bims-moremu Biomed News
on Molecular regulators of muscle mass
Issue of 2022‒06‒19
thirty-six papers selected by
Anna Vainshtein
Craft Science Inc.

  1. Sci Rep. 2022 Jun 11. 12(1): 9674
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe neuromuscular disease causing a progressive muscle wasting due to mutations in the DMD gene that lead to the absence of dystrophin protein. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based therapies aiming to restore dystrophin in muscles, by either exon skipping or microdystrophin expression, are very promising. However, the absence of dystrophin induces cellular perturbations that hinder AAV therapy efficiency. We focused here on the impact of the necrosis-regeneration process leading to nuclear centralization in myofiber, a common feature of human myopathies, on AAV transduction efficiency. We generated centronucleated myofibers by cardiotoxin injection in wild-type muscles prior to AAV injection. Intramuscular injections of AAV1 vectors show that transgene expression was drastically reduced in regenerated muscles, even when the AAV injection occurred 10 months post-regeneration. We show also that AAV genomes were not lost from cardiotoxin regenerated muscle and were properly localised in the myofiber nuclei but were less transcribed leading to muscle transduction defect. A similar defect was observed in muscles of the DMD mouse model mdx. Therefore, the regeneration process per se could participate to the AAV-mediated transduction defect observed in dystrophic muscles which may limit AAV-based therapies.
  2. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2022 Jun 15.
      Skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction contribute to cancer patient morbidity and mortality. Cachexia pathophysiology is highly complex, given that perturbations to the systemic cancer environment and the interaction with diverse tissues can contribute to wasting processes. Systemic interleukin 6 (IL-6) and glycoprotein 130 (gp130) receptor signaling have established roles in some types of cancer-induced muscle wasting through disruptions to protein turnover and oxidative capacity. While exercise has documented benefits for cancer prevention and patient survival, there are significant gaps in our understanding of muscle adaptation and plasticity during severe cachexia. Preclinical models have provided valuable insight into the adaptive potential of muscle to contraction within the cancer environment. We summarize the current understanding of how resistance-type exercise impacts mechanisms involved in cancer-induced muscle atrophy and dysfunction. Specifically, the role of IL-6 and gp130 receptor in the pathophysiology of muscle wasting and the adaptive response to exercise is explained. The discussion includes current knowledge gaps and future research directions needed to improve preclinical research and accelerate clinical translation in human cancer patients.
    Keywords:  cancer cachexia; eccentric contractions; inflammation; oxidative metabolism; protein synthesis
  3. Skelet Muscle. 2022 Jun 11. 12(1): 13
      BACKGROUND: Aging decreases skeletal muscle mass and quality. Maintenance of healthy muscle is regulated by a balance between protein and organellar synthesis and their degradation. The autophagy-lysosome system is responsible for the selective degradation of protein aggregates and organelles, such as mitochondria (i.e., mitophagy). Little data exist on the independent and combined influence of age, biological sex, and exercise on the autophagy system and lysosome biogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize sex differences in autophagy and lysosome biogenesis in young and aged muscle and to determine if acute exercise influences these processes.METHODS: Young (4-6 months) and aged (22-24 months) male and female mice were assigned to a sedentary or an acute exercise group. Mitochondrial content, the autophagy-lysosome system, and mitophagy were measured via protein analysis. A TFEB-promoter-construct was utilized to examine Tfeb transcription, and nuclear-cytosolic fractions allowed us to examine TFEB localization in sedentary and exercised muscle with age and sex.
    RESULTS: Our results indicate that female mice, both young and old, had more mitochondrial protein than age-matched males. However, mitochondria in the muscle of females had a reduced respiratory capacity. Mitochondrial content was only reduced with age in the male cohort. Young female mice had a greater abundance of autophagy, mitophagy, and lysosome proteins than young males; however, increases were evident with age irrespective of sex. Young sedentary female mice had indices of greater autophagosomal turnover than male counterparts. Exhaustive exercise was able to stimulate autophagic clearance solely in young male mice. Similarly, nuclear TFEB protein was enhanced to a greater extent in young male, compared to young female mice following exercise, but no changes were observed in aged mice. Finally, TFEB-promoter activity was upregulated following exercise in both young and aged muscle.
    CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that biological sex influences mitochondrial homeostasis, the autophagy-lysosome system, and mitophagy in skeletal muscle with age. Furthermore, our data suggest that young male mice have a more profound ability to activate these processes with exercise than in the other groups. Ultimately, this may contribute to a greater remodeling of muscle in response to exercise training in males.
    Keywords:  Aging; Autophagy; Lysosomes; Mitophagy; Muscle; Sex differences; TFEB
  4. J Physiol. 2022 Jun 13.
      Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder with variable clinical features. Currently, there is no cure or effective treatment for DM1. The disease is caused by an expansion of CUG repeats in the 3'UTR of DMPK mRNAs. Mutant DMPK mRNAs accumulate in nuclei as RNA foci and trigger an imbalance in the level and localization of RNA-binding proteins causing the characteristic missplicing events which account for the varied DM1 symptoms, a disease mechanism referred to as RNA toxicity. In recent years, multiple signaling pathways have been identified as being aberrantly regulated in skeletal muscle in response to the CUG expansion, including AMPK, a sensor of energy status and a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. Converging lines of evidence highlight the benefits of activating AMPK signaling pharmacologically on RNA toxicity as well as on muscle histology and function in preclinical DM1 models. Importantly, a clinical trial with metformin, an activator of AMPK, resulted in functional benefits in DM1 patients. In addition, exercise, a known AMPK activator, has shown promising effects on RNA toxicity and muscle function in DM1 mice. Finally, clinical trials involving moderate-intensity exercise also induced functional benefits for DM1 patients. Taken together, these studies clearly demonstrate the molecular, histological and functional benefits of AMPK activation and exercise-based interventions on the DM1 phenotype. Despite these advances, several key questions remain and in particular, the extent of the true implication of AMPK in the observed beneficial improvements and how, mechanistically, activation of AMPK signaling improves the DM1 pathophysiology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  AMPK; exercise; myotonic dystrophy type 1; skeletal muscle; therapy
  5. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 ;10 886879
      Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising tool for disease modeling and drug screening. To apply them to skeletal muscle disorders, it is necessary to establish mature myotubes because the onset of many skeletal muscle disorders is after birth. However, to make mature myotubes, the forced expression of specific genes should be avoided, as otherwise dysregulation of the intracellular networks may occur. Here, we achieved this goal by purifying hiPSC-derived muscle stem cells (iMuSC) by Pax7-fluorescence monitoring and antibody sorting. The resulting myotubes displayed spontaneous self-contraction, aligned sarcomeres, and a triad structure. Notably, the phenotype of sodium channels was changed to the mature type in the course of the differentiation, and a characteristic current pattern was observed. Moreover, the protocol resulted in highly efficient differentiation and high homogeneity and is applicable to drug screening.
