bims-moremu Biomed News
on Molecular regulators of muscle mass
Issue of 2022‒07‒10
forty-two papers selected by
Anna Vainshtein
Craft Science Inc.

  1. Sports Med Health Sci. 2021 Sep;3(3): 148-156
      Endurance exercise training promotes a protective phenotype in skeletal muscle known as exercise preconditioning. Exercise preconditioning protects muscle fibers against a variety of threats including inactivity-induced muscle atrophy. The mechanism(s) responsible for exercise preconditioning remain unknown and are explored in these experiments. Specifically, we investigated the impact of endurance exercise training on key components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The RAS was targeted because activation of the classical axis of the RAS pathway via angiotensin II type I receptors (AT1Rs) promotes muscle atrophy whereas activation of the non-classical RAS axis via Mas receptors (MasRs) inhibits the atrophic signaling of the classical RAS pathway. Guided by prior studies, we hypothesized that an exercise-induced decrease in AT1Rs and/or increases in MasRs in skeletal muscle fibers is a potential mechanism responsible for exercise preconditioning. Following endurance exercise training in rats, we examined the abundance of AT1Rs and MasRs in both locomotor and respiratory muscles. Our results indicate that endurance exercise training does not alter the protein abundance of AT1Rs or MasRs in muscle fibers from the diaphragm, plantaris, and soleus muscles compared to sedentary controls (p ​> ​0.05). Furthermore, fluorescent angiotensin II (AngII) binding analyses confirm our results that exercise preconditioning does not alter the protein abundance of AT1Rs in the diaphragm, plantaris, and soleus (p ​> ​0.05). This study confirms that exercise-induced changes in RAS receptors are not a key mechanism that contributes to the beneficial effects of exercise preconditioning in skeletal muscle fibers.
    Keywords:  Exercise preconditioning; Renin-angiotensin system; Skeletal muscle; Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy
  2. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2022 Jul 04.
      The impact of aerobic training on human skeletal muscle cell (HSkMC) mitochondrial metabolism is a significant research gap, critical to understanding the mechanisms by which exercise augments skeletal muscle metabolism. We therefore assessed mitochondrial content and capacity in fully differentiated CD56+ HSkMCs from lean active (LA) and sedentary individuals with obesity (OS) at baseline, as well as lean/overweight sedentary individuals (LOS) at baseline and following an 18-day aerobic training intervention. Participants had in vivo skeletal muscle PCr recovery rate by 31P-MRS (mitochondrial oxidative kinetics) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) assessed at baseline. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were performed for the isolation of skeletal muscle stem cells. LOS individuals repeated all assessments post-training. HSkMCs were evaluated for mitochondrial respiratory capacity by high resolution respirometry. Data were normalized to two indices of mitochondrial content (CS activity and OXPHOS protein expression) and a marker of total cell count (quantity of DNA).LA individuals had significantly higher VO2max than OS and LOS-Pre training; however, no differences were observed in skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity, nor in carbohydrate- or fatty acid-supported HSkMC respiratory capacity. Aerobic training robustly increased in vivo skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity of LOS individuals, as well as carbohydrate-supported HSkMC respiratory capacity. Indices of mitochondrial content and total cell count were similar among the groups and did not change with aerobic training.Our findings demonstrate that bioenergetic changes induced with aerobic training in skeletal muscle in vivo are retained in HSkMCs in vitro without impacting mitochondrial content, suggesting that training improves intrinsic skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity.
    Keywords:  Skeletal muscle metabolism; aerobic training response; differentiated myotubes; mitochondrial content; mitochondrial respiratory capacity
  3. Physiol Rep. 2022 Jul;10(13): e15377
      Skeletal muscle adapts to aerobic exercise training, in part, through fast-to-slow phenotypic shifts and an expansion of mitochondrial networks. Recent research suggests that the local and systemic benefits of exercise training also may be modulated by the mitochondrial-derived peptide, MOTS-c. Using a combination of acute and chronic exercise challenges, the goal of the present study was to characterize the interrelationship between MOTS-c and exercise. Compared to sedentary controls, 4-8 weeks of voluntary running increased MOTS-c protein expression ~1.5-5-fold in rodent plantaris, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles and is sustained for 4-6 weeks of detraining. This MOTS-c increase coincides with elevations in mtDNA reflecting an expansion of the mitochondrial genome to aerobic training. In a second experiment, a single dose (15 mg/kg) of MOTS-c administered to untrained mice improved total running time (12% increase) and distance (15% increase) during an acute exercise test. In a final experiment, MOTS-c protein translocated from the cytoplasm into the nucleus in two of six mouse soleus muscles 1 h following a 90-min downhill running challenge; no nuclear translocation was observed in the plantaris muscles from the same animals. These findings indicate that MOTS-c protein accumulates within trained skeletal muscle likely through a concomitant increase in mtDNA. Furthermore, these data suggest that the systemic benefits of exercise are, in part, mediated by an expansion of the skeletal muscle-derived MOTS-c protein pool. The benefits of training may persist into a period of inactivity (e.g., detraining) resulting from a sustained increase in intramuscular MOTS-c proteins levels.
    Keywords:  detraining; medial gastrocnemius; mouse; plantaris; rat; tibialis anterior
  4. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 28. pii: 7198. [Epub ahead of print]23(13):
      microRNAs negatively regulate gene expression by blocking translation or increasing mRNA degradation. In skeletal muscle, these molecules play important roles in adaptive responses, and ongoing investigations are necessary to understand the fine-tune regulation of skeletal muscle mass. Herein we showed that skeletal muscle overexpression of miR-29c increased fiber size and force at 7 and 30 days after electrotransfer. At both time points, AKT/mTOR pathway components were downregulated, and, surprisingly, overall protein synthesis was strongly elevated at day 7, which normalized by day 30 after pCMVmiR-29c electrotransfer. These results indicate that miR-29c expression induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and gain of function, which involves increased overall protein synthesis in spite of the deactivation of the AKT/mTOR pathway.
    Keywords:  AKT; mTOR; miR-29c; mice; protein synthesis; skeletal muscle
  5. Skelet Muscle. 2022 Jul 06. 12(1): 17
      Skeletal muscle homeostasis and function are ensured by orchestrated cellular interactions among several types of cells. A noticeable aspect of skeletal muscle biology is the drastic cell-cell communication changes that occur in multiple scenarios. The process of recovering from an injury, which is known as regeneration, has been relatively well investigated. However, the cellular interplay that occurs in response to mechanical loading, such as during resistance training, is poorly understood compared to regeneration. During muscle regeneration, muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) rebuild multinuclear myofibers through a stepwise process of proliferation, differentiation, fusion, and maturation, whereas during mechanical loading-dependent muscle hypertrophy, MuSCs do not undergo such stepwise processes (except in rare injuries) because the nuclei of MuSCs become directly incorporated into the mature myonuclei. In this review, six specific examples of such differences in MuSC dynamics between regeneration and hypertrophy processes are discussed.
