellular vesicles derived from senescent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by muscle satellite cells can prevent muscle atrophy in aged mice and has potential for application in treating sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  CD81; Extracellular vesicles; Osteoporosis; Sarcopenia; Senescence
  27. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022 Jul 22. 79(8): 441
      Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease resulting in the loss of α-motoneurons followed by muscle atrophy. It is caused by knock-out mutations in the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which has an unaffected, but due to preferential exon 7 skipping, only partially functional human-specific SMN2 copy. We previously described a Drosophila-based screening of FDA-approved drugs that led us to discover moxifloxacin. We showed its positive effect on the SMN2 exon 7 splicing in SMA patient-derived skin cells and its ability to increase the SMN protein level. Here, we focus on moxifloxacin's therapeutic potential in additional SMA cellular and animal models. We demonstrate that moxifloxacin rescues the SMA-related molecular and phenotypical defects in muscle cells and motoneurons by improving the SMN2 splicing. The consequent increase of SMN levels was higher than in case of risdiplam, a potent exon 7 splicing modifier, and exceeded the threshold necessary for a survival improvement. We also demonstrate that daily subcutaneous injections of moxifloxacin in a severe SMA murine model reduces its characteristic neuroinflammation and increases the SMN levels in various tissues, leading to improved motor skills and extended lifespan. We show that moxifloxacin, originally used as an antibiotic, can be potentially repositioned for the SMA treatment.
    Keywords:  Drug repurposing; Motoneurons; SMA delta7 mice; SMN2 splicing; Spinal muscular atrophy
  28. Food Sci Nutr. 2022 Jul;10(7): 2360-2369
      Exercise increases the muscular secretion of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is partially regulated by β2-adrenergic receptor signaling. Nobiletin is a polymethoxyflavone (PMF) found in citrus fruits that induces the secretion of IL-6 from C2C12 myotubes, but it remains unclear whether nobiletin promotes IL-6 secretion during exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of nobiletin on IL-6 secretion during exercise. Nobiletin and epinephrine were found to synergistically increase IL-6 secretion from differentiated C2C12 cells, which was suppressed by the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC) or protein kinase A (PKA). Treadmill running for 60 min increased plasma levels of IL-6, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in rats. Nobiletin (5 mg/kg) orally administered 30 min before running increased plasma IL-6 levels further, although it did not increase plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine. In a similar manner to IL-6, nobiletin and epinephrine synergistically increased the secretion of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL-1) from C2C12 cells, or the increase in plasma CXCL-1 was enhanced by nobiletin after treadmill running of rats. Our results suggest that nobiletin promotes IL-6 and CXCL-1 secretion from skeletal muscle by synergistic enhancement of the PKA pathway in β2-adrenergic receptor signaling.
    Keywords:  C‐X‐C motif chemokine ligand 1; Interleukin‐6; epinephrine; exercise; nobiletin
  29. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2022 Jul 23.
      BACKGROUND: Weakness is a common clinical symptom reported in chronic alcoholics. However, it remains unclear if low strength in chronic alcoholics is directly associated with excessive ethanol (EtOH) intake, other deleterious factors (lifestyle, environment, genetics, etc.) or a combination of both. Therefore, we set out to determine if (and how) EtOH reduces the muscle's force producing capacity using a controlled in vivo preclinical mouse model of excessive EtOH intake.METHODS: To establish if chronic EtOH consumption causes weakness, C57BL/6 female mice consumed 20% EtOH for 40 weeks (following a 2-week EtOH ramping period), and various measures of muscular force were quantified. Functional measures included all-limb grip strength, as well as in vivo contractility of the left ankle dorsiflexors and plantarflexors. Once confirmed that mice consuming EtOH were weaker than age-matched controls, we sought to determine potential neuromuscular mechanisms of muscle dysfunction by assessing neuromuscular excitation, muscle quantity, and muscle quality.