    Keywords:  human iPS cell; mature myotube; myogenic differentiation; screening tools; transgene free
  6. Aging Cell. 2022 Jun 17. e13659
      Aging-related sarcopenia is currently the most common sarcopenia. The main manifestations are skeletal muscle atrophy, replacement of muscle fibers with fat and fibrous tissue. Excessive fibrosis can impair muscle regeneration and function. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) has previously been reported to be involved in the development of various tissue fibrosis. Here, we investigated the effects of LOXL2 inhibitor on D-galactose (D-gal)-induced skeletal muscle fibroblast cells and mice. Our molecular and physiological studies show that treatment with LOXL2 inhibitor can alleviate senescence, fibrosis, and increased production of reactive oxygen species in fibroblasts caused by D-gal. These effects are related to the inhibition of the TGF-β1/p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, in vivo, mice treatment with LOXL2 inhibitor reduced D-gal-induced skeletal muscle fibrosis, partially enhanced skeletal muscle mass and strength and reduced redox balance disorder. Taken together, these data indicate the possibility of using LOXL2 inhibitors to prevent aging-related sarcopenia, especially with significant fibrosis.
    Keywords:  LOXL2; aging; mitochondria; sarcopenia; senescence; skeletal muscle
  7. Cell Rep. 2022 Jun 14. pii: S2211-1247(22)00721-5. [Epub ahead of print]39(11): 110939
      Skeletal muscle regeneration relies on satellite cells that can proliferate, differentiate, and form new myofibers upon injury. Emerging evidence suggests that misregulation of satellite cell fate and function influences the severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The transcription factor Pax7 determines the myogenic identity and maintenance of the pool of satellite cells. The circadian clock regulates satellite cell proliferation and self-renewal. Here, we show that the CLOCK-interacting protein Circadian (CIPC) a negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock, is up-regulated during myoblast differentiation. Specific deletion of Cipc in satellite cells alleviates myopathy, improves muscle function, and reduces fibrosis in mdx mice. Cipc deficiency leads to activation of the ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling pathways, which activates the transcription factor SP1 to trigger the transcription of Pax7 and MyoD. Therefore, CIPC is a negative regulator of satellite cell function, and loss of Cipc in satellite cells promotes muscle regeneration.
    Keywords:  CIPC; CP: Molecular biology; DMD; MyoD; Pax7; circadian clock; mdx; muscle repair; muscular dystrophy; regeneration; satellite cell
  8. J Vis Exp. 2022 May 26.
      Fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) are mesenchymal stromal cells that play a crucial role during skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration. FAPs build and maintain the extracellular matrix that acts as a molecular myofiber scaffold. In addition, FAPs are indispensable for myofiber regeneration as they secrete a multitude of beneficial factors sensed by the muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In diseased states, however, FAPs are the cellular origin of intramuscular fat and fibrotic scar tissue. This fatty fibrosis is a hallmark of sarcopenia and neuromuscular diseases, such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. One significant barrier in determining why and how FAPs differentiate into intramuscular fat is effective preservation and subsequent visualization of adipocytes, especially in frozen tissue sections. Conventional methods of skeletal muscle tissue processing, such as snap-freezing, do not properly preserve the morphology of individual adipocytes, thereby preventing accurate visualization and quantification. To overcome this hurdle, a rigorous protocol was developed that preserves adipocyte morphology in skeletal muscle sections allowing visualization, imaging, and quantification of intramuscular fat. The protocol also outlines how to process a portion of muscle tissue for RT-qPCR, enabling users to confirm observed changes in fat formation by viewing differences in the expression of adipogenic genes. Additionally, it can be adapted to visualize adipocytes by whole-mount immunofluorescence of muscle samples. Finally, this protocol outlines how to perform genetic lineage tracing of Pdgfrα-expressing FAPs to study the adipogenic conversion of FAPs. This protocol consistently yields high-resolution and morphologically accurate immunofluorescent images of adipocytes, along with confirmation by RT-qPCR, allowing for robust, rigorous, and reproducible visualization and quantification of intramuscular fat. Together, the analysis pipeline described here is the first step to improving our understanding of how FAPs differentiate into intramuscular fat, and provides a framework to validate novel interventions to prevent fat formation.
  9. Elife. 2022 06 13. pii: e75844. [Epub ahead of print]11
      RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), essential for skeletal muscle regeneration, cause muscle degeneration and neuromuscular disease when mutated. Why mutations in these ubiquitously expressed RBPs orchestrate complex tissue regeneration and direct cell fate decisions in skeletal muscle remains poorly understood. Single-cell RNA-sequencing of regenerating Mus musculus skeletal muscle reveals that RBP expression, including the expression of many neuromuscular disease-associated RBPs, is temporally regulated in skeletal muscle stem cells and correlates with specific stages of myogenic differentiation. By combining machine learning with RBP engagement scoring, we discovered that the neuromuscular disease-associated RBP Hnrnpa2b1 is a differentiation-specifying regulator of myogenesis that controls myogenic cell fate transitions during terminal differentiation in mice. The timing of RBP expression specifies cell fate transitions by providing post-transcriptional regulation of messenger RNAs that coordinate stem cell fate decisions during tissue regeneration.