    Keywords:  Differentiation; Hypertrophy; Muscle regeneration; Muscle satellite cells; Myonuclei
  6. Sports Med Health Sci. 2020 Dec;2(4): 186-194
      Cancer cachexia is a progressive disorder characterized by body weight, fat, and muscle loss. Cachexia induces metabolic disruptions that can be analogous and distinct from those observed in cancer, obscuring both diagnosis and treatment options. Inflammation, hypogonadism, and physical inactivity are widely investigated as systemic mediators of cancer-induced muscle wasting. At the cellular level, dysregulation of protein turnover and energy metabolism can negatively impact muscle mass and function. Exercise is well known for its anti-inflammatory effects and potent stimulation of anabolic signaling. Emerging evidence suggests the potential for exercise to rescue muscle's sensitivity to anabolic stimuli, reduce wasting through protein synthesis modulation, myokine release, and subsequent downregulation of proteolytic factors. To date, there is no recommendation for exercise in the management of cachexia. Given its complex nature, a multimodal approach incorporating exercise offers promising potential for cancer cachexia treatment. This review's primary objective is to summarize the growing body of research examining exercise regulation of cancer cachexia. Furthermore, we will provide evidence for exercise interactions with established systemic and cellular regulators of cancer-induced muscle wasting.
    Keywords:  Anabolic resistance; IL-6; Inflammation; Metabolic dysfunction; Physical activity; Protein turnover
  7. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022 Jul 08. 79(8): 406
      Muscular dystrophy encompasses a large number of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by progressive and devastating muscle wasting. Cell-based replacement strategies aimed at promoting skeletal muscle regeneration represent a candidate therapeutic approach to treat muscular dystrophies. Due to the difficulties of obtaining large numbers of stem cells from a muscle biopsy as well as expanding these in vitro, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an attractive cell source for the generation of myogenic progenitors, given that PSCs can repeatedly produce large amounts of lineage-specific tissue, representing an unlimited source of cells for therapy. In this review, we focus on the progress to date on different methods for the generation of human PSC-derived myogenic progenitor cells, their regenerative capabilities upon transplantation, their potential for allogeneic and autologous transplantation, as well as the specific challenges to be considered for future therapeutic applications.
    Keywords:  Human myogenic progenitors; In vivo regeneration; Muscular dystrophy; Pluripotent stem cells; Transgene-dependent; Transgene-free
  8. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2022 Jul 06.
      AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the fibre-type specific abundance of autophagy-related proteins after an overnight fast and following ingestion of a mixed meal in human skeletal muscle.METHODS: Twelve overweight, healthy young male volunteers underwent a 3h mixed meal tolerance test following an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected at baseline and throughout the 180 min post meal period and skeletal muscle biopsies were collected at baseline, 30- and 90-min post meal ingestion. Protein content of key autophagy markers and upstream signalling responses were measured in whole muscle and pooled single fibres using immunoblotting.
    RESULTS: In the fasted state, type I fibres displayed lower LC3B-I but higher LC3B-II abundance and higher LC3B-II/LC3B-I ratio compared to type II fibres (P < 0.05). However, there were no fibre type differences in p62/SQSTM1, ULK1, ATG5 or ATG12 (P > 0.05). Compared to the fasted state, there was a reduction in LC3B-II abundance, indicative of lower autophagosome content, in whole muscle and in both type I and type II fibres following meal ingestion (P < 0.05). This reduction in autophagosome content occurred alongside similar increases in p-AktS473 and p-mTORS2448 in both type I and type II muscle fibres (P < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: In human skeletal muscle, type I fibres have a greater autophagosome content than type II fibres in the overnight fasted state despite comparable abundance of other key upstream autophagy proteins. Autophagy is rapidly inhibited in both fibre types following the ingestion of a mixed meal.
    Keywords:  autophagy; human; insulin; mixed meal; muscle fiber-type
  9. iScience. 2022 Jul 15. 25(7): 104589
      Apelin (Apln) is a myokine that regulates skeletal muscle plasticity and metabolism and declines during aging. Through a yeast one-hybrid transcription factor binding screen, we identified the TEA domain transcription factor 1 (Tead1) as a novel regulator of the Apln promoter. Single-cell analysis of regenerating muscle revealed that the apelin receptor (Aplnr) is enriched in endothelial cells, whereas Tead1 is enriched in myogenic cells. Knock-down of Tead1 stimulates Apln secretion from muscle cells in vitro and myofiber-specific overexpression of Tead1 suppresses Apln secretion in vivo. Apln secretion via Tead1 knock-down in muscle cells stimulates endothelial cell expansion via endothelial Aplnr. In vivo, Apln peptide supplementation enhances endothelial cell expansion while Tead1 muscle overexpression delays endothelial remodeling following muscle injury. Our work describes a novel paracrine crosstalk in which Apln secretion is controlled by Tead1 in myogenic cells and influences endothelial remodeling during muscle repair.
    Keywords:  Cell biology; Molecular biology; Molecular mechanism of gene regulation
  10. Biol Pharm Bull. 2022 ;45(7): 962-967
      Sarcopenia is not only a major cause of disability but also a risk factor for obesity and diabetes in elderly persons. Exercise is an effective method for improving the sarcopenic condition by inducing the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, which has the capacities to both promote muscle hypertrophy and regulate lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis, by skeletal muscle. We previously showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote IL-6 secretion by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle myotubes via paracrine mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of paracrine actions of MSCs on IL-6 and proinflammatory cytokine expression in contractile C2C12 myotubes by applying electrical stimulation. IL-6 secretion by C2C12 myotubes was increased by electrical stimulation, and a more significant increase in IL-6 secretion was observed in electrically stimulated C2C12 myotubes cultured in conditioned medium from MSCs. The activation of nuclear factor-κB in C2C12 myotubes was also promoted by the combination of conditioned medium from MSCs and electrical stimulation. Moreover, the increases in tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β mRNA expression in C2C12 myotubes induced by electrical stimulation were suppressed by culture in conditioned medium from MSCs. The present findings suggest that MSCs transplantation or injection of their extracellular vesicles improve the therapeutic effect of exercise against sarcopenia without exacerbating inflammation.
    Keywords:  C2C12 myotube; electrical stimulation; interleukin (IL)-6; mesenchymal stem cell
  11. Physiol Rep. 2022 Jul;10(13): e15345
      Bed rest (BR) results in significant impairments in skeletal muscle metabolism. Mitochondrial metabolism is reportedly highly sensitive to disuse, with dysregulated fission-fusion events and impaired oxidative function previously reported. The effects of clinically relevant short-term BR (≤5 days) on mitochondrial protein expression are presently unclear, as are the effects of exercise prehabilitation as a potential counteractive intervention. The present study examined the effects of a 5-day period of BR and short-term resistance exercise prehabilitation (ST-REP) on mitochondrial-protein content. Ten older men (71 ± 4 years) underwent 5 days of BR, completing four sessions of high-volume unilateral resistance exercise prehabilitation over 7 days beforehand. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis in the non-exercised control and exercised legs, both pre- and post-prehabilitation and pre- and post-BR, to determine changes in citrate synthase enzyme activity and the expression of key proteins in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and molecular regulators of fission-fusion dynamics, biosynthesis, and mitophagy. We observed no significant effect of either BR or ST-REP on citrate synthase protein content, enzyme activity, or ETC complex I-V protein content. Moreover, we observed no significant changes in markers of mitochondrial fission and fusion (p-DRP1S616 , p-DRP1S637 , p-DRP1S616/S637 ratio, p-MFFS146 , Mitofillin, OPA1, or MFN2 (p > 0.05 for all). Finally, we observed no differences in markers of biosynthesis (p-AMPKT172 , p-ACCS79 , PGC1a, TFAM) or mitophagy-related signaling (ULK-1, BNIP3/NIX, LC3B I/II) (p > 0.05 for all). In contrast to previous longer-term periods of musculoskeletal disuse (i.e., 7-14 days), a clinically relevant, 5-day period of BR resulted in no significant perturbation in muscle mitochondrial protein signaling in healthy older adults, with no effect of ST-REP in the week prior to BR. Accordingly, disuse-induced muscle atrophy may precede alterations in mitochondrial content.
