bims-moremu Biomed News
on Molecular regulators of muscle mass
Issue of 2022‒04‒24
thirty-six papers selected by
Anna Vainshtein
Craft Science Inc.

  1. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 22. 13(1): 2201
      Skeletal muscle mass is regulated through coordinated activation of multiple signaling pathways. TAK1 signalosome has been found to be activated in various conditions of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. However, the role and mechanisms by which TAK1 regulates skeletal muscle mass remain less understood. Here, we demonstrate that supraphysiological activation of TAK1 in skeletal muscle of adult mice stimulates translational machinery, protein synthesis, and myofiber growth. TAK1 causes phosphorylation of elongation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) independent of mTOR. Inactivation of TAK1 disrupts neuromuscular junction morphology and causes deregulation of Smad signaling. Using genetic approaches, we demonstrate that TAK1 prevents excessive loss of muscle mass during denervation. TAK1 favors the nuclear translocation of Smad4 and cytoplasmic retention of Smad6. TAK1 is also required for the phosphorylation of eIF4E in denervated skeletal muscle. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TAK1 supports skeletal muscle growth and prevents neurogenic muscle atrophy in adult mice.
  2. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 834705
      Skeletal muscle is composed of syncytial muscle fibers, and by various mononucleated cellular types, such as muscle stem cells, immune cells, interstitial and stromal progenitors. These cell populations play a crucial role during muscle regeneration, and alterations of their phenotypic properties have been associated with defective repair and fibrosis in aging and dystrophic muscle. Studies involving in vivo gene modulation are valuable to investigate the mechanisms underlining cell function and dysfunction in complex pathophysiological settings. Electro-enhanced transfer of plasmids using square-wave generating devices represents a cost-effective approach that is widely used to transport DNA to muscle fibers efficiently. Still, it is not clear if this method can also be applied to mononuclear cells present in muscle. We demonstrate here that it is possible to efficiently deliver DNA into different muscle-resident cell populations in vivo. We evaluated the efficiency of this approach not only in healthy muscle but also in muscles of aging and dystrophic animal models. As an exemplificative application of this method, we used a strategy relying on a reporter gene-based plasmid containing regulatory sequences from the collagen 1 locus, and we determined collagen expression in various cell types reportedly involved in the production of fibrotic tissue in the dystrophic settings. The results enclosed in this manuscript reveal the suitability in applying electro-enhanced transfer of plasmid DNA to mononucleated muscle-resident cells to get insights into the molecular events governing diseased muscle physiology.
    Keywords:  aging; collagen; electroporation; endothelial cells; fibroadipogenic progenitors; muscle stem cells; muscular dystrophy
  3. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 19. 13(1): 2025
      Preserving skeletal muscle function is essential to maintain life quality at high age. Calorie restriction (CR) potently extends health and lifespan, but is largely unachievable in humans, making "CR mimetics" of great interest. CR targets nutrient-sensing pathways centering on mTORC1. The mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, is considered a potential CR mimetic and is proven to counteract age-related muscle loss. Therefore, we tested whether rapamycin acts via similar mechanisms as CR to slow muscle aging. Here we show that long-term CR and rapamycin unexpectedly display distinct gene expression profiles in geriatric mouse skeletal muscle, despite both benefiting aging muscles. Furthermore, CR improves muscle integrity in mice with nutrient-insensitive, sustained muscle mTORC1 activity and rapamycin provides additive benefits to CR in naturally aging mouse muscles. We conclude that rapamycin and CR exert distinct, compounding effects in aging skeletal muscle, thus opening the possibility of parallel interventions to counteract muscle aging.
  4. PLoS One. 2022 ;17(4): e0254274
      PURPOSE: Greater muscle fragility is thought to cause the exhaustion of the muscle stem cells during successive degeneration/repair cycles, leading to muscle wasting and weakness in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Chronic voluntary exercise can partially reduce the susceptibility to contraction induced-muscle damage, i.e., muscle fragility, as shown by a reduced immediate maximal force drop following lengthening contractions, in the dystrophic mdx mice. Here, we studied the effect of Prospero-related homeobox factor 1 gene (Prox1) transfer (overexpression) using an AAV on fragility in chronically exercised mdx mice, because Prox1 promotes slower type fibres in healthy mice and slower fibres are less fragile in mdx muscle.METHODS: Both tibialis anterior muscles of the same mdx mouse received the transfer of Prox1 and PBS and the mice performed voluntary running into a wheel during 1 month. We also performed Prox1 transfer in sedentary mdx mice. In situ maximal force production of the muscle in response to nerve stimulation was assessed before, during and after 10 lengthening contractions. Molecular muscle parameters were also evaluated.
    RESULTS: Interestingly, Prox1 transfer reduced the isometric force drop following lengthening contractions in exercised mdx mice (p < 0.05 to 0.01), but not in sedentary mdx mice. It also increased the muscle expression of Myh7 (p < 0.001), MHC-2x (p < 0.01) and Trpc1 (p < 0.01), whereas it reduced that one of Myh4 (p < 0.001) and MHC-2b (p < 0.01) in exercised mdx mice. Moreover, Prox1 transfer decreased the absolute maximal isometric force (p < 0.01), but not the specific maximal isometric force, before lengthening contraction in exercised (p < 0.01) and sedentary mdx mice.
    CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that Prox1 transfer increased the beneficial effect of chronic exercise on muscle fragility in mdx mice, but reduced absolute maximal force. Thus, the potential clinical benefit of the transfer of Prox1 into exercised dystrophic muscle can merit further investigation.
  5. Skelet Muscle. 2022 Apr 22. 12(1): 9
      Skeletal muscle stem cells have a central role in muscle growth and regeneration. They reside as quiescent cells in resting muscle and in response to damage they transiently amplify and fuse to produce new myofibers or self-renew to replenish the stem cell pool. A signaling pathway that is critical in the regulation of all these processes is Notch. Despite the major differences in the anatomical and cellular niches between the embryonic myotome, the adult sarcolemma/basement-membrane interphase, and the regenerating muscle, Notch signaling has evolved to support the context-specific requirements of the muscle cells. In this review, we discuss the diverse ways by which Notch signaling factors and other modifying partners are operating during the lifetime of muscle stem cells to establish an adaptive dynamic network.