    Keywords:  RNA splicing; RNA-binding protein; mouse; post-transcriptional regulation; regeneration; regenerative medicine; skeletal muscle; splicing network; stem cells
  10. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 886149
      Human postmortem skeletal muscles are a unique source of satellite cells for skeletal muscle regenerative studies. Presomite and somite satellite cells obtained by postmortem muscles have been established as populations of human skeletal muscle precursor cells able to proliferate and differentiate in vitro. It is extremely interesting to have access to a large amount of postmortem human skeletal muscle precursor cells, especially from craniofacial as well as limb skeletal muscles in order to evaluate their potential application not only for the fundamental understanding of muscle physiology and diseases but also for drug testing in a challenging 3D-shaping muscles like skeletal muscle microphysiological systems.
    Keywords:  embryonic origin; organoids; postmortem; presomitic muscles; satellite cells; skeletal muscle regeneration; somitic muscles
  11. Diabetes. 2022 Jun 17. pii: db220260. [Epub ahead of print]
      In addition to the significant role in physical activity, skeletal muscle also contributes to health through the storage and use of macronutrients associated with energy homeostasis. However, the mechanisms of regulating integrated metabolism in skeletal muscle were not well-defined. Here, we compared the skeletal muscle transcriptome from obese and lean controls in different species (human and mouse), and found that interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), an inflammation-immune transcription factor, conservatively increased in obese subjects. Thus, we investigated that IRF4 gain of function in the skeletal muscle predisposed to obesity and insulin resistance. Conversely, mice with specific IRF4 loss in skeletal muscle showed protection against the metabolic effects of the high-fat diet (HFD), increased branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) level of serum and muscle, and re-programmed metabolome in serum. Mechanistically, IRF4 could transcriptionally upregulate mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) expression; subsequently, the enhanced BCATm could counteract the effects caused by IRF4 deletion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that IRF4 ablation in skeletal muscle enhanced mitochondrial activity, BCAAs and fatty acid oxidation in a BCATm-dependent manner. Taken together, these studies, for the first time, established IRF4 as a novel metabolic driver of macronutrients via BCATm in skeletal muscle in terms of diet-induced obesity (DIO).
  12. FEBS Lett. 2022 Jun 18.
      In this study, we investigated the role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. C2C12 myotubes were contracted by electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) and treadmill running was used to exercise mice. The activities of CaMKII, the small G protein Rac1, and the Rac1 effector kinase PAK1 were elevated in muscle by running exercise or EPS, while they were lowered by the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 and/or siRNA-mediated knockdown. EPS induced the mRNA and protein expression of the Rac1-GEF Kalirin in a CaMKII-dependent manner. EPS-induced Rac1 activation was lowered by the Kalirin inhibitor ITX3 or siRNA-mediated Kalirin knockdown. KN-93, ITX3, and siRNA-mediated Kalirin knockdown reduced EPS-induced glucose uptake. These findings define a CaMKII-Kalirin-Rac1 signaling pathway that contributes to contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle myotubes and tissue.
    Keywords:  Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; Kalirin; Rac1; contraction; glucose uptake; skeletal muscle
  13. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2022 Jun 15.
      Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 are highly expressed in multiple conditions of skeletal muscle atrophy. The PI3K/Akt/FoxO signaling pathway is well known to regulate Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expressions. However, Akt activation also activates the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) which induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Whether mTORC1-dependent signaling has a role in regulating Atrogin-1 and/or MuRF1 gene and protein expression is currently unclear. In this study, we showed that activation of insulin-mediated Akt signaling suppresses both Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 protein contents and that inhibition of Akt increases both Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 protein contents in C2C12 myotubes. Interestingly, inhibition of mTORC1 using a specific mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, increased Atrogin-1, but not MuRF1, protein content. Furthermore, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a negative regulator of the mTORC1 signaling pathway, also showed distinct time-dependent changes between Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 protein contents, suggesting differential regulatory mechanisms between Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 protein content. To further explore the downstream of mTORC1 signaling, we employed a specific S6K1 inhibitor, PF-4708671. We found that Atrogin-1 protein content was dose-dependently increased with PF-4708671 treatment, whereas MuRF1 protein content was decreased at 50 μM of PF-4708671 treatment. However, MuRF1 protein content was unexpectedly increased when treated with PF-4708671 for a longer period. Overall, our results indicate that Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 protein contents are regulated by different mechanisms, the downstream of Akt, and that Atrogin-1 protein content can be regulated by rapamycin-sensitive mTOR-S6K1 dependent signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  Skeletal muscle; The ubiquitin proteasome system; mTORC1
  14. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2022 Jun 14.
      Cancer-cachexia accounts for 20-40% of cancer-related deaths. Mitochondrial aberrations have been shown to precede muscle atrophy in different atrophy models, including cancer. Therefore, this study investigated potential protection from the cachectic phenotype through overexpression of PGC-1α. First, to establish potential of mitochondria-based approaches we showed that the mitochondrial antioxidant mitoTEMPO attenuates myotube atrophy induced by Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) cell conditioned media. Next, cachexia was induced in muscle specific PGC-1α overexpressing (MCK-PCG1α) or wildtype (WT) littermate mice by LLC implantation. MCK-PCG1α did not protect LLC-induced muscle mass loss. In plantaris, Atrogin mRNA content was 6.2-fold and ~11-fold greater in WT-LLC vs. WT-PBS for males and females, respectively (p<0.05). MitoTimer red:green ratio for male PGC was ~65% higher than WT groups (p<0.05), with ~3-fold more red puncta in LLC than PBS (p<0.05). Red:green ratio was ~56% lower in females WT-LLC vs. PGC-LLC (p<0.05). In females, no change in red puncta was noted across conditions. Lc3 mRNA content was ~ 73% and 2-fold higher in male and female LLC mice respectively vs. PBS (p<0.05). While MitoTEMPO could mitigate cancer-induced atrophy in vitro, PGC1α overexpression was insufficient to protect muscle mass and mitochondrial health in vivo despite mitigation of cachexia-associated signaling pathways.
