bims-moremu Biomed News
on Molecular regulators of muscle mass
Issue of 2022‒03‒06
thirty-one papers selected by
Anna Vainshtein
Craft Science Inc.

  1. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2022 Feb 28. pii: S1084-9521(22)00039-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria play a major role in apoptotic signaling. In addition to its role in eliminating dysfunctional cells, mitochondrial apoptotic signaling is implicated as a key component of myogenic differentiation and skeletal muscle atrophy. For example, the activation of cysteine-aspartic proteases (caspases; CASP's) can aid in the initial remodeling stages of myogenic differentiation by cleaving protein kinases, transcription factors, and cytoskeletal proteins. Precise regulation of these signals is needed to prevent excessive cell disassemble and subsequent cell death. During skeletal muscle atrophy, the activation of CASP's and mitochondrial derived nucleases participate in myonuclear fragmentation, a potential loss of myonuclei, and cleavage of contractile structures within skeletal muscle. The B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins play a significant role in regulating myogenesis and skeletal muscle atrophy by governing the initiating steps of mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. This review discusses the role of mitochondrial apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle remodeling during myogenic differentiation and skeletal muscle pathological states, including aging, disuse, and muscular dystrophy.
    Keywords:  Aging; Apoptosis; Atrophy; BCL2; CASP9; Disease; Disuse; Mitochondria; Muscular dystrophy; Myogenesis; Skeletal muscle
  2. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022 Mar 03. 79(3): 170
      Numerous studies have established the critical roles of microRNAs in regulating post-transcriptional gene expression in diverse biological processes. Here, we report on the role and mechanism of miR-24-3p in skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration. miR-24-3p promotes myoblast differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration by directly targeting high mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) and regulating it and its direct downstream target, the inhibitor of differentiation 3 (ID3). miR-24-3p knockdown in neonatal mice increases PAX7-positive proliferating muscle stem cells (MuSCs) by derepressing Hmga1 and Id3. Similarly, inhibition of miR-24-3p in the tibialis anterior muscle prevents Hmga1 and Id3 downregulation and impairs regeneration. These findings provide evidence that the miR-24-3p/HMGA1/ID3 axis is required for MuSC differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo.
    Keywords:  Development; Differentiation; HMGA1; Id3; Myoblast; Regeneration; Skeletal muscle stem cell; miR-24-3p; microRNA
  3. Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2022 Mar 04.
      Knockout (ko) mice for the β2 adrenoceptor (Adrβ2) have impaired skeletal muscle regeneration, suggesting that this receptor is important for muscle stem cell (satellite cell) function. Here, we investigated the role of Adrβ2 in the function of satellite cells from β2ko mice in the context of muscle regeneration, through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of self-renewed Pax7+ satellite cells, proliferating Pax7+/MyoD+ myogenic precursor cells, and regenerating eMHC+ myofibers in regenerating muscle of β2ko mice at 30, 3, and 10 days post-injury, respectively. Quiescent satellite cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and cell cycle entry was assessed by EdU incorporation. The results demonstrated a lower number of proliferating Pax7+/EdU+ satellite cells from β2ko mice. There was an increase in the gene expression of the cell cycle inhibitor Cdkn1a and Notch pathway components and the activation of Notch signaling in proliferating myoblasts from β2ko mice. There was a decrease in the number of myogenin-positive nuclei in myofibers maintained in differentiation media, and a lower fusion index in differentiating myoblasts from β2ko mice. Furthermore, the gene expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling components, the expression of nuclear β-catenin and the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling decreased in differentiating myoblasts from β2ko mice. These results indicate that Adrβ2 plays a crucial role in satellite cell self-renewal, as well as in myoblast proliferation and differentiation by regulating Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling, respectively.