    Keywords:  Muscle stem cells; Myogenesis; Myopathies; Notch signaling
  6. Physiol Rep. 2022 Apr;10(8): e15281
      Mitochondria in the skeletal muscle are essential for maintaining metabolic plasticity and function. Mitochondrial quality control encompasses the dynamics of the biogenesis and remodeling of mitochondria, characterized by the constant fission and fusion of mitochondria in response to metabolic stressors. However, the roles of mitochondrial fission or fusion in muscle hypertrophy and atrophy remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether mitochondrial fusion and fission events are influenced by muscle hypertrophy or atrophy stimulation. Twenty-six male F344 rats were randomly assigned to a control group or were subjected to up to 14 days of either plantaris overload (via tenotomy of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles; hypertrophy group) or hindlimb cast immobilization (atrophy group). After 14 days of treatment, plantaris muscle samples were collected to determine the expression levels of mitochondrial fusion- and fission-related proteins. Muscle weight and total muscle protein content increased following plantaris overload in the hypertrophy group, but decreased following immobilization for 14 days in the atrophy group. In the hypertrophied muscle, the level of activated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), phosphorylated at Ser616, significantly increased by 25.8% (p = 0.014). Moreover, the protein expression level of mitochondrial fission factor significantly decreased by 36.5% in the hypertrophy group compared with that of the control group (p = 0.017). In contrast, total Drp1 level significantly decreased in the atrophied plantaris muscle (p = 0.011). Our data suggest that mitochondrial fission events may be influenced by both muscle hypertrophy and atrophy stimulation, and that mitochondrial fission- related protein Drp1 plays an important role in the regulation of skeletal muscle in response to mechanical stimulation.
    Keywords:  Drp1; atrophy; hypertrophy; mitochondrial quality control
  7. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 858341
      Obesity negatively impacts skeletal muscle protein metabolism, and also impairs skeletal muscle maintenance and regeneration. We analyzed muscle biopsy samples from humans with increased body mass index (BMI) (i.e. > 30 kg/m2) and controls (i.e., BMI < 25 kg/m2) for expression of syncytin-1, a fusogenic protein regulating skeletal muscle regeneration. When compared to controls, humans with increased BMI and concomitant reduction in muscle protein synthesis had higher expression of syncytin-1 in skeletal muscle (p < 0.05). Across human subjects, muscle protein synthesis correlated inversely (r = -0.51; p = 0.03) with syncytin-1 expression in muscle. Using a C2C12 cell line we found that expression of syncytin-A (i.e, corresponding protein in murine tissue) is increased by insulin, and that this response is impaired in the presence of fatty acids, whose metabolism is altered within the metabolic environment induced by increased BMI. In C2C12 cells, the response of the protein 4E-BP1, which signals increase in protein synthesis in muscle, resembled that of syncytin-A. These findings provide novel insights into the expression of syncytin-1 in skeletal muscle of humans with increased BMI, as well as its basic regulation by insulin and fatty acids in muscle. The findings signify the need for further research into the regulation of syncytin-1 in skeletal muscle of humans with increased BMI, as well as its biological implications for altering muscle protein metabolism and regeneration.
    Keywords:  fatty acids; insulin; muscle; obesity; protein synthesis; syncytin-1
  8. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2022 Mar 23. pii: 390. [Epub ahead of print]15(4):
      Muscle atrophy in postmenopausal women is caused by estrogen deficiency and a variety of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Paeoniflorin (PNF), a natural compound with anti-inflammatory properties, improves estradiol synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that PNF inhibits the progression of TNFα-induced skeletal muscle atrophy after menopause by restoring mitochondrial biosynthesis. Differentiated myoblasts damaged by TNFα were restored by PNF, as evident by the increase in the expression of myogenin (MyoG) and myosin heavy chain 3 (Myh3)-the markers of muscle differentiation. Moreover, diameter of atrophied myotubes was restored by PNF treatment. TNFα-repressed nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) (a major regulator of mitochondrial biosynthesis) were restored by PNF, via regulation by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), an upregulator of NRF1. This mechanism was confirmed in ovariectomized (OVX) mice with a ~40% reduction in the cross-sectional area of the anterior tibialis muscle. OVX mice administered PNF (100, 300 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks recovered more than ~20%. Behavioral, rotarod, and inverted screen tests showed that PNF enhances reduced muscle function in OVX mice. ERα restored expression of mitofusin 1 (MFN1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) (mitochondrial fusion markers) and dynamin-related protein (DRP1) and fission 1 (FIS1) (mitochondrial fission markers). Therefore, PNF can prevent muscle atrophy in postmenopausal women by inhibiting dysfunctional mitochondrial biogenesis.
    Keywords:  anti-inflammation; estrogen insufficiency; mitochondrial biogenesis; muscle atrophy; muscle differentiation; paeoniflorin; post-menopausal women
  9. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2022 Apr 19.
      Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an enzyme that detoxifies aldehydes and is primarily involved in alcohol metabolism. Recently, we have shown that ALDH also plays an important role in skeletal muscle homeostasis. To better understand the role of ALDH in skeletal muscle, it is necessary to clarify the adaptability of ALDH. In this study, we examined the effects of endurance training, compensatory hypertrophy by synergist ablation (SA), and denervation-induced atrophy on gene expression and protein levels of selected ALDH isoforms in skeletal muscle. Ten-week-old C57BL/6J mice were subjected to each intervention, and the plantaris muscle was collected. Gene expression levels of Aldh1a1 were decreased by SA and denervation, but ALDH1A1 protein levels were not affected. Protein levels of ALDH1B1 increased after chronic endurance training, SA, and denervation interventions. However, the increase in Aldh1b1 gene expression was observed only after SA. The gene expression of Aldh2 was decreased after SA, but ALDH2 protein levels remained unchanged. Denervation increased both the Aldh2 gene and ALDH2 protein levels. Taken together, each isoform of ALDH undergoes unique quantitative adaptations in skeletal muscle under different conditions.