    Keywords:  ageing; bed rest; disuse; mitochondria; skeletal muscle
  12. Cells. 2022 Jun 26. pii: 2030. [Epub ahead of print]11(13):
      Actin cytoskeleton dynamics are essential regulatory processes in muscle development, growth, and regeneration due to their modulation of mechanotransduction, cell proliferation, differentiation, and morphological changes. Although the KN motif and ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 1 (Kank1) plays a significant role in cell adhesion dynamics, actin polymerization, and cell proliferation in various cells, the functional significance of Kank1 during the myogenic differentiation of progenitor cells has not been explored. Here, we report that Kank1 acts as a critical regulator of the proliferation and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells. Kank1 was found to be expressed at a relatively high level in C2C12 myoblasts, and its expression was modulated during the differentiation. Depletion of Kank1 by siRNA (siKank1) increased the accumulation of filamentous actin (F-actin). Furthermore, it facilitated the nuclear localization of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) by diminishing YAP1 phosphorylation in the cytoplasm, which activated the transcriptions of YAP1 target genes and promoted proliferation and cell cycle progression in myoblasts. Notably, depletion of Kank1 suppressed the protein expression of myogenic regulatory factors (i.e., MyoD and MyoG) and dramatically inhibited myoblast differentiation and myotube formation. Our results show that Kank1 is an essential regulator of actin dynamics, YAP1 activation, and cell proliferation and that its depletion impairs the myogenic differentiation of progenitor cells by promoting myoblast proliferation triggered by the F-actin-induced nuclear translocation of YAP1.
    Keywords:  Kank1; actin filament; differentiation; myogenesis; proliferation
  13. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 24. pii: 7028. [Epub ahead of print]23(13):
      The local inflammatory environment of injured skeletal muscle contributes to the resolution of the injury by promoting the proliferation of muscle precursor cells during the initial stage of muscle regeneration. However, little is known about the extent to which the inflammatory response influences the later stages of regeneration when newly formed (regenerating myofibers) are accumulating myonuclei and undergoing hypertrophy. Our prior work indicated that the inflammatory molecule ICAM-1 facilitates regenerating myofiber hypertrophy through a process involving myonuclear positioning and/or transcription. The present study tested the hypothesis that ICAM-1 enhances global transcription within regenerating myofibers by augmenting the transcriptional activity of myonuclei positioned in linear arrays (nuclear chains). We found that transcription in regenerating myofibers was ~2-fold higher in wild type compared with ICAM-1-/- mice at 14 and 28 days post-injury. This occurred because the transcriptional activity of individual myonuclei in nuclei chains, nuclear clusters, and a peripheral location were ~2-fold higher in wild type compared with ICAM-1-/- mice during regeneration. ICAM-1's enhancement of transcription in nuclear chains appears to be an important driver of myofiber hypertrophy as it was statistically associated with an increase in myofiber size during regeneration. Taken together, our findings indicate that ICAM-1 facilitates myofiber hypertrophy after injury by enhancing myonuclear transcription.
    Keywords:  ICAM-1; inflammatory response; muscle inflammation; myogenic cell fusion; regenerating myofibers
  14. Cells. 2022 Jun 30. pii: 2086. [Epub ahead of print]11(13):
      Aging causes degenerative changes such as epigenetic changes and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Exercise can upregulate muscle mitochondrial homeostasis and enhance antioxidant capacity and represents an effective treatment to prevent muscle aging. Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and microRNA expression are involved in the regulation of exercise-induced adaptive changes in muscle mitochondria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in signaling molecules in exercise-induced muscle mitochondrial health benefits, and strong evidence emphasizes that exercise-induced ROS can regulate gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. The majority of mitochondrial proteins are imported into mitochondria from the cytosol, so mitochondrial homeostasis is regulated by nuclear epigenetic mechanisms. Exercise can reverse aging-induced changes in myokine expression by modulating epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of exercise-generated ROS in the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. In addition, the potential epigenetic mechanisms involved in exercise-induced myokine expression are reviewed.
    Keywords:  ROS; aging; epigenetics; exercise; mitochondrial; skeletal muscle
  15. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2022 Jun;37(3): 408-414
      Skeletal muscle is now regarded as an endocrine organ based on its secretion of myokines and exerkines, which, in response to metabolic stimuli, regulate the crosstalk between the skeletal muscle and other metabolic organs in terms of systemic energy homeostasis. This conceptual basis of skeletal muscle as a metabolically active organ has provided insights into the potential role of physical inactivity and conditions altering muscle quality and quantity in the development of multiple metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes. Therefore, it is important to understand human muscle physiology more deeply in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Since monolayer cell lines or animal models used in conventional research differ from the pathophysiological features of the human body, there is increasing need for more physiologically relevant in vitro models of human skeletal muscle. Here, we introduce recent studies on in vitro models of human skeletal muscle generated from adult myogenic progenitors or pluripotent stem cells and summarize recent progress in the development of three-dimensional (3D) bioartificial muscle, which mimics the physiological complexity of native skeletal muscle tissue in terms of maturation and functionality. We then discuss the future of skeletal muscle 3D-organoid culture technology in the field of metabolic research for studying pathological mechanisms and developing personalized therapeutic strategies.
    Keywords:  Cell culture techniques, three dimensional; Metabolic diseases; Muscle, skeletal; Pluripotent stem cells; Stem cells
  16. Sports Med Health Sci. 2021 Dec;3(4): 212-217
      Diet-induced obesity has previously been shown to occur with the concomitant rise in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and increases in collagen deposition. While it has been known that the regenerative process of skeletal muscle is altered in obese mice following an acute muscle injury, we sought to examine differences in the expression of various markers of extracellular matrix remodeling and repair. Our laboratory has previously reported an impaired inflammatory and protein synthetic signaling in these mice that may contribute negatively to the muscle regenerative process. To expand upon this previous investigation, tissues from these animals underwent further analysis to determine the extent of changes to the regenerative response within the extracellular matrix, including transcriptional changes in Collagen I, Collagen III, and Fibronectin. Here, we show that the expression of Collagen III:I is significantly increased at 3-days post-injury in obese injured animals compared to lean injured animals (p ​= ​0.0338), and by 28-days the obese injured animals exhibit a significantly lower Collagen III:I than their lean injured counterparts (p ​= ​0.0035). We demonstrate an impaired response to an acute muscle injury in obese mice when compared with lean counterparts. However, further studies are required to elucidate translational consequences of these changes, as well as to determine any causative mechanisms that may be driving this effect.