    RESULTS: Mice consuming chronic EtOH were 13-16% weaker (p≤0.016) compared to controls (i.e., mice consuming 100% water) with the negative impact of EtOH on voluntary grip strength (ƞ2 =0.603) being slightly larger than that of electrically stimulated muscle contractility (ƞ2 ≤0.482). Relative to controls, lean mass and muscle wet masses were 9-16% lower in EtOH consuming mice (p≤0.048, ƞ2 ≥0.268). No significant changes were observed between groups for indices of neuromuscular excitation at the level of the motor unit, neuromuscular junction, or plasmalemma (p≥0.259, ƞ2 ≤0.097), nor was muscle quality altered after 40 weeks of 20% EtOH consumption (p≥0.695, ƞ2 ≤0.012).
    CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings establish that chronic EtOH consumption in mice does induce a considerable amount of weakness in vivo that we suggest is primarily due to muscle atrophy (i.e., reduced muscle quantity) and possibly, to a lesser degree, loss of central drive.
    Keywords:  Atrophy; Ethanol; Force; Skeletal Muscle; Strength
  30. Redox Biol. 2022 Jul 08. pii: S2213-2317(22)00170-7. [Epub ahead of print]55 102398
      The NF-κB signalling pathway plays a critical role in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and muscle metabolism. NF-κB is activated by extracellular signals and intracellular changes in Ca2+, Pi, H+, metabolites and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). However, it remains unknown how NF-κB signalling is activated during exercise and how metabolite accumulation and PO2 influence this process. Eleven active men performed incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) in normoxia and hypoxia (PIO2:73 mmHg). Immediately after IE, the circulation of one leg was instantaneously occluded (300 mmHg). Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were taken before (Pre), and 10s (Post, occluded leg) and 60s after exercise from the occluded (Oc1m) and free circulation (FC1m) legs simultaneously together with femoral vein blood samples. NF-κB signalling was activated by exercise to exhaustion, with similar responses in normoxia and acute hypoxia, as reflected by the increase of p105, p50, IKKα, IκBβ and glutathione reductase (GR) protein levels, and the activation of the main kinases implicated, particularly IKKα and CaMKII δD, while IKKβ remained unchanged. Postexercise ischaemia maintained and stimulated further NF-κB signalling by impeding muscle reoxygenation. These changes were quickly reverted at the end of exercise when the muscles recovered with open circulation. Finally, we have shown that Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) protein expression was reduced immediately after IE and after 1 min of occlusion while the protein expression levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) remained unchanged. These novel data demonstrate that exercising to exhaustion activates NF-κB signalling in human skeletal muscle and regulates the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle. The fast regulation of NF-κB at exercise cessation has implications for the interpretation of published studies and the design of new experiments.
    Keywords:  Fatigue; Free radicals; Hypoxia; NFĸB; Performance; ROS
  31. Muscle Nerve. 2022 Jul 20.
      INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Most mouse models of muscular dystrophy (MD) show mild phenotypes, which limits the translatability of experimental therapies to patients. A growing body of evidence suggests that MD is accompanied by metabolic abnormalities that could potentially exacerbate the primary muscle wasting process. Since thermoneutral (TN) housing of mice (~30°C) has been shown to affect many metabolic parameters, particularly when combined with a Western diet (WD), our aim was to determine whether the combination of TN and WD exacerbates muscle wasting in dysferlin-deficient BLAJ mice, a common model of limb-girdle MD type 2b (LGMD2b).METHODS: Two-month-old wild-type (WT) and BLAJ mice were housed at TN or room temperature (RT) and fed a WD or regular chow for 9 months. Ambulatory function, muscle histology, and protein immunoblots of skeletal muscle were assessed.
    RESULTS: BLAJ mice at RT and fed a chow diet showed normal ambulation function similar to WT mice, whereas 90 % of BLAJ mice under WD and TN combination showed ambulatory dysfunction (P<0.001), and an up to 4.1-fold increase in quadriceps and gastrocnemius fat infiltration. Western blotting revealed decreased autophagy marker microtubules-associated protein 1 light chain 3-B (LC3BII/LC3BI) ratio and up-regulation of AKT and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) phosphorylation, suggesting inefficient cellular debris and protein clearance in TN BLAJ mice fed a WD. Male and female BLAJ mice under TN and WD combination showed heterogenous fibro-fatty infiltrate composition.