  10. Function (Oxf). 2022 ;3(3): zqac015
      Aging is accompanied by reduced remodeling of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM), which is exacerbated during recovery following periods of disuse atrophy. Mechanotherapy has been shown to promote ECM remodeling through immunomodulation in adult muscle recovery, but not during the aged recovery from disuse. In order to determine if mechanotherapy promotes ECM remodeling in aged muscle, we performed single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of all mononucleated cells in adult and aged rat gastrocnemius muscle recovering from disuse, with (REM) and without mechanotherapy (RE). We show that fibroadipogenic progenitor cells (FAPs) in aged RE muscle are highly enriched in chemotaxis genes (Csf1), but absent in ECM remodeling genes compared to adult RE muscle (Col1a1). Receptor-ligand (RL) network analysis of all mononucleated cell populations in aged RE muscle identified chemotaxis-enriched gene expression in numerous stromal cell populations (FAPs, endothelial cells, pericytes), despite reduced enrichment of genes related to phagocytic activity in myeloid cell populations (macrophages, monocytes, antigen presenting cells). Following mechanotherapy, aged REM mononuclear cell gene expression resembled adult RE muscle as evidenced by RL network analyses and KEGG pathway activity scoring. To validate our transcriptional findings, ECM turnover was measured in an independent cohort of animals using in vivo isotope tracing of intramuscular collagen and histological scoring of the ECM, which confirmed mechanotherapy-mediated ECM remodeling in aged RE muscle. Our results highlight age-related cellular mechanisms underpinning the impairment to complete recovery from disuse, and also promote mechanotherapy as an intervention to enhance ECM turnover in aged muscle recovering from disuse.
    Keywords:  Aging; disuse atrophy; mechanotherapy; reloading; single cell RNA sequencing; skeletal muscle
  11. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2022 Apr 17.
      Autophagy classically functions as a physiological process to degrade cytoplasmic components, protein aggregates, and/or organelles, as a mechanism for nutrient breakdown, and as a regulator of cellular architecture. Its biological functions include metabolic stress adaptation, stem cell differentiation, immunomodulation and diseases regulation, and so on. Current researches have proved that autophagy dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of some myopathies through impairment of myofibres regeneration. Studies of autophagy inhibition also indicate the importance of autophagy in muscle regeneration, while activation of autophagy can restore muscle function in some myopathies. In this review, we aim to report the mechanisms of action of autophagy on muscle regeneration to provide relevant references for the treatment of regenerating defective myopathies by regulating autophagy. Results have shown that one key mechanism of autophagy regulating the muscle regeneration is to affect the differentiation fate of muscle stem cells (MuSCs), including quiescence maintenance, activation and differentiation. The roles of autophagy (organelle/protein degradation, energy facilitation, and/or other) vary at different myogenic stages of the repair process. When the muscle is in homeostasis, basal autophagy can maintain the quiescence state and stemness of MuSCs by renewing organelle and protein. After injury, the increased autophagy flux contributes to meet biological energy demand of MuSCs during activation and proliferation. By mitochondrial remodelling, autophagy during differentiation can promote the metabolic transformation and balance mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis signals in myoblasts. Autophagy in mature myofibres is also essential for the degradation of necrotic myofibres, and may affect the dynamics of MuSCs by affecting the secretion spectrum of myofibres or the recruitment of supporting cells. Except for myogenic cells, autophagy also plays an important role in regulating the function of non-myogenic cells in the muscle microenvironment, which is also essential for successful muscle recovery. Autophagy can regulate the immune microenvironment during muscle regeneration through the recruitment and polarization of macrophages, while autophagy in endothelial cells can regulate muscle regeneration in an angiogenic or angiogenesis-independent manner. Drug or nutrition targeted autophagy has been preliminarily proved to restore muscle function in myopathies by promoting muscle regeneration, and further understanding the role and mechanism of autophagy in various cell types during muscle regeneration will enable more effective combinatorial therapeutic strategies.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Microenvironment; MuSCs; Myopathies; Regeneration; Skeletal muscle
  12. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2022 Apr 20.
      The size of the satellite cell pool is reduced in estradiol (E2)-deficient female mice and humans. Here, we use a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches to identify mechanisms whereby E2 deficiency impairs satellite cell maintenance. By measuring satellite cell numbers in mice at several early time points post-ovariectomy (Ovx), we determine that satellite cell numbers decline by 33% between 10 and 14 days post-Ovx in tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles. At 14 days post-Ovx, we demonstrate that satellite cells have a reduced propensity to transition from G0/G1 to S and G2/M phases, compared to cells from ovary-intact mice, associated with changes in two key satellite cell cycle regulators, ccna2 and p16INK4a. Further, freshly isolated satellite cells treated with E2 in vitro have 62% greater cell proliferation and require less time to complete the first division. Using clonal and differentiation assays, we measured 69% larger satellite cell colonies and enhanced satellite cell-derived myoblast differentiation with E2 treatment compared to vehicle-treated cells. Together, these results identify a novel mechanism for preservation of the satellite cell pool by E2 via promotion of satellite cell cycling.
    Keywords:  muscle stem cells; ovariectomy; satellite cell cycling; skeletal muscle
  13. Cells. 2022 Apr 13. pii: 1333. [Epub ahead of print]11(8):
      Skeletal muscle repair is initiated by local inflammation and involves the engulfment of dead cells (efferocytosis) by infiltrating macrophages at the injury site. Macrophages orchestrate the whole repair program, and efferocytosis is a key event not only for cell clearance but also for triggering the timed polarization of the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages into the healing one. While pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by the inflammatory macrophages induce satellite cell proliferation and differentiation into myoblasts, healing macrophages initiate the resolution of inflammation, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix formation and drive myoblast fusion and myotube growth. Therefore, improper efferocytosis results in impaired muscle repair. Retinol saturase (RetSat) initiates the formation of various dihydroretinoids, a group of vitamin A derivatives that regulate transcription by activating retinoid receptors. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that RetSat-null macrophages produce less milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor-8 (MFG-E8), lack neuropeptide Y expression, and are characterized by impaired efferocytosis. Here, we investigated skeletal muscle repair in the tibialis anterior muscle of RetSat-null mice following cardiotoxin injury. Our data presented here demonstrate that, unexpectedly, several cell types participating in skeletal muscle regeneration compensate for the impaired macrophage functions, resulting in normal muscle repair in the RetSat-null mice.