    Keywords:  Ct, Cycle Threshold; Diet induced obesity; ECM, Extracellular Matrix; Extracellular matrix remodeling; MMPs, Matrix Metalloproteinases; MRF, Myogenic Regulatory Factor; PBS, Phosphate Buffered Saline; Skeletal muscle; TA, Tibialis Anterior; TIMPs, Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases
  17. Nat Commun. 2022 Jul 08. 13(1): 3961
      Satellite cells are required for the growth, maintenance, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Quiescent satellite cells possess a primary cilium, a structure that regulates the processing of the GLI family of transcription factors. Here we find that GLI3 processing by the primary cilium plays a critical role for satellite cell function. GLI3 is required to maintain satellite cells in a G0 dormant state. Strikingly, satellite cells lacking GLI3 enter the GAlert state in the absence of injury. Furthermore, GLI3 depletion stimulates expansion of the stem cell pool. As a result, satellite cells lacking GLI3 display rapid cell-cycle entry, increased proliferation and augmented self-renewal, and markedly enhanced regenerative capacity. At the molecular level, we establish that the loss of GLI3 induces mTORC1 signaling activation. Therefore, our results provide a mechanism by which GLI3 controls mTORC1 signaling, consequently regulating muscle stem cell activation and fate.
  18. Bio Protoc. 2022 Jun 05. pii: e4428. [Epub ahead of print]12(11):
      Aging and wasting of skeletal muscle reduce organismal fitness. Regrettably, only limited interventions are currently available to address this unmet medical need. Many methods have been developed to study this condition, including the intramuscular electroporation of DNA plasmids. However, this technique requires surgery and high electrical fields, which cause tissue damage. Here, we report an optimized protocol for the electroporation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into the tibialis anterior muscle of mice. This protocol does not require surgery and, because of the small siRNA size, mild electroporation conditions are utilized. By inducing target mRNA knockdown, this method can be used to interrogate gene function in muscles of mice from different strains, genotypes, and ages. Moreover, a complementary method for siRNA transfection into differentiated myotubes can be used for testing siRNA efficacy before in vivo use. Altogether, this streamlined protocol is instrumental for basic science and translational studies in muscles of mice and other animal models.
    Keywords:   Aging ; Electroporation ; Myofiber ; Sarcopenia ; Skeletal muscle ; Small interfering RNAs ; Tibialis anterior
  19. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 23. pii: 6968. [Epub ahead of print]23(13):
      Tubular aggregate myopathy (TAM) and Stormorken syndrome (STRMK) form a clinical continuum associating progressive muscle weakness with additional multi-systemic anomalies of the bones, skin, spleen, and platelets. TAM/STRMK arises from excessive extracellular Ca2+ entry due to gain-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ sensor STIM1 or the Ca2+ channel ORAI1. Currently, no treatment is available. Here we assessed the therapeutic potential of ORAI1 downregulation to anticipate and reverse disease development in a faithful mouse model carrying the most common TAM/STRMK mutation and recapitulating the main signs of the human disorder. To this aim, we crossed Stim1R304W/+ mice with Orai1+/- mice expressing 50% of ORAI1. Systematic phenotyping of the offspring revealed that the Stim1R304W/+Orai1+/- mice were born with a normalized ratio and showed improved postnatal growth, bone architecture, and partly ameliorated muscle function and structure compared with their Stim1R304W/+ littermates. We also produced AAV particles containing Orai1-specific shRNAs, and intramuscular injections of Stim1R304W/+ mice improved the skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation properties, while muscle histology remained unchanged. Altogether, we provide the proof-of-concept that Orai1 silencing partially prevents the development of the multi-systemic TAM/STRMK phenotype in mice, and we also established an approach to target Orai1 expression in postnatal tissues.
    Keywords:  ORAI1; STIM1; Stormorken syndrome; calcium; ion channel; mouse model; muscle disorder; shRNA; tubular aggregate myopathy
  20. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2022 Jul 05. 10(1): 97
      Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked, neuromuscular neurodegenerative disease for which there is no cure. The disease is characterized by a selective decrease in fast-muscle power (e.g., tongue pressure, grip strength) accompanied by a selective loss of fast-twitch muscle fibers. However, the relationship between neuromuscular junction (NMJ) pathology and fast-twitch motor unit vulnerability has yet to be explored. In this study, we used a cross-model comparison of two mouse models of SBMA to evaluate neuromuscular junction pathology, glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type switching, and cytoskeletal alterations in pre- and postsynaptic termini of tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius, and soleus hindlimb muscles. We observed significantly increased NMJ and myofiber pathology in fast-twitch, glycolytic motor units of the TA and gastrocnemius compared to slow-twitch, oxidative motor units of the soleus, as seen by decreased pre- and post-synaptic membrane area, decreased pre- and post-synaptic membrane colocalization, increased acetylcholine receptor compactness, a decrease in endplate area and complexity, and deficits in neurofilament heavy chain. Our data also show evidence for metabolic dysregulation and myofiber atrophy that correlate with severity of NMJ pathology. We propose a model in which the dynamic communicative relationship between the motor neuron and muscle, along with the developmental subtype of the muscle, promotes motor unit subtype specific vulnerability, metabolic alterations, and NMJ pathology.
    Keywords:  Motor neuron; Neuromuscular junction; SBMA; Skeletal muscle
  21. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2022 Jul 06.
      Alcohol is a myotoxin that disrupts skeletal muscle function and metabolism, but specific metabolic alternations following a binge and the time course of recovery remains undefined. The purpose of this work was to determine the metabolic response to binge alcohol, the role of corticosterone in this response and whether nutrient availability mediates the response.METHODS: Female mice received saline (control) or alcohol (EtOH) (5g/kg) via intraperitoneal injection at the start of the dark cycle. Whole-body metabolism was assessed for 5 days. In a separate cohort, gastrocnemius muscles and liver were collected every 4 hours (hrs) for 48hrs following intoxication. Third, metyrapone was administered prior to alcohol and gastrocnemius was collected 4hrs later. Lastly, alcohol treated mice were compared to fed or fasted controls.
    RESULTS: Alcohol disrupted whole-body metabolism for multiple days. Alcohol altered the expression of genes and proteins in the gastrocnemius related to the promotion of fat oxidation (Pparα, Pparδ/β, AMPK and Cd36) and protein breakdown (Murf1, Klf15, Bcat2). Changes to select metabolic genes in the liver did not parallel those in skeletal muscle. An alcohol-induced increase in circulating corticosterone was responsible for the initial change in protein breakdown factors but not the induction of FoxO1, Cebpβ, Pparα, and FoxO3. Alcohol led to a similar, but distinct metabolic response when compared to fasting animals.
    CONCLUSION: Overall, these data show that an acute alcohol binge rapidly disrupts macronutrient metabolism including sustained disruption to the metabolic gene signature of skeletal muscle in a manner similar to fasting at some timepoints.