  15. Sci Rep. 2022 Jun 14. 12(1): 9831
      Desmin is the guardian of striated muscle integrity, permitting the maintenance of muscle shape and the efficiency of contractile activity. It is also a key mediator of cell homeostasis and survival. To ensure the fine regulation of skeletal muscle processes, desmin is regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs). It is more precisely phosphorylated by several kinases connecting desmin to intracellular processes. Desmin is also modified by O-GlcNAcylation, an atypical glycosylation. However, the functional consequence of O-GlcNAcylation on desmin is still unknown, nor its impact on desmin phosphorylation. In a model of C2C12 myotubes, we modulated the global O-GlcNAcylation level, and we determined whether the expression, the PTMs and the partition of desmin toward insoluble material or cytoskeleton were impacted or not. We have demonstrated in the herein paper that O-GlcNAcylation variations led to changes in desmin behaviour. In particular, our data clearly showed that O-GlcNAcylation increase led to a decrease of phosphorylation level on desmin that seems to involve CamKII correlated to a decrease of its partition toward cytoskeleton. Our data showed that phosphorylation/O-GlcNAcylation interplay is highly complex on desmin, supporting that a PTMs signature could occur on desmin to finely regulate its partition (i.e. distribution) with a spatio-temporal regulation.
  16. Endocrine. 2022 Jun 17.
      Using our nonhuman primate baboon model, we showed that offspring born to mothers deprived of estrogen during the second half of gestation exhibited insulin resistance and a deficit in first phase insulin release. Although insulin resistance was not due to an impairment of fetal or offspring growth, nor to an alteration in adipose or hepatic sensitivity to insulin, skeletal muscle microvacularization critical for delivery of nutrients/insulin was significantly reduced in fetuses and offspring deprived of estrogen in utero. Skeletal muscle myofiber maturation occurs in utero and estrogen modulates myofiber growth in adults. Therefore, the current study determined whether fetal skeletal muscle development was altered in baboons in which estradiol levels were suppressed/restored during the second half of gestation by maternal treatment with letrozole ± estradiol benzoate. In estrogen-suppressed animals, fetal skeletal muscle fascicles were structurally less organized, smaller, and comprised of slow type I and fast type II fibers, the size, but not the number of which were smaller than in untreated baboons. Moreover, the proportion of non-muscle fiber tissue was greater and that of muscle fibers lower in estrogen-deprived fetuses. Thus, the maintenance of fetal body weight in estrogen-deprived animals was maintained at the expense of muscle fibers and likely reflected increased deposition of non-muscle proteins. Importantly, fetal skeletal muscle development, including fascicle organization, myofiber size and composition was normal in baboons treated with letrozole and estradiol benzoate. Collectively, these and our previous findings support our proposal that exposure of the fetus to estrogen is important for fetal skeletal muscle development and glucose homeostasis in adulthood.
    Keywords:  Estrogen; Insulin sensitivity; Muscle fibers; Skeletal muscle
  17. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2022 Jun 13. 17(1): 225
      BACKGROUND: Aberrations to endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) calcium concentration can result in the departure of endogenous proteins in a phenomenon termed exodosis. Redistribution of the ER/SR proteome can have deleterious effects to cell function and cell viability, often contributing to disease pathogenesis. Many proteins prone to exodosis reside in the ER/SR via an ER retention/retrieval sequence (ERS) and are involved in protein folding, protein modification, and protein trafficking. While the consequences of their extracellular presence have yet to be fully delineated, the proteins that have undergone exodosis may be useful for biomarker development. Skeletal muscle cells rely upon tightly coordinated ER/SR calcium release for muscle contractions, and perturbations to calcium homeostasis can result in myopathies. Ryanodine receptor type-1 (RYR1) is a calcium release channel located in the SR. Mutations to the RYR1 gene can compromise calcium homeostasis leading to a vast range of clinical phenotypes encompassing hypotonia, myalgia, respiratory insufficiency, ophthalmoplegia, fatigue and malignant hyperthermia (MH). There are currently no FDA approved treatments for RYR1-related myopathies (RYR1-RM).RESULTS: Here we examine the exodosis profile of skeletal muscle cells following ER/SR calcium depletion. Proteomic analysis identified 4,465 extracellular proteins following ER/SR calcium depletion with 1,280 proteins significantly different than vehicle. A total of 54 ERS proteins were identified and 33 ERS proteins significantly increased following ER/SR calcium depletion. Specifically, ERS protein, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), was elevated following calcium depletion, making it a potential biomarker candidate for human samples. Despite no significant elevation of MANF in plasma levels among healthy volunteers and RYR1-RM individuals, MANF plasma levels positively correlated with age in RYR1-RM individuals, presenting a potential biomarker of disease progression. Selenoprotein N (SEPN1) was also detected only in extracellular samples following ER/SR calcium depletion. This protein is integral to calcium handling and SEPN1 variants have a causal role in SEPN1-related myopathies (SEPN1-RM). Extracellular presence of ER/SR membrane proteins may provide new insight into proteomic alterations extending beyond ERS proteins. Pre-treatment of skeletal muscle cells with bromocriptine, an FDA approved drug recently found to have anti-exodosis effects, curbed exodosis of ER/SR resident proteins.
    CONCLUSION: Changes to the extracellular content caused by intracellular calcium dysregulation presents an opportunity for biomarker development and drug discovery.
    Keywords:  Bromocriptine; Exodosis; MANF; Myopathy; Ryanodine receptor isoform-1; SEPN1; SIL1; Skeletal muscle
  18. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 899234
      Aim: Postnatal skeletal muscle growth is strongly associated with a satellite cell pool. Early adolescence might be a crucial period when different exercise training interventions have specific consequence on satellite cells. Pax7 and MyoD have been suggested as the leading indicators of satellite cell activation. Methods: In this study, pre-adolescent male rats (n = 18) were either subjected to an enriched environment that facilitated physical activities or combined training or control for three weeks. The flexor hallucis longus muscle was removed for biochemical and histochemical analysis. Results: Findings demonstrated that exercise trained rats displayed high levels of serum IGF-1 (p <0.05). There was an increase in Pax7 (p <0.05) and MyoD (p <0.001) mRNA expression. A significant increase in the mean fiber area (p <0.01), satellite cell (p <0.001), and myonuclear numbers (p <0.01) were also observed in both intervention groups. Importantly, enriched rats showed lower corticosterone levels (p <0.05) compared to training ones. Regarding performance, trained and enriched rats had significant improvement in forelimb grip strength (p <0.01) and load-carrying capacity (p <0.05). Conclusion: Type of physical exercise is an essential part in changing satellite cells pool. Different and frequent physical activities in an enriched environment can be effective for muscle development.