    Keywords:  MFG-E8; cardiotoxin injury; efferocytosis; neuropeptide Y; retinol saturase; skeletal muscle repair
  14. Aging (Albany NY). 2022 Apr 19. 14(undefined):
      Skeletal muscles are made up of various muscle fiber type including slow and fast-twitch fibers. Because each muscle fiber has its own physiological characteristics, the effects of aging and exercise vary depending on the type of muscle fiber. We used bioinformatics screening techniques such as differentially expressed gene analysis, gene ontology analysis and gene set enrichment analysis, to try to understand the genetic differences between muscle fiber types. The experiment and gene expression profiling in this study used the soleus (SOL, slow-twitch muscle) and gastrocnemius (GAS, fast-twitch muscle). According to our findings, fatty acid metabolism is significantly up-regulated in SOL compared to GAS, whereas the glucose metabolism pathway is significantly down-regulated in SOL compared to GAS. Furthermore, apoptosis and myogenesis patterns differ between SOL and GAS. SOL did not show differences in apoptosis due to the aging effect, but apoptosis in GAS was significantly up-regulated with age. Apoptosis in GAS of old groups is significantly reduced after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise, but no such finding was found in SOL. In terms of myogenesis, exercise intervention up-regulated this process in GAS of old groups but not in SOL. Taken together, muscle fiber type significantly interacts with aging and exercise. Despite the importance of the interaction between these factors, large-scale gene expression data has rarely been studied. We hope to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between muscle fiber type, aging and exercise at the molecular level.
    Keywords:  aging; apoptosis; exercise; muscle fiber type; myogenesis
  15. Lasers Med Sci. 2022 Apr 19.
      This study aimed to investigate how the combined use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and exercise, to reduce the possible side effects and/or increase the benefits of exercise, would affect oxidative stress, utrophin, irisin peptide, and skeletal, diaphragmatic, and cardiac muscle pathologies. In our study, 20 mdx mice were divided into four groups. Groups; sedentary and placebo LLLT (SC), sedentary and LLLT (SL), 30-min swimming exercise (Ex), and 30-min swimming exercise and LLLT (ExL). After 8 weeks of swimming exercise, muscle tests, biochemically; oxidative stress index (OSI), utrophin and irisin levels were measured. Skeletal, diaphragmatic and cardiac muscle histopathological scores, skeletal and cardiac muscle myocyte diameters were determined under the light and electron microscope. While only irisin levels were increased in group SL compared to SC, it was determined that OSI, heart muscle histopathological scores decreased and irisin levels increased in both exercise groups (p < 0.05). In addition, in the ExL group, an increase in rotarod and utrophin levels, and a decrease in muscle and diaphragm muscle histopathological scores were observed (p < 0.05). It was determined that the application of swimming exercise in the mdx mouse model increased the irisin level in the skeletal muscle, while reducing the OSI, degeneration in the heart muscle, inflammation and cardiopathy. When LLLT was applied in addition to exercise, muscle strength, skeletal muscle utrophin levels increased, and skeletal and diaphragmatic muscle degeneration and inflammation decreased. In addition, it was determined that only LLLT application increased the level of skeletal muscle irisin.
    Keywords:  Duchenne; Exercise; Heart; Irisin; Low-level laser therapy; Mdx mice; Muscle
  16. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2022 Apr 16. pii: S1357-2725(22)00057-7. [Epub ahead of print] 106212
      Loss of muscle mass can lead to diseases such as sarcopenia, diabetes, and obesity, which can worsen the quality of life and increase the incidence of disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanism underlying skeletal muscle differentiation is vital to prevent muscle diseases. We previously found that microRNA-320 (miR-320) is highly expressed in the lean muscle-type pigs, but its regulatory role in myogenesis remains unclear. The bioinformatics prediction indicated that miR-320 could bind to the 3 'untranslated region of growth factor receptor-bound protein-2 (Grb2). We hypothesized that miR-320 targets Grb2 to regulate myoblasts differentiation. To verify this, we transfected miR-320 mimic and inhibitor into C2C12 myoblasts to assess the role of miR-320 during myoblasts differentiation. We used real-time qPCR, luciferase reporter assays, and western blotting to confirm that miR-320 directly targets Grb2 to promote myoblasts differentiation. Moreover, by using a dexamethasone-induced atrophic model of myotubes, we discovered that miR-320 promotes the repair of damaged myotubes. Our findings expand understanding of miRNAs and genes related to regulating skeletal muscle differentiation, and provide insight into underlying therapeutic strategies for muscle diseases.
    Keywords:  C2C12; Grb2; dexamethasone; differentiation; miR-320
  17. Metabolites. 2022 Apr 05. pii: 328. [Epub ahead of print]12(4):
      Impaired lipid metabolism is a common risk factor underlying several metabolic diseases such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) that include valine, leucine and isoleucine have been proven to share a role in lipid metabolism and hence in maintaining metabolic health. We have previously introduced a hypothesis suggesting that BCAA degradation mechanistically connects to lipid oxidation and storage in skeletal muscle. To test our hypothesis, the present study examined the effects of BCAA deprivation and supplementation on lipid oxidation, lipogenesis and lipid droplet characteristics in murine C2C12 myotubes. In addition, the role of myotube contractions on cell metabolism was studied by utilizing in vitro skeletal-muscle-specific exercise-like electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). Our results showed that the deprivation of BCAAs decreased both lipid oxidation and lipogenesis in C2C12 myotubes. BCAA deprivation further diminished the number of lipid droplets in the EPS-treated myotubes. EPS decreased lipid oxidation especially when combined with high BCAA supplementation. Similar to BCAA deprivation, high BCAA supplementation also decreased lipid oxidation. The present results highlight the role of an adequate level of BCAAs in healthy lipid metabolism.