    Keywords:  alcohol; ethanol; metabolism; skeletal muscle
  22. Cells. 2022 Jul 03. pii: 2105. [Epub ahead of print]11(13):
      Polyglutamine diseases are characterized by selective dysfunction and degeneration of specific types of neurons in the central nervous system. In addition, nonneuronal cells can also be affected as a consequence of primary degeneration or due to neuronal dysfunction. Skeletal muscle is a primary site of toxicity of polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor, but it is also affected in other polyglutamine diseases, more likely due to neuronal dysfunction and death. Nonetheless, pathological processes occurring in skeletal muscle atrophy impact the entire body metabolism, thus actively contributing to the inexorable progression towards the late and final stages of disease. Skeletal muscle atrophy is well recapitulated in animal models of polyglutamine disease. In this review, we discuss the impact and relevance of skeletal muscle in patients affected by polyglutamine diseases and we review evidence obtained in animal models and patient-derived cells modeling skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  Huntington’s disease; polyglutamine diseases; skeletal muscle atrophy; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; spinocerebellar ataxia
  23. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jul 04. pii: 7425. [Epub ahead of print]23(13):
      Glucose 6-P dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first rate-limiting enzyme in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and it is proverbial that G6PD is absent in skeletal muscle. However, how and why G6PD is down-regulated during skeletal muscle development is unclear. In this study, we confirmed the expression of G6PD was down-regulated during myogenesis in vitro and in vivo. G6PD was absolutely silent in adult skeletal muscle. Histone H3 acetylation and DNA methylation act together on the expression of G6PD. Neither knock-down of G6PD nor over-expression of G6PD affects myogenic differentiation. Knock-down of G6PD significantly promotes the sensitivity and response of skeletal muscle cells to insulin; over-expression of G6PD significantly injures the sensitivity and response of skeletal muscle cells to insulin. High-fat diet treatment impairs insulin signaling by up-regulating G6PD, and knock-down of G6PD rescues the impaired insulin signaling and glucose uptake caused by high-fat diet treatment. Taken together, this study explored the importance of G6PD deficiency during myogenic differentiation, which provides new sight to treat insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes.
    Keywords:  G6PD; insulin resistance; skeletal muscle
  24. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 800094
      Losses in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and metabolic function are harmful in the pathophysiology of serious diseases, including breast cancer. Physical exercise training is an effective non-pharmacological strategy to improve health and quality of life in patients with breast cancer, mainly through positive effects on skeletal muscle mass, strength, and metabolic function. Emerging evidence has also highlighted the potential of exercise-induced crosstalk between skeletal muscle and cancer cells as one of the mechanisms controlling breast cancer progression. This intercellular communication seems to be mediated by a group of skeletal muscle molecules released in the bloodstream known as myokines. Among the myokines, exercise-induced circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are deemed to mediate the antitumoral effects produced by exercise training through the control of key cellular processes, such as proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. However, there are still many open questions regarding the molecular basis of the exercise-induced effects on c-miRNA on human breast cancer cells. Here, we present evidence regarding the effect of exercise training on c-miRNA expression in breast cancer, along with the current gaps in the literature and future perspectives.
    Keywords:  breast cancer; crosstalk; disease; epigenetics; intercellular communication; miRNA; skeletal muscle; tumor
  25. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 22. pii: 6937. [Epub ahead of print]23(13):
      A decrease in skeletal muscle contractile activity or its complete cessation (muscle unloading or disuse) leads to muscle fibers' atrophy and to alterations in muscle performance. These changes negatively affect the quality of life of people who, for one reason or another, are forced to face a limitation of physical activity. One of the key regulatory events leading to the muscle disuse-induced changes is an impairment of calcium homeostasis, which leads to the excessive accumulation of calcium ions in the sarcoplasm. This review aimed to analyze the triggering mechanisms of calcium homeostasis impairment (including those associated with the accumulation of high-energy phosphates) under various types of muscle unloading. Here we proposed a hypothesis about the regulatory mechanisms of SERCA and IP3 receptors activity during muscle unloading, and about the contribution of these mechanisms to the excessive calcium ion myoplasmic accumulation and gene transcription regulation via excitation-transcription coupling.
    Keywords:  SERCA; calcium signaling; modeled microgravity; muscle disuse; muscle unloading
  26. Small. 2022 Jul 08. e2201957
      Severe inflammation and myogenic differentiation disorder are the major obstacles to skeletal muscle healing after injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role as regulatory molecules during the process of muscle healing, but the detailed mechanism of miRNA-mediated intercellular communication between myoblasts and macrophages remains unclear. Here, it is reported that myoblasts secrete miRNAs-enriched exosomes in the inflammatory environment, through which miR-224 is transferred into macrophages to inhibit M2 polarization. Further data demonstrate that WNT-9a may be a direct target of miR-224 for macrophage polarization. In turn, the secretome of M1 macrophages impairs myogenic differentiation and promotes proliferation. Single-cell integration analysis suggests that the elevation of exosome-derived miR-224 is caused by the activation of the key factor E2F1 in myoblasts and demonstrates the RB/E2F1/miR-224/WNT-9a axis. In vivo results show that treatment with antagomir-224 or liposomes containing miR-224 inhibitors suppresses fibrosis and improves muscle recovery. These findings indicate the importance of the crosstalk between myoblasts and macrophages via miRNA-containing exosomes in the regulation of macrophage polarization and myogenic differentiation/proliferation during muscle healing. This study provides a strategy for treating muscle injury through designing an M2 polarization-enabling anti-inflammatory and miRNA-based bioactive material.
    Keywords:  exosomes; inflammation; liposomes; macrophage polarization; miRNAs; muscle injury; myoblasts
  27. Biol Pharm Bull. 2022 ;45(7): 910-918
      Cisplatin is a chemotherapy drug used to treat a variety of cancers. Muscle loss in cancer patients is associated with increased cancer-related mortality. Previously, we suggested that cisplatin administration increases the atrophic gene expressions of ubiquitin E3 ligases, such as atrogin-1 and muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1), which may lead to muscle atrophy. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline for 4 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the final injection of cisplatin, quadriceps muscles were removed from the mice. The gene expression of Psma and Psmb, which comprise the 20S proteasome, was upregulated by cisplatin administration in the quadriceps muscle of mouse. Systemic administration of cisplatin significantly reduced not only the quadriceps muscle mass but also the diameter of the myofibers. In addition, bortezomib (0.125 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered 30 min before each cisplatin treatment. The co-administration of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, significantly recovered the reductions in the mass of quadriceps and myofiber diameter, although it did not recover the decline in the forelimb and forepaw strength induced by cisplatin. Increased 20S proteasome abundance may play a significant role in the development of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy. During cisplatin-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, different mechanisms may be involved between loss of muscle mass and strength. In addition, it is suggested that bortezomib has essentially no effect on cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  bortezomib; cisplatin; muscle atrophy; proteasome; skeletal muscle
  28. J Gen Physiol. 2022 Sep 05. pii: e202213143. [Epub ahead of print]154(9):
      This work describes a simple way to identify fiber types in living muscles by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). We quantified the mean values of lifetimes τ1 and τ2 derived from a two-exponential fit in freshly dissected mouse flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and soleus muscles. While τ1 values changed following a bimodal behavior between muscles, the distribution of τ2 is shifted to higher values in FDB. To understand the origin of this difference, we obtained maps of autofluorescence lifetimes of flavin mononucleotide and dinucleotide (FMN/FAD) in cryosections, where excitation was set at 440 nm and emission at a bandwidth of between 500 and 570 nm, and paired them with immunofluorescence images of myosin heavy chain isoforms, which allowed identification of fiber types. In soleus, τ2 was 3.16 ns for type I (SD 0.11, 97 fibers), 3.45 ns for IIA (0.10, 69), and 3.46 ns for IIX (0.12, 65). In FDB muscle, τ2 was 3.17 ns for type I (0.08, 22), 3.46 ns for IIA (0.16, 48), and 3.66 ns for IIX (0.15, 43). From τ2 distributions, it follows that an FDB fiber with τ2 > 3.3 ns is expected to be of type II, and of type I otherwise. This simple classification method has first and second kind errors estimated at 0.02 and 0.10, which can be lowered by reducing the threshold for identification of type I and increasing it for type II. Lifetime maps of autofluorescence, therefore, constitute a tool to identify fiber types that, for being practical, fast, and noninvasive, can be applied in living tissue without compromising other experimental interventions.