    DISCUSSION: TN and WD combination exacerbates rodent LGMD2b without affecting WT mice. This improves rodent modeling of human MD and helps elucidate how metabolic abnormalities may play a causal role in muscle wasting.
    Keywords:  Diet; Dysferlin; Muscle; Thermoneutrality
  32. Behav Brain Res. 2022 Jul 15. pii: S0166-4328(22)00276-5. [Epub ahead of print] 114008
      We previously reported that physical inactivity (PI) induces cognitive decline and depressive states, which were ameliorated by regular exercise. However, the mechanism underlying the preventive effect of exercise remains unelucidated. Irisin has recently been identified as an exercise-inducible myokine that improves cognitive impairment. Plasma irisin levels increase during physical exercise; therefore, PI could lead to a decline in cognitive function by reducing plasma irisin. Therefore, this study aimed to examine whether irisin is associated with cognitive decline and mental deterioration altered by PI and exercise. The mice were housed for eight weeks in the PI cage, whose living space was one-sixth that of a standard cage. Simultaneously, the mice were subjected to regular exercise in the presence or absence of an irisin-neutralizing antibody. PI increased the epididymal fat mass without increasing body weight, muscle mass, or plasma corticosterone levels. Additionally, PI induced anxiety, depressive states, and a decline in working memory. In contrast, regular exercise after PI elevated irisin levels in plasma and increased fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammacoactivator 1α expression in skeletal muscle. Regular exercise also increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and BrdU-positive cells, alleviating cognitive decline and mental deterioration induced by PI. The beneficial effects of exercise were compromised by the administration of an irisin-neutralizing antibody. Moreover, plasma irisin level was positively correlated with working memory, hippocampal BDNF levels, and hippocampal cell proliferation. These findings suggest that exercise-inducible irisin is critical for maintaining cognitive function in the PI state.
    Keywords:  FNDC5/irisin; exercise; hippocampus; physical inactivity; skeletal muscle
  33. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2022 Jul 18. pii: S0035-3787(22)00645-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Functional muscle fiber denervation is a major contributor to the decline in physical function observed with aging and is now a recognized cause of sarcopenia, a muscle disorder characterized by progressive and generalized degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength. There is an interrelationship between muscle strength, motor unit (MU) number, and aging, which suggests that a portion of muscle weakness in seniors may be attributable to the loss of functional MUs. During normal aging, there is a time-related progression of MU loss, an adaptive sprouting followed by a maladaptive sprouting, and continuing recession of terminal Schwann cells leading to a reduced capacity for compensatory reinnervation in elders. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, increasing age at onset predicts worse survival ALS and it is possible that age-related depletion of the motor neuron pool may worsen motor neuron disease. MUNE methods are used to estimate the number of functional MU, data from MUNIX arguing for motor neuron loss with aging will be reviewed. Recently, a new MRI technique MU-MRI could be used to assess the MU recruitment or explore the activity of a single MU. This review presents published studies on the changes of neuromuscular function with aging, then focusing on these two novel techniques for assessment of MU loss and MU remodeling.
    Keywords:  ALS; Aging; Motor neuron; Motor unit; Post polio syndrome
  34. Clin Geriatr Med. 2022 Aug;pii: S0749-0690(22)00004-0. [Epub ahead of print]38(3): 545-557
      COVID-19 negatively impacts several organs and systems weeks or months after initial diagnosis. Skeletal muscle can be affected, leading to fatigue, lower mobility, weakness, and poor physical performance. Older adults are at increased risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms during long COVID. Systemic inflammation, physical inactivity, and poor nutritional status are some of the mechanisms leading to muscle dysfunction in individuals with long COVID. Current evidence suggests that long COVID negatively impacts body composition, muscle function, and quality of life. Muscle mass and function assessments can contribute toward the identification, diagnosis, and management of poor muscle health resulting from long COVID.