    Keywords:  electrical pulse stimulation; in vitro exercise; metabolic health; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; protein supplementation; skeletal muscle
  18. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Mar 28. pii: 651. [Epub ahead of print]11(4):
      Aerobic exercise training (ET) produces beneficial adaptations in skeletal muscles, including angiogenesis. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is highly involved in angiogenesis stimuli. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying capillary growth in skeletal muscle induced by aerobic ET are not completely understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of volume-dependent aerobic ET on skeletal muscle angiogenesis involving the expression of miRNAs-27a and 27b on RAS and oxidant-antioxidant balance. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sedentary control (SC), trained protocol 1 (P1), and trained protocol 2 (P2). P1 consisted of 60 min/day of swimming, 5×/week, for 10 weeks. P2 consisted of the same protocol as P1 until the 8th week, but in the 9th week, rats trained 2×/day, and in the 10th week, trained 3×/day. Angiogenesis and molecular analyses were performed in soleus muscle samples. Furthermore, to establish ET-induced angiogenesis through RAS, animals were treated with an AT1 receptor blocker (losartan). Aerobic ET promoted higher VO2 peak and exercise tolerance values. In contrast, miRNA-27a and -27b levels were reduced in both trained groups, compared with the SC group. This was in parallel with an increase in the ACE1/Ang II/VEGF axis, which led to a higher capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, aerobic ET induced an antioxidant profile increasing skeletal muscle SOD2 and catalase gene expression, which was accompanied by high nitrite levels and reduced nitrotyrosine concentrations in the circulation. Additionally, losartan treatment partially re-established the miRNAs expression and the capillary-to-fiber ratio in the trained groups. In summary, aerobic ET promoted angiogenesis through the miRNA-27a/b-ACE1/Ang II/VEGF axis and improved the redox balance. Losartan treatment demonstrates the participation of RAS in ET-induced vascular growth. miRNAs and RAS components are promising potential targets to modulate angiogenesis for combating vascular diseases, as well as potential biomarkers to monitor training interventions and physical performance.
    Keywords:  aerobic training; angiogenesis; microRNAs; redox balance; renin–angiotensin system
  19. Biomolecules. 2022 Mar 23. pii: 488. [Epub ahead of print]12(4):
      The sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle cells is a highly ordered structure consisting of an intricate network of tubules and cisternae specialized for regulating Ca2+ homeostasis in the context of muscle contraction. The sarcoplasmic reticulum contains several proteins, some of which support Ca2+ storage and release, while others regulate the formation and maintenance of this highly convoluted organelle and mediate the interaction with other components of the muscle fiber. In this review, some of the main issues concerning the biology of the sarcoplasmic reticulum will be described and discussed; particular attention will be addressed to the structure and function of the two domains of the sarcoplasmic reticulum supporting the excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+-uptake mechanisms.
    Keywords:  Ca2+; intracellular membrane; muscle; myopathy
  20. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2022 Apr 20.
      Skeletal muscle of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse is hypersensitive to eccentric (ECC) contraction-induced strength loss due to plasmalemmal electrical dysfunction. Despite plasmalemmal inexcitability being a logical mechanism responsible for weakness, it remains unclear if processes up- and/or down-stream remain functionally intact in injured mdx muscle. The purpose of this study was to analyze additional processes necessary for excitation-contraction coupling that are potentially disrupted by ECC contractions. Anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus [EDL], and extensor hallucis muscles) of wildtype (WT) and mdx mice were injured in vivo with 50 ECC contractions and torque was measured immediately before and after the contraction bout. Following the in vivo assessment, EDL ex vivo isometric and caffeine forces were analyzed. In vivo isometric torque and ex vivo force in WT muscle were reduced 38 and 30% (p < 0.001), while caffeine force was also reduced (p = 0.021), albeit to a lesser degree (9%). In contrast, in vivo isometric torque, ex vivo isometric force and ex vivo caffeine-induced force were all reduced 56-67% (p < 0.001) in mdx muscle and did not differ from one another (p = 0.114). Disproportional reductions in isometric strength and caffeine-induced force confirm that ECC contractions uncoupled the plasmalemma from the ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in WT muscle. In mdx muscle, the proportional reductions in isometric strength and caffeine-induced force following ECC contractions reveal that dysfunction occurs at and/or distal to the RyRs immediately post-injury. Thus, weakness in injured mdx muscle cannot be isolated to one mechanism, rather several steps of muscle contraction are disrupted.