    Keywords:  MRF; combined training; pax7; pre-puberty; voluntary physical activity
  19. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 879263
      Introduction: Both cancer and cancer associated therapies (CAT; including chemotherapy or concurrent chemoradiation) disrupt cellular metabolism throughout the body, including the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and function. Adjunct testosterone therapy during standard of care chemotherapy and chemoradiation modulates CAT-induced dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism and protects lean body mass during CAT. However, the extent to which the skeletal muscle proteome is altered under these therapeutic conditions is unknown. Objective: We probed the skeletal muscle proteome of cancer patients as an ancillary analysis following a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial investigating the effect of adjunct testosterone on body composition in men and women with advanced cancers undergoing CAT. Methods: Men and women diagnosed with late stage (≥IIB) or recurrent head and neck or cervical cancer who were scheduled to receive standard of care CAT were administered an adjunct 7 weeks treatment of weekly intramuscular injections of either 100 mg testosterone (CAT+T, n = 7; 2M/5F) or placebo/saline (CAT+P, n = 6; 4M/2F). Biopsies were performed on the vastus lateralis before (PRE) and after (POST) the 7 weeks treatment. Extracted proteins were separated with 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), and subjected to analyses of total protein abundance, phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation. Proteoforms showing significant 1.5 fold differences (t-test p ≤ 0.05) between PRE and POST timepoints were identified by mass spectroscopy (MS), and lists of altered proteins were subjected to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) to identify affected pathways. Results: A total of 756 distinct protein spots were identified. Of those spots, 102 were found to be altered in terms of abundance, phosphorylation, or S-nitrosylation, and identified by mass spectroscopy analysis to represent 58 unique proteins. Among the biological processes and pathways identified, CAT+P predominantly impacted metabolic processes, cell assembly, oxygen transport, and apoptotic signaling, while CAT+T impacted transcription regulation, muscle differentiation, muscle development, and contraction. Conclusion: Cancer and CAT significantly altered the skeletal muscle proteome in a manner suggestive of loss of structural integrity, reduced contractile function, and disrupted metabolism. Proteomic analysis suggests that the addition of adjunct testosterone minimized the structural and contractile influence of cancer and its associated therapies.
    Keywords:  atrophy; cachexia; nitrosylation; phosphorylation; post-translational modifications; proteome; testosterone
  20. Exp Gerontol. 2022 Jun 13. pii: S0531-5565(22)00177-2. [Epub ahead of print] 111869
      This study evaluated the effects of angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) on muscle mass and exercise capacity in healthy older animals. The effects of combined ARB and exercise training was also determined. Eighty 18-month-old mice were randomized into the control group (C), exercise group (E), losartan group (L) and losartan plus exercise group (LE). Mice in the L and LE groups received losartan from drinking water every day. Mice in the E and LE groups trained on a treadmill 30 min per day, 3 days per week for 4 months. Exercise endurance and spontaneous physical activity of mice were measured at baseline and monthly for 4 months. After 4 months of intervention, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, muscle mass, and muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation and IL-6 levels were determined in quadriceps. We found that exercise endurance only increased in the E and LE groups. Muscle TAC levels of E, L, and LE groups were greater than that in the C group. Serum IL-6 and lipid peroxidation levels were not different among groups. LE group, but not E and L groups, had greater muscle mass, larger muscle fiber CSA, and greater muscle IL-6 levels than that in the C group after 4 months of intervention. These results suggest that losartan promotes the adaptions of muscle mass with exercise training in healthy older animals.
    Keywords:  And sarcopenia; Angiotensin II receptor blocker; Exercise training; Oxidative stress; Renin-angiotensin system
  21. Free Radic Biol Med. 2022 Jun 14. pii: S0891-5849(22)00213-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Adenine Nucleotide Translocator isoforms (ANTs) exchange ADP/ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane, are also voltage-activated proton channels and regulate mitophagy and apoptosis. The ANT1 isoform predominates in heart and muscle while ANT2 is systemic. Here, we report the creation of Ant mutant mouse myoblast cell lines with normal Ant1 and Ant2 genes, deficient in either Ant1 or Ant2, and deficient in both the Ant1 and Ant2 genes. These cell lines are immortal under permissive conditions (IFN-γ + serum at 32 °C) permitting expansion but return to normal myoblasts that can be differentiated into myotubes at 37 °C. With this system we were able to complement our Ant1 mutant studies by demonstrating that ANT2 is important for myoblast to myotube differentiation and myotube mitochondrial respiration. ANT2 is also important in, the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defenses. in association with increased oxidative stress response and modulation for Ca++ sequestration and activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition (mtPTP) pore during cell differentiation.
  22. Dis Markers. 2022 ;2022 9082576
      Information regarding the function of Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. in skeletal muscles is still unknown. In this study, we explored the possible regulatory targets of M. (L.) Pall. that affects the repair patterns in chronic muscle injury. We analyzed the potential target genes and chemical composition of M. (L.) Pall. and constructed a "drug-component-disease target genes" network analysis. Five active ingredients and 87 corresponding targets were obtained. Muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) cells were used to perform receptor-ligand marker analysis using the CellphoneDB algorithm. Targets of M. (L.) Pall. were screened further for the cellular ligand-receptor protein action on MTJs. Enrichment analysis suggests that those protein-associated ligand receptors may be associated with a range of intercellular signaling pathways. Molecular docking validation was then performed. Five proteins (CCL2, VEGFA, MMP2, MET, and EGFR) may be regulated by the active ingredient luteolin and scoparone. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations revealed that luteolin can stably target binding to MMP2. M. (L.) Pall. influences skeletal muscle repair patterns by affecting the fibroblast interactions in the muscle-tendon junctions through the active ingredients luteolin and scoparone.