    Keywords:  Aging; Body composition; COVID-19; Muscle function; Muscle mass; Muscle strength; Postacute COVID-19 syndrome; Quality of life
  35. Exp Mol Med. 2022 Jul 21.
      Neutrophils are the earliest master inflammatory regulator cells recruited to target tissues after direct infection or injury. Although inflammatory factors are present in muscle that has been indirectly disturbed by peripheral nerve injury, whether neutrophils are present and play a role in the associated inflammatory process remains unclear. Here, intravital imaging analysis using spinning-disk confocal intravital microscopy was employed to dynamically identify neutrophils in denervated muscle. Slice digital scanning and 3D-view reconstruction analyses demonstrated that neutrophils escape from vessels and migrate into denervated muscle tissue. Analyses using reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors and flow cytometry demonstrated that enhanced ROS activate neutrophils after denervation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the vast majority of neutrophils in denervated muscle were of the CXCR2 subtype and were recruited by CXCL1. Most of these cells gradually disappeared within 1 week via P53-mediated apoptosis. Experiments using specific blockers confirmed that neutrophils slow the process of denervated muscle atrophy. Collectively, these results indicate that activated neutrophils are recruited via chemotaxis to muscle tissue that has been indirectly damaged by denervation, where they function in delaying atrophy.
  36. Brain. 2022 Jul 22. pii: awac269. [Epub ahead of print]
      Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), the first identified CAG-repeat expansion disorder, is an X-linked neuromuscular disorder involving CAG-repeat-expansion mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We utilized CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to engineer novel isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models, consisting of isogenic AR knockout, control, and disease lines expressing mutant AR with distinct repeat lengths, as well as control and disease lines expressing FLAG-tagged wildtype and mutant AR, respectively. Adapting a small-molecule cocktail-directed approach, we differentiate the isogenic hiPSC models into motor neuron-like cells with a highly enriched population to uncover cell-type-specific mechanisms underlying SBMA and to distinguish gain- from loss-of-function properties of mutant AR in disease motor neurons. We demonstrate that ligand-free mutant AR causes drastic mitochondrial dysfunction in neurites of differentiated disease motor neurons due to gain-of-function mechanisms, and such cytotoxicity can be amplified upon ligand (androgens) treatment. We further show that aberrant interaction between ligand-free, mitochondria-localized mutant AR and F-ATP synthase is associated with compromised mitochondrial respiration and multiple other mitochondrial impairments. These findings counter the established notion that androgens are requisite for mutant AR-induced cytotoxicity in SBMA, reveal a compelling mechanistic link between ligand-free mutant AR, F-ATP synthase, and mitochondrial dysfunction, and provide innovative insights into motor neuron-specific therapeutic interventions for SBMA.
    Keywords:  F-ATP synthase; ligand-free mutant AR; mitochondrial dysfunction; motor neuron degeneration
  37. AIDS. 2022 Jul 15.
      OBJECTIVE: To quantify mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle of people treated with contemporary antiretroviral therapy.DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study.
    METHODS: Quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence was performed to determine mitochondrial mass and respiratory chain complex abundance in individual myofibres from tibialis anterior biopsies. Individual myofibres were captured by laser microdissection and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and large-scale deletions were measured by real-time PCR.
    RESULTS: Forty five antiretroviral therapy (ART) treated people with HIV (PWH, mean age 58 years, mean duration of ART 125 months) were compared with 15 HIV negative age-matched controls. Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency was observed at higher proportional levels in PWH than negative controls (P = 0.008). Myofibre mitochondrial mass did not differ by HIV status.No ART class was significantly associated with mitochondrial deficiency, including prior exposure to historical NRTIs (nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors) associated with systemic mitochondrial toxicity.To exclude an effect of untreated HIV, we also studied skeletal muscle from 13 ART-naïve PWH (mean age 37). These showed negligible CI defects, as well as comparable myofibre mitochondrial mass to ART-treated PWH.Most CI-deficient myofibres contained mtDNA deletions. No mtDNA depletion was detected.
    CONCLUSION: Here, we show that PWH treated with contemporary ART have mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle, exceeding that expected due to age alone. Surprisingly, this was not mediated by prior exposure to mitochondrially toxic NRTIs, suggesting novel mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in contemporary ART-treated PWH. These findings are relevant for better understanding successful ageing in PWH.