    Keywords:  Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Excitation-contraction coupling; Injury; Strength
  21. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Mar 23. pii: 614. [Epub ahead of print]11(4):
      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. While the exact causes of ALS are still unclear, the discovery that familial cases of ALS are related to mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), a key antioxidant enzyme protecting cells from the deleterious effects of superoxide radicals, suggested that alterations in SOD1 functionality and/or aberrant SOD1 aggregation strongly contribute to ALS pathogenesis. A new scenario was opened in which, thanks to the generation of SOD1 related models, different mechanisms crucial for ALS progression were identified. These include excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions, and non-cell autonomous toxicity, also implicating altered Ca2+ metabolism. While most of the literature considers motor neurons as primary target of SOD1-mediated effects, here we mainly discuss the effects of SOD1 mutations in non-neuronal cells, such as glial and skeletal muscle cells, in ALS. Attention is given to the altered redox balance and Ca2+ homeostasis, two processes that are strictly related with each other. We also provide original data obtained in primary myocytes derived from hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice, showing perturbed expression of Ca2+ transporters that may be responsible for altered mitochondrial Ca2+ fluxes. ALS-related SOD1 mutants are also responsible for early alterations of fundamental biological processes in skeletal myocytes that may impinge on skeletal muscle functions and the cross-talk between muscle cells and motor neurons during disease progression.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ homeostasis; ROS signaling; SOD1; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; reactive oxygen species; skeletal muscle; transgenic mice
  22. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Apr 21. 13(4): 389
      Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ in the body, and its metabolic flexibility is essential for maintaining systemic energy homeostasis. Metabolic inflexibility in muscles is a dominant cause of various metabolic disorders, impeding muscle development. In our previous study, we found lncRNA ZFP36L2-AS (for "ZFP36L2-antisense transcript") is specifically enriched in skeletal muscle. Here, we report that ZFP36L2-AS is upregulated during myogenic differentiation, and highly expressed in breast and leg muscle. In vitro, ZFP36L2-AS inhibits myoblast proliferation but promotes myoblast differentiation. In vivo, ZFP36L2-AS facilitates intramuscular fat deposition, as well as activates fast-twitch muscle phenotype and induces muscle atrophy. Mechanistically, ZFP36L2-AS interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) to induce ACACA dephosphorylation and damaged PC protein stability, thus modulating muscle metabolism. Meanwhile, ZFP36L2-AS can activate ACACA to reduce acetyl-CoA content, which enhances the inhibition of PC activity. Our findings present a novel model about the regulation of lncRNA on muscle metabolism.
  23. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Apr 11. pii: 755. [Epub ahead of print]11(4):
      The contractile activity, high oxygen consumption and metabolic rate of skeletal muscle cause it to continuously produce moderate levels of oxidant species, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Under normal physiological conditions, there is a dynamic balance between the production and elimination of ROS/RNS. However, when the oxidation products exceed the antioxidant defense capacity, the body enters a state of oxidative stress. Myogenesis is an important process to maintain muscle homeostasis and the physiological function of skeletal muscle. Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a key role in myogenesis and skeletal muscle physiology and pathology. In this review, we summarize the sources of reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle and the causes of oxidative stress and analyze the key role of oxidative stress in myogenesis. Then, we discuss the relationship between oxidative stress and muscle homeostasis and physiopathology. This work systematically summarizes the role of oxidative stress in myogenesis and muscle diseases and provides targets for subsequent antioxidant therapy and repair of inflammatory damage in noninflammatory muscle diseases.
    Keywords:  ROS/RNS; antioxidant therapy; muscle atrophy; myogenesis; oxidative stress
  24. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2022 Apr 23. e2105775
      Splicing factor SRSF2 acts as a critical regulator for cell survival, however, it remains unknown whether SRSF2 is involved in myoblast proliferation and myogenesis. Here, knockdown of SRSF2 in myoblasts causes high rates of apoptosis and defective differentiation. Combined conditional knockout and lineage tracing approaches show that Myf5-cre mice lacking SRSF2 die immediately at birth and exhibit a complete absence of mature myofibers. Mutant Myf5-derived cells (tdtomato-positive cells) are randomly scattered in the myogenic and non-myogenic regions, indicating loss of the community effect required for skeletal muscle differentiation. Single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals high heterogeneity of myf5-derived cells and non-myogenic cells are significantly increased at the expense of skeletal muscle cells in the absence of SRSF2, reflecting altered cell fate. SRSF2 is demonstrated to regulate the entry of Myf5 cells into the myogenic program and ensures their survival by preventing precocious differentiation and apoptosis. In summary, SRSF2 functions as an essential regulator for Myf5-derived cells to respond correctly to positional cues and to adopt their myogenic fate.
    Keywords:  Myf5-derived cells; SRSF2; apoptosis; exhaustion of myogenic pool; lineage tracing; precocious differentiation; single-cell RNA sequencing
  25. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Apr 11. pii: 4222. [Epub ahead of print]23(8):
      The use of peptides as drugs has progressed over time and continues to evolve as treatment paradigms change and new drugs are developed. Myostatin (MSTN) inhibition therapy has shown great promise for the treatment of muscle wasting diseases. Here, we report the MSTN-derived novel peptides MIF1 (10-mer) and MIF2 (10-mer) not only enhance myogenesis by inhibiting MSTN and inducing myogenic-related markers but also reduce adipogenic proliferation and differentiation by suppressing the expression of adipogenic markers. MIF1 and MIF2 were designed based on in silico interaction studies between MSTN and its receptor, activin type IIB receptor (ACVRIIB), and fibromodulin (FMOD). Of the different modifications of MIF1 and MIF2 examined, Ac-MIF1 and Ac-MIF2-NH2 significantly enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation as compared with non-modified peptides. Mice pretreated with Ac-MIF1 or Ac-MIF2-NH2 prior to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury showed more muscle regeneration than non-pretreated controls, which was attributed to the induction of myogenic genes and reduced MSTN expression. These findings imply that Ac-MIF1 and Ac-MIF2-NH2 might be valuable therapeutic agents for the treatment of muscle-related diseases.