    Keywords:  Differentiation; Notch; Proliferation; Satellite cell; Wnt/β-catenin; β2 adrenoceptor
  4. J Physiol. 2022 Feb 28.
      KEY POINTS: The detrimental effects of ageing can be partially offset by lifelong self-organized recreational exercise, as evidence by preserved type II myofibre associated satellite cells, a beneficial muscle innervation status and greater fatigue resistance under challenged conditions Satellite cell function (in vitro), muscle fibre size and muscle fibre denervation determined by immunofluorescence were not affected by recreational exercise Individuals that are recreationally active are far more abundant that master athletes, which sharply increases the translational perspective of the present study. Future studies should investigate recreational activity in relation to muscle health further, while also including female participants ABSTRACT: Background : Muscle fibre denervation and declining numbers of muscle stem (satellite) cells are defining characteristics of ageing skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for lifelong recreational exercise to offset muscle fibre denervation and compromised satellite cell content and function, both at rest and under challenged conditions.METHODS: 16 elderly lifelong recreational exercises (LLEX) were studied alongside groups of age-matched sedentary (SED) and young subjects. Lean body mass and maximal voluntary contraction were assessed, and a strength training bout was performed. From muscle biopsies, tissue and primary myogenic cell cultures were analysed by immunofluorescence and RT-qPCR to assess myofibre denervation and satellite cell quantity and function.
    RESULTS: LLEX demonstrated superior muscle function under challenged conditions. When compared to SED, the muscle of LLEX was found to contain a greater content of satellite cells associated with type II myofibres specifically, along with higher mRNA levels of the beta and gamma acetylcholine receptors (AChR). No difference was observed between LLEX and SED for the proportion of denervated fibres or satellite cell function, as assessed in vitro by myogenic cell differentiation and fusion index assays.
    CONCLUSION: When compared to inactive counterparts, the skeletal muscle of lifelong exercisers is characterised by greater fatigue resistance under challenged conditions in vivo, together with a more youthful tissue satellite cell and AChR profile. Our data suggest a little recreational level exercise goes a long way in protecting against the emergence of classic phenotypic traits associated with the aged muscle. Abstract figure legend Lifelong exercisers were studied alongside age-matched sedentary individuals and young subjects. Muscle biopsies were obtained from all subjects and used for immunofluorescent analyses and cell culture experiments. In vivo measurements of muscle mass and function were also performed. Lifelong exercise was associated with a preserved number of type II myofibre associated satellite cells, an improved innervation status that was similar to the young control group, and better muscle function under challenged conditions. The findings suggests that even low amounts of physical activity over many years have a positive impact on muscle health and innervation status. Figure was created using BioRender. Publication licence has been obtained. Casper Søndenbroe received his bachelor and master's degree in Sport Science and Physiology at the Faculty of Science at University of Copenhagen, Denmark. His PhD training was undertaken at the Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen at Bispebjerg Hospital and at Centre for Healthy Ageing at the Faculty of Health and Medical Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, where he was supervised by Associate Professor Abigail L. Mackey. The research is focused on the neuromuscular system and how it is affected by ageing and exercise, with a strong emphasis on human studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  acetylcholine receptor; denervation; human skeletal muscle; lifelong exercise; sarcopenia; satellite cells
  5. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 ;13 821849
      Skeletal muscle accounts for ~80% of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The Group I p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is required for the non-canonical insulin-stimulated GLUT4 vesicle translocation in skeletal muscle cells. We found that the abundances of PAK1 protein and its downstream effector in muscle, ARPC1B, are significantly reduced in the skeletal muscle of humans with type 2 diabetes, compared to the non-diabetic controls, making skeletal muscle PAK1 a candidate regulator of glucose homeostasis. Although whole-body PAK1 knockout mice exhibit glucose intolerance and are insulin resistant, the contribution of skeletal muscle PAK1 in particular was unknown. As such, we developed inducible skeletal muscle-specific PAK1 knockout (skmPAK1-iKO) and overexpression (skmPAK1-iOE) mouse models to evaluate the role of PAK1 in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Using intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance testing, we found that skeletal muscle PAK1 is required for maintaining whole body glucose homeostasis. Moreover, PAK1 enrichment in GLUT4-myc-L6 myoblasts preserves normal insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation under insulin resistance conditions. Unexpectedly, skmPAK1-iKO also showed aberrant plasma insulin levels following a glucose challenge. By applying conditioned media from PAK1-enriched myotubes or myoblasts to β-cells in culture, we established that a muscle-derived circulating factor(s) could enhance β-cell function. Taken together, these data suggest that PAK1 levels in the skeletal muscle can regulate not only skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, but can also engage in tissue crosstalk with pancreatic β-cells, unveiling a new molecular mechanism by which PAK1 regulates whole-body glucose homeostasis.