  38. Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer. 2022 Jul 16. pii: S0304-419X(22)00086-5. [Epub ahead of print]1877(5): 188761
      Physical exercise has gradually become a focus in cancer treatment due to its pronounced role in reducing cancer risk, enhancing therapeutic efficacy, and improving prognosis. In recent decades, skeletal muscles have been considered endocrine organs, exerting their biological functions via the endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine systems by secreting various types of myokines. The amount of myokines secreted varies depending on the intensity, type, and duration of exercise. Recent studies have shown that muscle-derived myokines are highly involved the effects of exercise on cancer. Multiple myokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), oncostatin M (OSM), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), and irisin, directly mediate cancer progression by influencing the proliferation, apoptosis, stemness, drug resistance, metabolic reprogramming, and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of cancer cells. In addition, IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-15 (IL-15), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and irisin can improve obesity-induced inflammation by stimulating lipolysis of adipose tissues, promoting glucose uptake, and accelerating the browning of white fat. Furthermore, some myokines could regulate the tumor microenvironment, such as angiogenesis and the immune microenvironment. Cancer cachexia occurs in up to 80% of cancer patients and is responsible for 22%-30% of patient deaths. It is characterized by systemic inflammation and decreased muscle mass. Exercise-induced myokine production is important in regulating cancer cachexia. This review summarizes the roles and underlying mechanisms of myokines, such as IL-6, myostatin, IL-15, irisin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and musclin, in cancer cachexia. Through comprehensive analysis, we conclude that myokines are potential targets for inhibiting cancer progression and the associated cachexia.
    Keywords:  Cachexia; Cancer; Exercise; Muscle; Myokine
  39. J Gen Physiol. 2022 Sep 05. pii: e202213167. [Epub ahead of print]154(9):
      Mitochondria are characterized by a high capacity to accumulate calcium thanks to the electrochemical gradient created by the extrusion of protons in the respiratory chain. Thereby calcium can enter crossing the inner mitochondrial membrane via MCU complex, a high-capacity, low-affinity transport mechanism. Calcium uptake serves numerous purposes, among them the regulation of three dehydrogenases of the citric cycle, apoptosis via permeability transition, and, in some cell types, modulation of cytosolic calcium transients. This Review is focused on mitochondrial calcium uptake in skeletal muscle fibers and aims to reanalyze its functional impact. In particular, we ask whether mitochondrial calcium uptake is relevant for the control of cytosolic calcium transients and therefore of contractile performance. Recent data suggest that this may be the case, at least in particular conditions, as modified expression of MCU complex subunits or of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and ablation of the main cytosolic calcium buffer, parvalbumin.
  40. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 ;13 917113
      Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a typical chronic disease that can be divided into 2 types, dependent on insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Incidences of diabetic complications gradually increase as the disease progresses. Studies in diabetes complications have mostly focused on kidney and cardiovascular diseases, as well as neuropathy. However, DM can also cause skeletal muscle atrophy. Diabetic muscular atrophy is an unrecognized diabetic complication that can lead to quadriplegia in severe cases, seriously impacting patients' quality of life. In this review, we first identify the main molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy from the aspects of protein degradation and synthesis signaling pathways. Then, we discuss the molecular regulatory mechanisms of diabetic muscular atrophy, and outline potential drugs and treatments in terms of insulin resistance, insulin deficiency, inflammation, oxidative stress, glucocorticoids, and other factors. It is worth noting that inflammation and oxidative stress are closely related to insulin resistance and insulin deficiency in diabetic muscular atrophy. Regulating inflammation and oxidative stress may represent another very important way to treat diabetic muscular atrophy, in addition to controlling insulin signaling. Understanding the molecular regulatory mechanism of diabetic muscular atrophy could help to reveal new treatment strategies.