    Keywords:  muscle regeneration; myogenesis; myostatin; peptides; skeletal muscle
  26. iScience. 2022 Apr 15. 25(4): 104135
      Physical exercise induces the secretion of irisin from contractile muscle into circulation; however, the adaptive response of irisin to mechanical stimulus in skeletal muscle in vitro remains numerously unknown. In an effort to investigate whether irisin is inducible in vitro, we developed a bioreactor consisting of a retractable mechanical force controller and a conditional tissue culture system. Upon this model, a distinguished surge of irisin was detected in stretched myotubes as cyclic strain initiated, and the surge was able to be stalled by knocking out FNDC5. Intriguingly, increased irisin secretory is associated with the shifts of MyHC isoforms from anaerobic type to aerobic type in myotubes. We further revealed that PGC-1α1 and PGC-1α4 mRNAs expression, rather than PGC-1α2 and PGC-1α3, contributed to the generation of irisin in myotubes during cyclic strain. Lastly, combined with co-culturing MC3T3 osteoblasts, we demonstrated the bioactivity of generated irisin, promoting the osteogenic differentiation.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Cell biology; Molecular biology
  27. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022 Apr 23. 79(5): 256
      Major stores of glucose are found as glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver. Skeletal muscle is a heterogenous tissue, with cellular metabolic and contractile distinctions dependent on whether the cell (fibre) is slow-twitch (Type I) or fast-twitch (Type II). We hypothesised that proteins important for glycogen metabolism would be differentially abundant between these diverse fibres. We further hypothesised that the cellular location of these proteins would be different in muscle samples between control (CON) and individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We dissected individual muscle fibre segments from vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsy samples from CON and T2D and used cell-type-specific approaches to address muscle heterogeneity. We measured glycogen and glycogen-related proteins by immunoblotting techniques. A lower proportion of Type I fibres was found in muscle in T2D compared with CON. AMPK-β2, glycogen branching enzyme (GBE), glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE), and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) were differentially localized between fibre types and in fibres from CON and T2D individuals. A key novel finding was that the majority of glycogen is loosely bound or cytosolic in location in human skeletal muscle. The proportion of this diffusible pool of glycogen was significantly lower in Type I fibres in T2D compared to CON. A hyperinsulinaemic, euglycaemic clamp in people with type 2 diabetes had no effect on the proportion of diffusible glycogen. We identify cell-type as an important consideration when assessing glycogen metabolism in muscle. Our findings demonstrate varying glucose handling abilities in specific muscle fibre types in type 2 diabetes. A model is presented to provide an overview of the cell-specific differences in glycogen metabolism in type 2 diabetes.
    Keywords:  Glucose regulation; Glycogen; Hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp; Single fibres
  28. Life Sci Alliance. 2022 Aug;pii: e202101312. [Epub ahead of print]5(8):
      Human pluripotent stem cell-derived muscle progenitor cells (hiPSC-MuPCs) resemble fetal-stage muscle progenitor cells and possess in vivo regeneration capacity. However, the heterogeneity of hiPSC-MuPCs is unknown, which could impact the regenerative potential of these cells. Here, we established an hiPSC-MuPC atlas by performing single-cell RNA sequencing of hiPSC-MuPC cultures. Bioinformatic analysis revealed four cell clusters for hiPSC-MuPCs: myocytes, committed, cycling, and noncycling progenitors Using FGFR4 as a marker for noncycling progenitors and cycling cells and CD36 as a marker for committed and myocyte cells, we found that FGFR4+ cells possess a higher regenerative capacity than CD36+ cells. We also identified the family of E2F transcription factors are key regulators of hiPSC-MuPC proliferation. Our study provides insights on the purification of hiPSC-MuPCs with higher regenerative potential and increases the understanding of the transcriptional regulation of hiPSC-MuPCs.
  29. Life (Basel). 2022 Apr 05. pii: 538. [Epub ahead of print]12(4):
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disease, caused by a mutant dystrophin gene, leading to muscle membrane instability, followed by muscle inflammation, infiltration of pro-inflammatory macrophages and fibrosis. The calcium-activated potassium channel type 3.1 (KCa3.1) plays key roles in controlling both macrophage phenotype and fibroblast proliferation, two critical contributors to muscle damage. In this work, we demonstrate that pharmacological blockade of the channel in the mdx mouse model during the early degenerative phase favors the acquisition of an anti-inflammatory phenotype by tissue macrophages and reduces collagen deposition in muscles, with a concomitant reduction of muscle damage. As already observed with other treatments, no improvement in muscle performance was observed in vivo. In conclusion, this work supports the idea that KCa3.1 channels play a contributing role in controlling damage-causing cells in DMD. A more complete understanding of their function could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic approaches.
    Keywords:  Duchenne muscular dystrophy; KCa3.1; Kcnn4; fiber size; fibroblasts; fibrosis; grip strength; hanging time; macrophages; neuromuscular junction
  30. Sports Med. 2022 Apr 23.
      In 1924, Otto Warburg asked "How does the metabolism of a growing tissue differ from that of a non-growing tissue?" Currently, we know that proliferating healthy and cancer cells reprogramme their metabolism. This typically includes increased glucose uptake, glycolytic flux and lactate synthesis. A key function of this reprogramming is to channel glycolytic intermediates and other metabolites into anabolic reactions such as nucleotide-RNA/DNA synthesis, amino acid-protein synthesis and the synthesis of, for example, acetyl and methyl groups for epigenetic modification. In this review, we discuss evidence that a hypertrophying muscle similarly takes up more glucose and reprogrammes its metabolism to channel energy metabolites into anabolic pathways. We specifically discuss the functions of the cancer-associated enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase muscle 2 in skeletal muscle. In addition, we ask whether increased glucose uptake by a hypertrophying muscle explains why muscularity is often negatively associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.
  31. World J Virol. 2022 Mar 25. 11(2): 98-103
      Several mechanisms may explain how exercise training mechanistically confers protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we propose two new perspectives through which cardiorespiratory fitness may protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Physical exercise-activated adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling induces endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), increases NO bio-availability, and inhibits palmitoylation, leading to specific and immediate SARS-CoV-2 protection. AMPK signaling also induces angiotensin 1-7 release and enhances eNOS activation thus further mediating cardio- and reno-protection. Irisin, a myokine released from skeletal muscles during aerobic exercise, also participates in the AMPK/Akt-eNOS/NO pathway, protects mitochondrial functions in endothelial cells, and antagonizes renin angiotensin system proinflammatory action leading to reductions in genes associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. Collectively, all the above findings point to the fact that increased AMPK and irisin activity through exercise training greatly benefits molecular processes that mediate specific, immediate, and delayed SARS-CoV-2 protection. Maintaining regular physical activity levels is a safe and affordable lifestyle strategy against the current and future pandemics and may also mitigate against obesity and cardiometabolic disease syndemics. Move more because a moving target is harder to kill.