  23. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 907956
    Keywords:  adipokines; cytokines; myokines; organ cross-talk; skeletal muscle tissue
  24. Dis Markers. 2022 ;2022 8787782
      Background: Myopathies related to Ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) mutation are the most common nondystrophy muscle disorder in humans. Early detection and diagnosis of RYR1 mutation-associated myopathies may lead to more timely treatment of patients, which contributes to the management and preparation for malignant hyperthermia. However, diagnosis of RYR1 mutation-associated myopathies is delayed and challenging. The absence of diagnostic morphological features in muscle biopsy does not rule out the possibility of pathogenic variations in RYR1. Accordingly, it is helpful to seek biomarkers to diagnose RYR1 mutation-associated myopathies.Methods: Skeletal muscle tissue microarray datasets of RYR1 mutation-associated myopathies or healthy persons were built in accordance with the gene expression synthesis (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified on the basis of R software. Genes specific to tissue/organ were identified through BioGPS. An enrichment analysis of DEGs was conducted in accordance with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO). We also built protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks to explore the function and enrichment pathway of DEGs and the identification of hub genes. Lastly, the ROC curve was drawn for hub genes achieving specific expressions within skeletal muscle. Moreover, the area under the curve (AUC) was obtained to calculate the predictive value of key genes. The transcription factors of hub genes achieving specific expressions within skeletal muscle were predicted with the use of the iRegulon plugin.
    Results: We identified 170 DEGs among 11 muscle biopsy samples of healthy subjects and 17 muscle biopsy samples of RYR1 mutation-associated myopathy patients in the dataset. Among the above DEGs, 30 genes achieving specific expressions within tissues/organs were found. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of DEGs mainly focused on muscle contraction, actin-mediated cell contraction, actin filament-based movement, and muscular sliding. 12 hub genes were identified with the use of Cytoscape. Four hub genes were specifically expressed in skeletal muscle tissue, including MYH1 (AUC: 0.856), TNNT3 (AUC: 0.840), MYLPF (AUC: 0.786), and ATP2A1 (AUC: 0.765). The iRegulon predicted results suggested that the transcription factor MYF6 was found with the highest reliability.
    Conclusions: Four skeletal muscle tissue-specific genes were identified, including MYH1, TNNT3, MYLPF, and ATP2A1, as the potential biomarkers for diagnosing and treating RYR1 mutation-associated myopathies, which provided insights into the transcriptome-level development mechanism. The transcription factor MYF6 may be a vital upstream regulator of the above biomarkers.
  25. Precis Clin Med. 2021 Jun;4(2): 136-147
      Cancer cachexia (CC) is a complex metabolic syndrome that accelerates muscle wasting and affects up to 80% of patients with cancer; however, timely diagnostic methods and effective cures are lacking. Although a considerable number of studies have focused on the mechanism of CC-induced muscle atrophy, few novel therapies have been applied in the last decade. In recent years, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have attracted great attention as many differentially expressed ncRNAs in cancer cachectic muscles have been reported to participate in the inhibition of myogenesis and activation of proteolysis. In addition, extracellular vesicles (EVs), which function as ncRNA carriers in intercellular communication, are closely involved in changing ncRNA expression profiles in muscle and promoting the development of muscle wasting; thus, EV-related ncRNAs may represent potential therapeutic targets. This review comprehensively describes the process of ncRNA transmission through EVs and summarizes the pathways and targets of ncRNAs that lead to CC-induced muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  cancer cachexia; endoplasmic reticulum stress; extracellular vesicles; muscle wasting; ncRNA
  26. EMBO J. 2022 Jun 15. e110655
      Fate decisions in the embryo are controlled by a plethora of microenvironmental interactions in a three-dimensional niche. To investigate whether aspects of this microenvironmental complexity can be engineered to direct myogenic human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) differentiation, we here screened murine cell types present in the developmental or adult stem cell niche in heterotypic suspension embryoids. We identified embryonic endothelial cells and fibroblasts as highly permissive for myogenic specification of hiPSCs. After two weeks of sequential Wnt and FGF pathway induction, these three-component embryoids are enriched in Pax7-positive embryonic-like myogenic progenitors that can be isolated by flow cytometry. Myogenic differentiation of hiPSCs in heterotypic embryoids relies on a specialized structural microenvironment and depends on MAPK, PI3K/AKT, and Notch signaling. After transplantation in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, embryonic-like myogenic progenitors repopulate the stem cell niche, reactivate after repeated injury, and, compared to adult human myoblasts, display enhanced fusion and lead to increased muscle function. Altogether, we provide a two-week protocol for efficient and scalable suspension-based 3D derivation of Pax7-positive myogenic progenitors from hiPSCs.
    Keywords:  MuSCs; Pax7; embryoids; hiPSCs; myogenic progenitors
  27. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 892935
      Background: Gastrointestinal cancers are the most common malignant tumors worldwide. As the improvement of survival by surgical resection alone for cancers is close to the bottleneck, recent neoadjuvant therapy has been emphasized and applied in the treatment. Despite the advantage on improving the prognosis, some studies have reported neoadjuvant therapy could reduce skeletal muscle and therefore affect postoperative outcomes. However, the conclusions are still controversial.Methods: PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to September 2, 2021. The inclusion criteria were observational studies, published in English, of individuals aged ≥18 years who underwent neoadjuvant therapy with gastrointestinal cancers and were assessed skeletal muscle mass before and after neoadjuvant therapy, with sufficient data on skeletal muscle change or the association with clinical outcomes. Meta-analysis was conducted by using the STATA 12.0 package when more than two studies reported the same outcome.
    Results: A total of 268 articles were identified, and 19 studies (1,954 patients) were included in the review. The fixed effects model showed that the risk of sarcopenia increased 22% after receiving neoadjuvant therapy (HR=1.22, 95% CI 1.14, 1.31, Z=4.286, P<0.001). In the random effects model, neoadjuvant therapy was associated with skeletal muscle loss, with a standardized mean difference of -0.20 (95% CI -0.31, -0.09, Z=3.49, P<0.001) and a significant heterogeneity (I2 = 62.2%, P<0.001). Multiple meta regression indicated that population, neoadjuvant therapy type, and measuring tool were the potential sources of heterogeneity. The funnel plot revealed that there was no high publication bias in these studies (Begg's test, P=0.544) and the sensitivity analysis showed stable results when separately excluding studies. For the postoperative outcomes, the results revealed that muscle loss during neoadjuvant therapy was significantly related to overall survival (HR=2,08, 95% CI =1.47, 2.95, Z=4.12, P<0.001, I2 = 0.0%), but not related to disease-free survival and other short-term outcomes.
    Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that skeletal muscle decreased significantly during neoadjuvant therapy in patients with gastrointestinal cancers and skeletal muscle loss was strongly associated with worse overall survival. More high-quality studies are needed to update and valid these conclusions in a more specific or stratified way.
    Systematic Review Registration: [], identifier PROSPERO (CRD42021292118).
    Keywords:  gastrointestinal cancers (GI cancers); meta-analysis; neoadjuvant therapy (NAT); prognosis; skeletal muscle mass (SMM)
  28. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 ;10 903657
      Although their physiology and functions are very different, bones, skeletal and smooth muscles, as well as the heart have the same embryonic origin. Skeletal muscles and bones interact with each other to enable breathing, kinesis, and the maintenance of posture. Often, muscle and bone tissues degenerate synchronously under various conditions such as cancers, space travel, aging, prolonged bed rest, and neuromuscular diseases. In addition, bone tissue, skeletal and smooth muscles, and the heart share common signaling pathways. The RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway, which is essential for bone homeostasis, is also implicated in various physiological processes such as sarcopenia, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have reported bone-skeletal muscle crosstalk through the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway. This review will summarize the current evidence indicating that the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is involved in muscle function. First, we will briefly discuss the role this pathway plays in bone homeostasis. Then, we will present results from various sources indicating that it plays a physiopathological role in skeletal, smooth muscle, and cardiac functions. Understanding how the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway interferes in several physiological disorders may lead to new therapeutic approaches aimed at protecting bones and other tissues with a single treatment.
    Keywords:  OPG; RANK; RANKL; heart; myokines; osteokines; skeletal muscle; smooth muscle
  29. Dis Model Mech. 2022 Jun 13. pii: dmm.049342. [Epub ahead of print]
      X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a severe monogenetic disorder of the skeletal muscle. It is caused by loss of expression/function mutations in the myotubularin (MTM1) gene. Much of what is known about the disease, as well as the treatment strategies, has been uncovered through experimentation in pre-clinical models, particularly the Mtm1 gene knockout mouse line (Mtm1 KO). Despite this understanding, and the identification of potential therapies, much remains to be understood about XLMTM disease pathomechanisms, and about the normal functions of MTM1 in muscle development. To lay the groundwork for addressing these knowledge gaps, we performed a natural history study of Mtm1 KO mice. This included longitudinal comparative analyses of motor phenotype, transcriptome and proteome profiles, muscle structure, and targeted molecular pathways. We identified age associated changes in gene expression, mitochondrial function, myofiber size, and key molecular markers including DNM2. Importantly, some molecular and histopathologic changes preceded overt phenotypic changes, while others, such as triad structural alternations, occurred coincidentally with the presence of severe weakness. In total, this study provides a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of the murine XLMTM disease process, and thus provides a critical framework for future investigations.
    Keywords:  MTM1; Mouse model; Myopathy; Myotubular myopathy; Natural history
  30. J Diabetes Res. 2022 ;2022 3780156
      Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six different experimental groups (8 animals/group): (1) normal group (NOR), (2) normal control group (NC), (3) normal + exercise group (NE), (4) IGT group (IGT), (5) IGT control group (IC), and (6) IGT+ exercise group (IE).The exercise group received aerobic exercise for 8 weeks. After the intervention, a blood glucose meter was used to detect the level of glucose tolerance in the mouse's abdominal cavity; a biochemical kit was used to detect serum lipid metabolism indicators, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels; the ELISA method was used to detect serum insulin and mouse gastrocnemius homogenate LDH, PDH, SDH, and CCO levels. Western blot method was used to detect the protein expression levels of NOX4, PGC-1α, and Mfn2 in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice.Results: (1) Mice with high-fat diet for 30 weeks showed impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism disorders. The level of LDH, PDH, SDH, and CCO in the gastrocnemius homogenate of mice was reduced. The expressions of NOX4 protein were significantly upregulated, while the expressions of PGC-1α and Mfn2 proteins were significantly downregulated. (2) 8-week aerobic exercise improved the disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism in IGT mice and increased homogenized LDH, PDH, SDH, and CCO levels, and the expressions of NOX4, PGC-1α, and Mfn2 proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice were reversed. It is speculated that aerobic exercise can accelerate energy metabolism.
    Conclusion: (1) C57BL/6 mice were fed high fat for 30 weeks and successfully constructed a mouse model of reduced diabetes; the mice with reduced diabetes have impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism disorders; (2) 8 weeks of aerobic exercise improve glucose tolerance, reduce glucose tolerance in mice, reduce insulin resistance, improve lipid metabolism disorders, and reduce oxidative stress; (3) 8-week aerobic exercise reduces skeletal muscle NOX4 expression and increases glucose tolerance; reduces the expression of LDH, PDH, SDH, and CCO in mouse skeletal muscle; increases the expression level of mitochondrial fusion protein 2 and PGC-1α; improves glucose tolerance; reduces energy metabolism of mouse skeletal muscle; reduces oxidative stress; and reduces insulin resistance. It is speculated that aerobic exercise can accelerate energy metabolism. This process may involve two aspects: firstly, increase the expression level of oxidative metabolism enzymes and promote the tricarboxylic acid cycle; secondly, increase the expression of Mfn2 and accelerate mitochondria fission or fusion to regulate energy metabolism, thereby reducing oxidative stress and insulin resistance.