    Keywords:  diabetes mellitus; inflammation; molecular mechanism; muscle atrophy; treatment
  41. JCI Insight. 2022 Jul 22. pii: e158107. [Epub ahead of print]7(14):
      Membrane instability and disruption underlie myriad acute and chronic disorders. Anxa6 encodes the membrane-associated protein annexin A6 and was identified as a genetic modifier of muscle repair and muscular dystrophy. To evaluate annexin A6's role in membrane repair in vivo, we inserted sequences encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the last coding exon of Anxa6. Heterozygous Anxa6gfp mice expressed a normal pattern of annexin A6 with reduced annexin A6GFP mRNA and protein. High-resolution imaging of wounded muscle fibers showed annexin A6GFP rapidly formed a repair cap at the site of injury. Injured cardiomyocytes and neurons also displayed repair caps after wounding, highlighting annexin A6-mediated repair caps as a feature in multiple cell types. Using surface plasmon resonance, we showed recombinant annexin A6 bound phosphatidylserine-containing lipids in a Ca2+- and dose-dependent fashion with appreciable binding at approximately 50 μM Ca2+. Exogenously added recombinant annexin A6 localized to repair caps and improved muscle membrane repair capacity in a dose-dependent fashion without disrupting endogenous annexin A6 localization, indicating annexin A6 promotes repair from both intracellular and extracellular compartments. Thus, annexin A6 orchestrates repair in multiple cell types, and recombinant annexin A6 may be useful in additional chronic disorders beyond skeletal muscle myopathies.
    Keywords:  Cardiology; Muscle; Muscle Biology; Neurological disorders
  42. Ageing Res Rev. 2022 Jul 15. pii: S1568-1637(22)00139-8. [Epub ahead of print] 101697
      Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine regulating different tissues and organs in diverse and sometimes discrepant ways. The dual and sometime hermetic nature of IL-6 action has been highlighted in several contexts and can be explained by the concept of hormesis, in which beneficial or toxic effects can be induced by the same molecule depending on the intensity, persistence, and nature of the stimulation. According with hormesis, a low and/or controlled IL-6 release is associated with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and pro-myogenic actions, whereas increased systemic levels of IL-6 can induce pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic responses. However, many aspects regarding the multifaceted action of IL-6 and the complex nature of its signal transduction remains to be fully elucidated. In this review we collect mechanistic insight into the molecular networks contributing to normal or pathologic changes during advancing age and in chronic diseases. We point out the involvement of IL-6 deregulation in aging-related diseases, dissecting the hormetic action of this key mediator in different tissues, with a special focus on skeletal muscle. Since IL-6 can act as an enhancer of detrimental factor associated with both aging and pathologic conditions, such as chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, this cytokine could represent a "Gerokine", a determinant of the switch from physiologic aging to age-related diseases.
    Keywords:  IL-6 signalling; Interleukin-6; ageing; hormesis; inflammaging; skeletal muscle
  43. Neuromuscul Disord. 2022 Apr 29. pii: S0960-8966(22)00135-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      The diagnosis of adult-onset genetic muscle diseases is challenging because of the diversity of clinical phenotypes, findings on muscle biopsy that may be nonspecific, and the large number of genetic causes. Even with thorough investigation, the diagnostic yield for genetic testing in these populations is very low, and the distinction from acquired conditions such as sporadic inclusion body myositis [sIBM] can also prove difficult. In this study, we analysed whole transcriptome data generated from RNA isolated from muscle biopsy tissues, from a cohort of 16 participants with sIBM and other histologic diagnoses. Our objective was to identify candidate RNA biomarkers that could be an adjunctive tool in differentiating these conditions. Principal component analysis was able to delineate the groups based on their histologic diagnoses. Gene ontology and pathway analyses demonstrated dysregulation of immune pathways in sIBM. In mitochondrial myopathy we observed upregulation of FGF21, GDF15, ASNS and TRIB3, which are known candidate biomarkers for mitochondrial myopathy. Novel findings included the identification of transcripts of unknown function that were dysregulated in myofibrillar myopathy [JPX], dystrophic changes [MEG3], and mitochondrial myopathy [GAS5]. We suggest future investigations with larger cohorts of participants to confirm the findings of this study, with further directed experiments to determine the role of novel transcripts in disease pathogenesis.
    Keywords:  Genetics; Inclusion body myositis; Muscular dystrophy; Myopathy; RNAseq; Transcriptome