    Keywords:  PAK1; crosstalk; diabetes; insulin resistance; skeletal muscle
  6. Adv Mater. 2022 Mar 01. e2110441
      Generating skeletal muscle tissue which mimics the cellular alignment, maturation and function of native skeletal muscle is an ongoing challenge in disease modelling and regenerative therapies. Skeletal muscle cultures require extracellular guidance and mechanical support to stabilize contractile myofibers. Existing microfabrication-based solutions are limited by complex fabrication steps, low throughput, and challenges in measuring dynamic contractile function. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a new biobased nanohybrid elastomer which is electrospun into aligned nanofiber sheets to mimic the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix. The polymer exhibits remarkable hyperelasticity well-matched to that of native skeletal muscle (∼11-50 kPa), with ultimate strain ∼1000% and elastic modulus ∼25kPa. Uniaxially aligned nanofibers guide myoblast alignment, enhance sarcomere formation, promote a ∼32% increase in myotube fusion and ∼50% increase in myofiber maturation. The elastomer nanofibers stabilize optogenetically-controlled human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived skeletal myofibers. When activated by blue light, the myofiber-nanofiber hybrid constructs maintain a significantly higher (> 200%) contraction velocity and specific force (> 280%) compared to conventional culture methods. The engineered myofibers exhibit a power density of ∼35W m-3 . This system is a promising new skeletal muscle tissue model for applications in muscular disease modelling, drug discovery and muscle regeneration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  biobased elastomer nanofibers; electrospinning; human iPSCs; myogenic differentiation; optogenetics
  7. Eur J Transl Myol. 2022 Feb 28.
      Sarcopenia is defined by the loss of muscle mass and function. In aging sarcopenia is due to mild chronic inflammation but also to fiber-intrinsic defects, such as mitochondrial dysfunction. Age-related sarcopenia is associated with physical disability and lowered quality of life. In addition to skeletal muscle, the nervous tissue is also affected in elderly people. With aging, type 2 fast fibers preferentially undergo denervation and are reinnervated by slow-twitch motor neurons. They spread forming new neuro-muscular junctions with the denervated fibers: the result is an increased proportion of slow fibers that group together since they are associated in the same motor unit. Grouping and fiber type shifting are indeed major histological features of aging skeletal muscle. Exercise has been proposed as an intervention for age-related sarcopenia due to its numerous beneficial effects on muscle mechanical and biochemical features. In 2013, a precursor study in humans was published in the European Journal of Translation Myology (formerly known as Basic and Applied Myology), highlighting the occurrence of reinnervation in the musculature of aged, exercise-trained individuals as compared to the matching control. This paper, entitled «Reinnervation of Vastus lateralis is increased significantly in seniors (70-years old) with a lifelong history of high-level exercise», is now being reprinted for the second issue of the «Ejtm Seminal Paper Series». In this short review we discuss those results in the light of the most recent advances confirming the occurrence of exercise-mediated reinnervation, ultimately preserving muscle structure and function in elderly people who exercise.
  8. Nat Metab. 2022 Feb;4(2): 180-189
      Adult skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue that readily reduces or gains its mass in response to mechanical and metabolic stimulation; however, the upstream mechanisms that control muscle mass remain unclear. Notch signalling is highly conserved, and regulates many cellular events, including proliferation and differentiation of various types of tissue stem cell via cell-cell contact. Here we reveal that multinucleated myofibres express Notch2, which plays a crucial role in disuse- or diabetes-induced muscle atrophy. Mechanistically, in both atrophic conditions, the microvascular endothelium upregulates and releases the Notch ligand, Dll4, which then activates muscular Notch2 without direct cell-cell contact. Inhibition of the Dll4-Notch2 axis substantively prevents these muscle atrophy and promotes mechanical overloading-induced muscle hypertrophy in mice. Our results illuminate a tissue-specific function of the endothelium in controlling tissue plasticity and highlight the endothelial Dll4-muscular Notch2 axis as a central upstream mechanism that regulates catabolic signals from mechanical and metabolic stimulation, providing a therapeutic target for muscle-wasting diseases.