    Keywords:  Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase; Endothelial nitric oxide synthase; Irisin; Nitric oxide; Physical exercise; Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2
  32. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Apr 07. pii: S0006-291X(22)00443-0. [Epub ahead of print]610 8-14
      Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) can disintegrate acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters in the postsynaptic membrane. In our previous research, lncRNAs that were differentially expressed in the whole transcriptome sequencing of denervated muscle atrophy after PNI were screened. By utilizing Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, a novel lncRNA LNC_000280 was predicted to be associated with neuromuscular junction (NMJ). The myotubes were used to assess the connection between LNC_000280 and AChR cluster formation in vitro by overexpression and knockdown of LNC_000280 in the C2C12 cell line. Our findings demonstrated that the overexpression of LNC_000280 repressed the gene expression and protein level of AChR subunits in myotubes and further reduced the area of AChR aggregates on the cell membrane. In contrast, the knockdown of LNC_000280 brought about opposite results. In addition, the transcriptional level of Sorbs2 changed inversely with the quantity change of LNC_000280. In conclusion, LNC_000280 may associate with the formation of AChR clusters.
    Keywords:  Acetylcholine receptor; C2C12; LNC_000280; Long non-coding RNA; Motor endplate; Sorbs2
  33. Biomolecules. 2022 Mar 24. pii: 497. [Epub ahead of print]12(4):
      CHMP2B is a protein that coordinates membrane scission events as a core component of the ESCRT machinery. Mutations in CHMP2B are an uncommon cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), two neurodegenerative diseases with clinical, genetic, and pathological overlap. Different mutations have now been identified across the ALS-FTD spectrum. Disruption of the neuromuscular junction is an early pathogenic event in ALS. Currently, the links between neuromuscular junction functionality and ALS-associated genes, such as CHMP2B, remain poorly understood. We have previously shown that CHMP2B transgenic mice expressing the CHMP2Bintron5 mutant specifically in neurons develop a progressive motor phenotype reminiscent of ALS. In this study, we used complementary approaches (behavior, histology, electroneuromyography, and biochemistry) to determine the extent to which neuron-specific expression of CHMP2Bintron5 could impact the skeletal muscle characteristics. We show that neuronal expression of the CHMP2Bintron5 mutant is sufficient to trigger progressive gait impairment associated with structural and functional changes in the neuromuscular junction. Indeed, CHMP2Bintron5 alters the pre-synaptic terminal organization and the synaptic transmission that ultimately lead to a switch of fast-twitch glycolytic muscle fibers to more oxidative slow-twitch muscle fibers. Taken together these data indicate that neuronal expression of CHMP2Bintron5 is sufficient to induce a synaptopathy with molecular and functional changes in the motor unit reminiscent of those found in ALS patients.
    Keywords:  CHMP2Bintron5; motor neuron disease; motor phenotype; neuromuscular junction; neurophysiological evaluation
  34. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Apr 08. pii: 1892. [Epub ahead of print]14(8):
      A growing body of in vitro and in vivo studies suggests that physical activity offers important benefits against cancer, in terms of both prevention and treatment. However, the exact mechanisms implicated in the anticancer effects of exercise remain to be further elucidated. Muscle-secreted factors in response to contraction have been proposed to mediate the physical exercise-induced beneficial effects and be responsible for the inter-tissue communications. Specifically, myokines and microRNAs (miRNAs) constitute the most studied components of the skeletal muscle secretome that appear to affect the malignancy, either directly by possessing antioncogenic properties, or indirectly by mobilizing the antitumor immune responses. Moreover, some of these factors are capable of mitigating serious, disease-associated adverse effects that deteriorate patients' quality of life and prognosis. The present review summarizes the myokines and miRNAs that may have potent anticancer properties and the expression of which is induced by physical exercise, while the mechanisms of secretion and intercellular transportation of these factors are also discussed.
    Keywords:  cancer; cancer progression; exercise; exosomes; miRNAs; microRNAs; muscle-derived factors; muscle-enriched miRNAs; myokines; physical activity
  35. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2022 Apr 14. pii: S0959-4388(22)00036-8. [Epub ahead of print]74 102542
      The muscle spindle (MS) provides essential sensory information for motor control and proprioception. The Group Ia and II MS afferents are low threshold slowly-adapting mechanoreceptors and report both static muscle length and dynamic muscle movement information. The exact molecular mechanism by which MS afferents transduce muscle movement into action potentials is incompletely understood. This short review will discuss recent evidence suggesting that PIEZO2 is an essential mechanically sensitive ion channel in MS afferents and that vesicle-released glutamate contributes to maintaining afferent excitability during the static phase of stretch. Other mechanically gated ion channels, voltage-gated sodium channels, other ion channels, regulatory proteins, and interactions with the intrafusal fibers are also important for MS afferent mechanosensation. Future studies are needed to fully understand mechanosensation in the MS and whether different complements of molecular mediators contribute to the different response properties of Group Ia and II afferents.
  36. J Strength Cond Res. 2022 Apr 01.
      ABSTRACT: Kassiano, W, Nunes, JP, Costa, B, Ribeiro, AS, Schoenfeld, BJ, and Cyrino, ES. Does varying resistance exercises promote superior muscle hypertrophy and strength gains? A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-Fitness professionals routinely employ a variety of resistance training exercises in program design as a strategy to enhance muscular adaptations. However, it remains uncertain whether such an approach offers advantages over a fixed-exercise selection. The objective of this review was to review the effects of exercise variation on muscle hypertrophy and strength. A search of the literature was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Eight studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. The combined total sample of the studies was N = 241, comprising all young men. The methodological quality of included studies was considered "good" and "excellent" based on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale. The available studies indicate that varying exercise selection can influence muscle hypertrophy and strength gains. Some degree of systematic variation seems to enhance regional hypertrophic adaptations and maximize dynamic strength, whereas excessive, random variation may compromise muscular gains. We conclude that exercise variation should be approached systematically with a focus on applied anatomical and biomechanical constructs; on the contrary, employing different exercises that provide a redundant stimulus, as well as excessive rotation of different exercises (i.e., high frequency of change), may actually hinder muscular adaptations.