  29. J Gen Physiol. 2022 Sep 05. pii: e202113071. [Epub ahead of print]154(9):
      Glycogen is a key energy substrate in excitable tissue, including in skeletal muscle fibers where it also contributes to local energy production. Transmission electron microscopy imaging has revealed the existence of a heterogenic subcellular distribution of three distinct glycogen pools in skeletal muscle, which are thought to reflect the requirements for local energy stores at the subcellular level. Here, we show that the three main energy-consuming ATPases in skeletal muscles (Ca2+, Na+,K+, and myosin ATPases) utilize different local pools of glycogen. These results clearly demonstrate compartmentalized glycogen metabolism and emphasize that spatially distinct pools of glycogen particles act as energy substrate for separated energy requiring processes, suggesting a new model for understanding glycogen metabolism in working muscles, muscle fatigue, and metabolic disorders. These observations suggest that the distinct glycogen pools can regulate the functional state of mammalian muscle cells and have important implications for the understanding of how the balance between ATP utilization and ATP production is regulated at the cellular level in general and in skeletal muscle fibers in particular.
  30. Front Mol Biosci. 2022 ;9 818470
      High-intensity aerobic exercise (90% of the maximal heart rate) can effectively suppress cancer cell proliferation in vivo. However, the molecular effects of exercise and its relevance to cancer prevention remain uninvestigated. In this study, mice with colorectal cancer were subjected to high-intensity aerobic exercise, and mRNA-seq analysis was performed on the heart, lungs, and skeletal muscle tissues to analyze the genome-wide molecular effects of exercise. The skeletal muscle-derived genes with exercise-dependent differential expression were further evaluated for their effects on colorectal cancer cell viability. Compared to the results obtained for the control groups (healthy and cancer with no exercise), the regular and high-intensity aerobic physical activity in the mice produced positive results in comprehensive parameters (i.e., food intake, weight gain, and survival rate). A heatmap of differentially expressed genes revealed markedly different gene expression patterns among the groups. RNA-seq analysis of 23,282 genes expressed in the skeletal muscle yielded several anticancer effector genes (e.g., Trim63, Fos, Col1a1, and Six2). Knockdown and overexpression of selected anticancer genes repressed CT26 murine colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation by 20% (p < 0.05). Our findings, based on the aerobic exercise cancer mouse model, suggest that high-intensity aerobic exercise results in a comprehensive change in the expression patterns of genes, particularly those that can affect cancer cell viability. Such an approach may identify key exercise-regulated genes that can help the body combat cancer.
    Keywords:  RNA-seq; cancer; exercise; skeletal muscle; tumor suppressors
  31. Sci Rep. 2022 Jul 04. 12(1): 11260
      Muscle diseases share common pathological features suggesting common underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized there is a common set of genes dysregulated across muscle diseases compared to healthy muscle and that these genes correlate with severity of muscle disease. We performed meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases and healthy controls. Studies obtained from public microarray repositories fulfilling quality criteria were divided into six categories: (i) immobility, (ii) inflammatory myopathies, (iii) intensive care unit (ICU) acquired weakness (ICUAW), (iv) congenital muscle diseases, (v) chronic systemic diseases, (vi) motor neuron disease. Patient cohorts were separated in discovery and validation cohorts retaining roughly equal proportions of samples for the disease categories. To remove bias towards a specific muscle disease category we repeated the meta-analysis five times by removing data sets corresponding to one muscle disease class at a time in a "leave-one-disease-out" analysis. We used 636 muscle tissue samples from 30 independent cohorts to identify a 52 gene signature (36 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated genes). We validated the discriminatory power of this signature in 657 muscle biopsies from 12 additional patient cohorts encompassing five categories of muscle diseases with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91, 83% sensitivity, and 85.3% specificity. The expression score of the gene signature inversely correlated with quadriceps muscle mass (r = -0.50, p-value = 0.011) in ICUAW and shoulder abduction strength (r = -0.77, p-value = 0.014) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The signature also positively correlated with histologic assessment of muscle atrophy in ALS (r = 0.88, p-value = 1.62 × 10-3) and fibrosis in muscular dystrophy (Jonckheere trend test p-value = 4.45 × 10-9). Our results identify a conserved transcriptional signature associated with clinical and histologic muscle disease severity. Several genes in this conserved signature have not been previously associated with muscle disease severity.
  32. PLoS One. 2022 ;17(7): e0270927
      BACKGROUND: IGF-1 is considered an important regulator of muscle protein synthesis. However, its role in stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by amino acids (AA) is not clear, despite pronounced alterations in IGF-1 mRNA expression and signaling in muscle tissues by feeding. This study evaluates the role of locally produced IGF-1 and IGF-1 signaling when skeletal muscle protein synthesis is activated by increased amino acid availability in confluent, non-proliferating cells.METHODS: L6 skeletal muscle cells were subjected to amino acid starvation (24 h, 0.14 mM) followed by 18 h amino acid refeeding in Low AA (0.28 mM) or High AA concentrations (9 mM). Protein synthesis rates were estimated by L-[U-14C]-phenylalanine incorporation into cellular proteins. IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor mRNA expression were quantified by real time PCR. SiRNA knockdown, antibodies and chemical inhibitors were used to attenuate muscle IGF-1 production and signaling.
    RESULTS: High AA concentrations (9mM) increased IGF-1 mRNA expression (+ 30%, p<0.05) and increased L-[U-14C]-phenylalanine incorporation compared to Low AA in confluent, non-proliferating muscle cells. Blocking IGF-1 signaling by chemical inhibitors reduced IGF-1 mRNA upregulation (~50%, p< 0.01), without decrease of protein synthesis. SiRNA knockdown of IGF-1 reduced protein synthesis, mainly explained by reduced cell proliferation. High AA or IGF-1 inhibitors did not change IGF-1 receptor mRNA expressions.