  9. Mol Biol Rep. 2022 Feb 28.
      BACKGROUND: Plastic changes of skeletal muscles, such as hypertrophy and atrophy, are dependent on physiological activities and regulated by a variety of signaling pathways, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. The cAMP inducing agents, such as the β2-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol, are known to induce muscle hypertrophy, and has been reported to induce slow-to-fast transitions in rat soleus muscle. Theobromine, one of the active components of cacao, functions as an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase and increases cAMP. This study hypothesized that theobromine, like clenbuterol, can induce muscle hypertrophy and influence contractile properties.METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were fed a normal diet or a diet containing 0.05% theobromine for 20 weeks. Using biochemical, anatomical, and physiological techniques, effects of dietary theobromine on skeletal muscles (soleus, extensor digitorum longus, plantaris, and gastrocnemius) were examined. There were no significant differences in body weight, serum levels of proteins and lipids, muscle weights, dry/wet ratio of muscle weights, mitochondrial oxidation enzyme activity of muscles, isometric contractile properties of muscles, and muscle fatigue between control and theobromine-fed rats. Quantitative analysis of mRNA, however, revealed upregulation of myosin heavy chain 2x and myogenic differentiation 1, as previously reported in clenbuterol-treated muscles.
    CONCLUSION: The long-term theobromine (0.05%) diet in rats had no effect in inducing muscle hypertrophy and in changing contractile properties, although it had some similar effects of clenbuterol on muscle gene expression.
    Keywords:  Contractile property; Hypertrophy; Myogenic differentiation 1; Myosin heavy chain 2x; Rat skeletal muscle; Theobromine
  10. Physiol Rep. 2022 Feb;10(4): e15183
      The cortical cytoskeleton, consisting of the cytoplasmic actin isoforms β and/or γ-actin, has been implicated in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in muscle and adipose cell culture. Furthermore, transgenic inhibition of multiple actin-regulating proteins in muscle inhibits insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake. The current study tested if γ-actin was required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle. Based on our previously reported age-dependent phenotype in muscle-specific β-actin gene deletion (-/- ) mice, we included cohorts of growing 8-14 weeks old and mature 18-32 weeks old muscle-specific γ-actin-/- mice or wild-type littermates. In growing mice, insulin significantly increased the glucose uptake in slow-twitch oxidative soleus and fast-twitch glycolytic EDL muscles from wild-type mice, but not γ-actin-/- . In relative values, the maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was reduced by ~50% in soleus and by ~70% in EDL muscles from growing γ-actin-/- mice compared to growing wild-type mice. In contrast, the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake responses in mature adult γ-actin-/- soleus and EDL muscles were indistinguishable from the responses in wild-type muscles. Mature adult insulin-stimulated phosphorylations on Akt, p70S6K, and ULK1 were not significantly affected by genotype. Hence, insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake shows an age-dependent impairment in young growing but not in fully grown γ-actin-/- mice, bearing phenotypic resemblance to β-actin-/- mice. Overall, γ-actin does not appear required for insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake in adulthood. Furthermore, our data emphasize the need to consider the rapid growth of young mice as a potential confounder in transgenic mouse phenotyping studies.