  31. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 902079
      Striated muscle contraction is inhibited by the actin associated proteins tropomyosin, troponin T, troponin I and troponin C. Binding of Ca2+ to troponin C relieves this inhibition by changing contacts among the regulatory components and ultimately repositioning tropomyosin on the actin filament creating a state that is permissive for contraction. Several lines of evidence suggest that there are three possible positions of tropomyosin on actin commonly called Blocked, Closed/Calcium and Open or Myosin states. These states are thought to correlate with different functional states of the contractile system: inactive-Ca2+-free, inactive-Ca2+-bound and active. The inactive-Ca2+-free state is highly occupied at low free Ca2+ levels. However, saturating Ca2+ produces a mixture of inactive and active states making study of the individual states difficult. Disease causing mutations of troponin, as well as phosphomimetic mutations change the stabilities of the states of the regulatory complex thus providing tools for studying individual states. Mutants of troponin are available to stabilize each of three structural states. Particular attention is given to the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy causing mutation, Δ14 of TnT, that is missing the last 14 C-terminal residues of cardiac troponin T. Removal of the basic residues in this region eliminates the inactive-Ca2+-free state. The major state occupied with Δ14 TnT at inactivating Ca2+ levels resembles the inactive-Ca2+-bound state in function and in displacement of TnI from actin-tropomyosin. Addition of Ca2+, with Δ14TnT, shifts the equilibrium between the inactive-Ca2+-bound and the active state to favor that latter state. These mutants suggest a unique role for the C-terminal region of Troponin T as a brake to limit Ca2+ activation.
    Keywords:  acrylodan tropomyosin; cardiomyopathy; muscle contraction regulation; states of actin; striated muscle; troponin; troponin I; troponin T
  32. Life Sci Alliance. 2022 Oct;pii: e202201478. [Epub ahead of print]5(10):
      Ion fluxes across the inner mitochondrial membrane control mitochondrial volume, energy production, and apoptosis. TMBIM5, a highly conserved protein with homology to putative pH-dependent ion channels, is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial cristae architecture, ATP production, and apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that overexpressed TMBIM5 can mediate mitochondrial calcium uptake. Under steady-state conditions, loss of TMBIM5 results in increased potassium and reduced proton levels in the mitochondrial matrix caused by attenuated exchange of these ions. To identify the in vivo consequences of TMBIM5 dysfunction, we generated mice carrying a mutation in the channel pore. These mutant mice display increased embryonic or perinatal lethality and a skeletal myopathy which strongly correlates with tissue-specific disruption of cristae architecture, early opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, reduced calcium uptake capability, and mitochondrial swelling. Our results demonstrate that TMBIM5 is an essential and important part of the mitochondrial ion transport system machinery with particular importance for embryonic development and muscle function.
  33. J Physiol. 2022 Jun 12.
      Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase mostly known for its role in regulating the removal of defective mitochondria via mitophagy. However, increasing experimental evidence that Parkin regulates several other aspects of mitochondrial biology in addition to its role in mitophagy has emerged over the past two decades. Indeed, Parkin has been shown to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and mitochondrial-derived vesicle formation, suggesting that Parkin plays key roles in maintaining healthy mitochondria. While Parkin is commonly described as a cytosolic E3 ubiquitin ligase, Parkin was also detected in other cellular compartments, including the nucleus, where it regulates transcription factors and acts as a transcription factor itself. New evidence also suggests that Parkin overexpression can be leveraged to delay aging. In D. melanogaster, for example, Parkin overexpression extends lifespan. In mammals, Parkin overexpression delays hallmarks of aging in several tissues and cell types. Parkin overexpression also confers protection in various models of cellular senescence and neurological disorders closely associated with aging, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Recently, Parkin overexpression has also been shown to suppress tumor growth. In this review, we discuss newly emerging biological roles of Parkin as a modulator of cellular homeostasis, survival, and healthy aging, and we explore potential mechanisms through which Parkin exerts its beneficial effects on cellular health. Abstract figure legend Parkin: A potential target to promote healthy aging Illustration of key aspects of Parkin biology, including Parkin function and cellular localization and key roles in the regulation of mitochondrial quality control. The organs and systems in which Parkin overexpression was shown to exert protective effects relevant to the promotion of healthy aging are highlighted in the black rectangle at the bottom of the Figure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Parkin; aging-related disorders; health span; healthy aging; lifespan; mitochondrial quality control; senescence
  34. J Clin Invest. 2022 Jun 14. pii: e157504. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial stress triggers a response in the cell's mitochondria and nucleus, but how these stress responses are coordinated in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we characterize a family with myopathy caused by a dominant p.G58R mutation in the mitochondrial protein CHCHD10. To understand the disease etiology, we developed a knock-in mouse model and found that mutant CHCHD10 aggregates in affected tissues, applying a toxic protein stress to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Unexpectedly, survival of CHCHD10 knock-in mice depended on a protective stress response mediated by OMA1. The OMA1 stress response acted both locally within mitochondria, causing mitochondrial fragmentation, and signaled outside the mitochondria, activating the integrated stress response through cleavage of DELE1. We additionally identified an isoform switch in the terminal complex of the electron transport chain as a component of this response. Our results demonstrate that OMA1 is critical for neonatal survival conditionally in the setting of inner mitochondrial membrane stress, coordinating local and global stress responses to reshape the mitochondrial network and proteome.
    Keywords:  Cell Biology; Cell stress; Genetics; Mitochondria; Proteases
  35. Front Mol Biosci. 2022 ;9 915301
      Barth syndrome (BTHS, OMIM 302060) is a genetic disorder caused by variants of the TAFAZZIN gene (G 4.5, OMIM 300394). This debilitating disorder is characterized by cardio- and skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and neutropenia. TAFAZZIN is a transacylase that catalyzes the second step in the cardiolipin (CL) remodeling pathway, preferentially converting saturated CL species into unsaturated CLs that are susceptible to oxidation. As a hallmark mitochondrial membrane lipid, CL has been shown to be essential in a myriad of pathways, including oxidative phosphorylation, the electron transport chain, intermediary metabolism, and intrinsic apoptosis. The pathological severity of BTHS varies substantially from one patient to another, even in individuals bearing the same TAFAZZIN variant. The physiological modifier(s) leading to this disparity, along with the exact molecular mechanism linking CL to the various pathologies, remain largely unknown. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been identified in numerous BTHS models, ranging from yeast to human cell lines, suggesting that cellular ROS accumulation may participate in the pathogenesis of BTHS. Although the exact mechanism of how oxidative stress leads to pathogenesis is unknown, it is likely that CL oxidation plays an important role. In this review, we outline what is known about CL oxidation and provide a new perspective linking the functional relevance of CL remodeling and oxidation to ROS mitigation in the context of BTHS.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; barth syndrome; cardiolipin; cardiolipin remodeling; oxidation