    CONCLUSION: Amino acids increased IGF-1 mRNA expression and stimulated muscle protein synthesis. However, simultaneous upregulation of IGF-1 mRNA did not relate to increased protein synthesis by amino acids. The results indicate that increased IGF-1 mRNA expression is rather a covariate to amino acid initiation of protein synthesis in non-proliferating muscle cells; effects that may be related to unrecognized metabolic activities, such as transport of amino acids.
  33. Cytokine. 2022 Jul 01. pii: S1043-4666(22)00161-2. [Epub ahead of print]157 155952
      Metrnl is a secreted protein able to activate different intracellular signaling pathways in adipocytes, macrophages, myocytes and cardiomyocytes with physiological effects of the browning of white adipose tissue (BWT), insulin sensitivity, inflammation inhibition, skeletal muscle regeneration and heart protection. Shown to be regulated by obesity, diabetes, caloric restriction, weight loss and heart diseases, Metrnl is definitely involved in metabolic turbulences, and may play roles in metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, due to the conflicting data yielded, Metrnl is still far from clinical application as a diagnostic and/or a therapeutic agent or even a therapeutic target in MetS-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Nevertheless, blood Metrnl levels as well as Metrnl as a cardiokine have been reported to play cardioprotective roles against heart diseases. Considering the established metabolic and anti-inflammatory hallmarks, exercise-induced Metrnl (as a myokine) is regarded as an exercise mediator in improving obesity-induced complications such as insulin resistance, T2D and inflammation. Besides, due to its healing role in muscle damage, Metrnl is also a potential therapeutic candidate to enhance regeneration with ageing or other inflammatory myopathies like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Therefore, there are still many exercise-related questions unanswered on Metrnl, such as Metrnl-mediated fat browning in humans, exercise effects on heart Metrnl production and secretion and the effects of other exercise-induced skeletal muscle stressors like hypoxia and oxidative in Metrnl production other than exercise-induced muscle damage.
    Keywords:  A clinical biomarker; An exercise mediator; Cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs); Metabolic syndrome (MetS); Meteorin-like protein (Metrnl)
  34. J Biol Chem. 2022 Jul 01. pii: S0021-9258(22)00591-9. [Epub ahead of print] 102149
      Skeletal muscle differentiation (myogenesis) is a complex and highly coordinated biological process regulated by a series of myogenic marker genes. Chromatin interactions between gene's promoters and their enhancers have an important role in transcriptional control. However, the high-resolution chromatin interactions of myogenic genes and their functional enhancers during myogenesis remain largely unclear. Here, we used circularized chromosome conformation capture coupled with next-generation sequencing (4C-seq) to investigate eight myogenic marker genes in C2C12 myoblasts (C2C12-MBs) and C2C12 myotubes (C2C12-MTs). We revealed dynamic chromatin interactions of these marker genes during differentiation, and identified 163 and 314 significant interaction sites (SISs) in C2C12-MBs and C2C12-MTs, respectively. The interacting genes of SISs in C2C12-MTs were mainly involved in muscle development, and histone modifications of the SISs changed during differentiation. Through functional genomic screening, we also identified 25 and 41 putative active enhancers in C2C12-MBs and C2C12-MTs, respectively. Using luciferase reporter assays for putative enhancers of Myog and Myh3, we identified eight activating enhancers. Furthermore, dCas9-KRAB epigenome editing and RNA-seq revealed a role for Myog enhancers in the regulation of Myog expression and myogenic differentiation in the native genomic context. Taken together, this study lays the groundwork for understanding 3D chromatin interaction changes of myogenic genes during myogenesis and provides insights that contribute to our understanding of the role of enhancers in regulating myogenesis.
    Keywords:  3D chromatin; 4C-seq; Myogenesis; Promoter-enhancer interaction; Transcription regulation
  35. J Clin Med. 2022 Jun 28. pii: 3735. [Epub ahead of print]11(13):
      The effects of total body irradiation (TBI) to the capacity of skeletal muscle hypertrophy were quantified using the compensatory muscle hypertrophy model. We additionally assessed the responses of stem and/or progenitor cells in the muscles. A single TBI of 9.0, 5.0 and 2.5 Gy was delivered to C57BL/6 mice. Bone marrow stromal cells were obtained from GFP-Tg mice, and were injected into the tail vein of the recipient mice (1 × 106 cells/mouse), for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Five weeks after TBI, the mean GFP-chimerism in the blood was 96 ± 0.8% in the 9 Gy, 83 ± 3.9% in the 5 Gy, and 8.4 ± 3.4% in the 2.5 Gy groups. This implied that the impact of 2.5 Gy is quite low and unavailable as the BMT treatment. Six weeks after the TBI/BMT procedure, muscle hypertrophy was induced in the right plantaris muscle by surgical ablation (SA) of the synergist muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus), and the contralateral left side was preserved as a control. The muscle hypertrophy capacity significantly decreased by 95% in the 9 Gy, 48% in the 5 Gy, and 36% in the 2.5 Gy groups. Furthermore, stem/progenitor cells in the muscle were enzymatically isolated and fractionated into non-sorted bulk cells, CD45-/34-/29+ (Sk-DN), and CD45-/34+ (Sk-34) cells, and myogenic capacity was confirmed by the presence of Pax7+ and MyoD+ cells in culture. Myogenic capacity also declined significantly in the Bulk and Sk-DN cell groups in all three TBI conditions, possibly implying that skeletal muscles are more susceptible to TBI than bone marrow. However, interstitial Sk-34 cells were insusceptible to TBI, retaining their myogenic/proliferative capacity.
    Keywords:  myogenic response; proliferative capacity; satellite cells; stem cells
  36. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 26. pii: 7114. [Epub ahead of print]23(13):
      Sarcopenia, an age-related decline in muscle mass and strength, is associated with metabolic disease and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is associated with decreased tissue vascularization and muscle atrophy. In this work, we investigated the role of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α in sarcopenia. To this end, we obtained skeletal muscle biopsies from elderly sarcopenic patients and compared them with those from young individuals. We found a decrease in the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes in sarcopenia, as well as of PAX7, the major stem cell marker of satellite cells, whereas the atrophy marker MURF1 was increased. We also isolated satellite cells from muscle biopsies and cultured them in vitro. We found that a pharmacological activation of HIF-1α and its target genes caused a reduction in skeletal muscle atrophy and activation of PAX7 gene expression. In conclusion, in this work we found that HIF-1α plays a role in sarcopenia and is involved in satellite cell homeostasis. These results support further studies to test whether pharmacological reactivation of HIF-1α could prevent and counteract sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  HIF-1α; atrophy; hypoxia; sarcopenia; satellite cells
  37. Life Sci Alliance. 2022 Nov;pii: e202201367. [Epub ahead of print]5(11):
      Aberrant expression of dystrophin, utrophin, dysferlin, or calpain-3 was originally identified in muscular dystrophies (MDs). Increasing evidence now indicates that these proteins might act as tumor suppressors in myogenic and non-myogenic cancers. As DNA damage and somatic aneuploidy, hallmarks of cancer, are early pathological signs in MDs, we hypothesized that a common pathway might involve the centrosome. Here, we show that dystrophin, utrophin, dysferlin, and calpain-3 are functional constituents of the centrosome. In myoblasts, lack of any of these proteins caused excess centrosomes, centrosome misorientation, nuclear abnormalities, and impaired microtubule nucleation. In dystrophin double-mutants, these defects were significantly aggravated. Moreover, we demonstrate that also in non-myogenic cells, all four MD-related proteins localize to the centrosome, including the muscle-specific full-length dystrophin isoform. Therefore, MD-related proteins might share a convergent function at the centrosome in addition to their diverse, well-established muscle-specific functions. Thus, our findings support the notion that cancer-like centrosome-related defects underlie MDs and establish a novel concept linking MDs to cancer.
  38. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2022 Jun;37(3): 552-557
      Sestrin2, a well-known adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulator, plays a protective role against metabolic stress. The β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) induces fat browning and inhibits muscle atrophy in an AMPK-dependent manner. However, no prior research has examined the relationship of sestrin2 with β3AR in body composition changes. In this study, CL 316,243 (CL), a β3AR agonist, was administered to wild-type and sestrin2-knockout (KO) mice for 2 weeks, and fat and muscle tissues were harvested. CL induced AMPK phosphorylation, expression of brown-fat markers, and mitochondrial biogenesis, which resulted in the reduction of lipid droplet size in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). These effects were not observed in sestrin2-KO mice. In CL-treated soleus muscle, sestrin2-KO was related to decreased myogenic gene expression and increased levels of muscle atrophy-related molecules. Our results suggest that sestrin2 is associated with beneficial β3AR-mediated changes in body composition, especially in iWAT and in the soleus.
    Keywords:  Adipose tissue, brown; Adrenergic beta-3 receptor agonists; Muscle development; Muscular atrophy; Sestrin2 protein, mouse
  39. Biomed Res Int. 2022 ;2022 6042591
      Muscle atrophy caused by long-term denervation leads to the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, resulting in a poor recovery of functional muscles and decreasing quality of life. Increasing differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMs) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of denervated muscle atrophy. However, there is still insufficient evidence to explain the role of miRNAs and their target genes in skeletal muscle atrophy. Therefore, an integrative exploration of the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network in denervated muscle atrophy is necessary. A total of 21 (16 upregulated and 5 downregulated) DEMs were screened out in the GSE81914 dataset. Med1, Myod1, Nfkb1, Rela, and Camta1 were predicted and verified to be significantly upregulated in denervated muscle atrophy, from which 6 key TF-miRNA relationship pairs, including Med1-mir-1949, Med1-mir-146b, Myod1-mir-29b, Nfkb1-mir-21, Rela-mir-21, and Camta1-mir-132, were obtained. 60 target genes were then predicted by submitting candidate DEMs to the miRNet database. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that target genes of DEMs were mainly enriched in the apoptotic process and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Through the PPI network construction, key modules and hub genes were obtained and potentially modulated by mir-29b, mir-132, and mir-133a. According to the qRT-PCR results, the expression of COL1A1 and Ctgf is opposite to their related miRNAs in denervated muscle atrophy. In the study, a potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was firstly constructed in denervated muscle atrophy, in which the mir-29b-COL1A1 and mir-133a-Ctgf pathways may provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment.
  40. Skelet Muscle. 2022 Jul 02. 12(1): 16
      BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle fiber type distribution has implications for human health, muscle function, and performance. This knowledge has been gathered using labor-intensive and costly methodology that limited these studies. Here, we present a method based on muscle tissue RNA sequencing data (totRNAseq) to estimate the distribution of skeletal muscle fiber types from frozen human samples, allowing for a larger number of individuals to be tested.METHODS: By using single-nuclei RNA sequencing (snRNAseq) data as a reference, cluster expression signatures were produced by averaging gene expression of cluster gene markers and then applying these to totRNAseq data and inferring muscle fiber nuclei type via linear matrix decomposition. This estimate was then compared with fiber type distribution measured by ATPase staining or myosin heavy chain protein isoform distribution of 62 muscle samples in two independent cohorts (n = 39 and 22).
    RESULTS: The correlation between the sequencing-based method and the other two were rATPas = 0.44 [0.13-0.67], [95% CI], and rmyosin = 0.83 [0.61-0.93], with p = 5.70 × 10-3 and 2.00 × 10-6, respectively. The deconvolution inference of fiber type composition was accurate even for very low totRNAseq sequencing depths, i.e., down to an average of ~ 10,000 paired-end reads.
    CONCLUSIONS: This new method ( ) consequently allows for measurement of fiber type distribution of a larger number of samples using totRNAseq in a cost and labor-efficient way. It is now feasible to study the association between fiber type distribution and e.g. health outcomes in large well-powered studies.
  41. J Cell Sci. 2022 Jul 04. pii: jcs.259789. [Epub ahead of print]
      Adult stem cells persist in mammalian tissues by entering a state of reversible quiescence/ G0, associated with low transcription. Using cultured myoblasts and muscle stem cells, we report that in G0, global RNA content and synthesis are substantially repressed, correlating with decreased RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) expression and activation. Integrating RNAPII occupancy and transcriptome profiling, we identify repressed networks and a role for promoter-proximal RNAPII pausing in G0. Strikingly, RNAPII shows enhanced pausing in G0 on repressed genes encoding regulators of RNA biogenesis (Nucleolin, Rps24, Ctdp1); release of pausing is associated with their increased expression in G1. Knockdown of these transcripts in proliferating cells leads to induction of G0 markers, confirming the importance of their repression in establishment of G0. A targeted screen of RNAPII regulators revealed that knockdown of Aff4 (positive regulator of elongation) unexpectedly enhances expression of G0-stalled genes and hastens S phase; NELF, a regulator of pausing appears to be dispensable. We propose that RNAPII pausing contributes to transcriptional control of a subset of G0-repressed genes to maintain quiescence and impacts the timing of the G0-G1 transition.
    Keywords:  Adult stem cells; Cell cycle re-entry; Myoblast; Promoter proximal RNAPII pausing; Quiescence; Reversible arrest
  42. J Vis Exp. 2022 Jun 16.
      One important application of clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas 9 is the development of knock-out cell lines, specifically to study the function of new genes/proteins associated with a disease, identified during the genetic diagnosis. For the development of such cell lines, two major issues have to be untangled: insertion of the CRISPR tools (the Cas9 and the guide RNA) with high efficiency into the chosen cells, and restriction of the Cas9 activity to the specific deletion of the chosen gene. The protocol described here is dedicated to the insertion of the CRISPR tools in difficult to transfect cells, such as muscle cells. This protocol is based on the use of lentiviruses, produced with plasmids publicly available, for which all the cloning steps are described to target a gene of interest. The control of Cas9 activity has been performed using an adaptation of a previously described system called KamiCas9, in which the transduction of the cells with a lentivirus encoding a guide RNA targeting the Cas9 allows the progressive abolition of Cas9 expression. This protocol has been applied to the development of a RYR1-knock out human muscle cell line, which has been further characterized at the protein and functional level, to confirm the knockout of this important calcium channel involved in muscle intracellular calcium release and in excitation-contraction coupling. The procedure described here can easily be applied to other genes in muscle cells or in other difficult to transfect cells and produce valuable tools to study these genes in human cells.