    Keywords:  glucose uptake; skeletal muscle; γ-actin
  11. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2022 Mar 04. pii: glac058. [Epub ahead of print]
      Aging-associated muscle wasting is regulated by multiple molecular processes, whereby aberrant mRNA processing regulation induces muscle wasting. The poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1) regulates polyadenylation site (PAS) utilization, in the absence of PABPN1 the alternative PAS (APA) is utilized. Reduced PABPN1 levels induce muscle wasting where the expression of cellular processes regulating protein homeostasis, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and translation, are robustly dysregulated. Translation is impacted by mRNA levels, but PABPN1 impact on translation is not fully understood. Here we show that a persistent reduction in PABPN1 levels led to a significant loss of translation efficiency. RNA sequencing of rRNA-depleted libraries from polysome traces revealed reduced mRNA abundance across ribosomal fractions, as well as reduced levels of small RNAs. We show that the abundance of translated mRNAs in the polysomes correlated with PAS switches at the 3'-UTR. Those mRNAs are enriched in cellular processes that are essential for proper muscle function. This study suggests that the effect of PABPN1 on translation efficiency impacts protein homeostasis in aging-associated muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  PABPN1; alternative polyadenylation; mRNA processing; miscellaneous RNAs; translatome
  12. J Diet Suppl. 2022 Mar 01. 1-19
      Mitochondrial biogenesis and destruction in skeletal muscle are coordinated by distinct signaling pathways that are influenced by internal and exogenous variables including, but not limited to, muscle phenotype, physical activity, dietary composition, or drug administration. Previously we found that long-term resveratrol administration (up to 480 mg/day) ameliorates the slow-to-fast phenotypic shift in soleus muscles and promotes the expression in slow myosin heavy chain in the mixed plantaris muscle of non-human primates consuming a high fat/sugar (HFS) diet. Here, we expand on these earlier findings by examining whether mitochondrial content and the markers that dictate their biogenesis and mitophagy/autophagy are similarly affected by HFS and/or influenced by resveratrol while consuming this diet (HFSR). Compared to controls (n = 9), there was a ∼20-25% decrease in mitochondrial content in HFS (n = 8) muscles as reflected in the COX2- and CYTB-to-GAPDH ratios using PCR analysis, which was blunted by resveratrol in HFSR (n = 7) soleus and, to a lesser degree, in plantaris muscles. A ∼1.5 and 3-fold increase in Rev-erb-α protein was detected in HFSR soleus and plantaris muscles compared to controls, respectively. Unlike in HFSR animals, HFS soleus and plantaris muscles exhibited a ∼2-fold elevation in phosphor-AMPKα (Thr172). HFS soleus muscles had elevated phosphorylated-to-total TANK binding protein-1 (TBK1) ratio suggesting an enhancement in mito/autophagic events. Taken together, resveratrol appears to blunt mitochondrial losses with a high fat/sugar diet by tempering mito/autophagy rather than promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, suggesting that the quantity of daily resveratrol supplement ingested and/or its long-term consumption are important considerations.Supplemental data for this article is available online at .
    Keywords:  Biogenesis; Rev-erb-α; TBK1; mitophagy
  13. iScience. 2022 Mar 18. 25(3): 103928
      DNA methylation is an essential form of epigenetic regulation responsible for cellular identity. In muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells, DNA methylation patterns are tightly regulated during differentiation. However, it is unclear how these DNA methylation patterns affect the function of satellite cells. We demonstrate that a key epigenetic regulator, ubiquitin like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (Uhrf1), is activated in proliferating myogenic cells but not expressed in quiescent satellite cells or differentiated myogenic cells in mice. Ablation of Uhrf1 in mouse satellite cells impairs their proliferation and differentiation, leading to failed muscle regeneration. Uhrf1-deficient myogenic cells exhibited aberrant upregulation of transcripts, including Sox9, with the reduction of DNA methylation level of their promoter and enhancer region. These findings show that Uhrf1 is a critical epigenetic regulator of proliferation and differentiation in satellite cells, by controlling cell-type-specific gene expression via maintenance of DNA methylation.
    Keywords:  Cell biology; Epigenetics; Stem cells research
  14. Int J Stem Cells. 2022 Feb 28.
      Background and Objectives: Difficulties often encountered in separating and purifying active muscle satellite cells (MSCs) from skeletal muscle tissues have limited the supply of cells for muscle therapy and artificial meat production. Here, we report an effective isolation protocol to economically and conveniently retrieve active MSCs from skeletal muscle tissues in mice.Methods and Results: We optimized an enzyme-based tissue digestion protocol for isolating skeletal muscle-derived primary cell population having a large number of active MSCs and described a method of differential plating (DP) for improving purity of active MSCs from skeletal muscle-derived primary cell population. Then, the age of the mouse appropriate to the isolation of a large number of active MSCs was elucidated. The best isolation yield of active MSCs from mouse skeletal muscle tissues was induced by the application of DP method to the primary cell population harvested from skeletal muscle tissues of 2-week-old mice digested in 0.2% (w/v) collagenase type II for 30 min at 37℃ and then in 0.1% (w/v) pronase for 5 min at 37℃.
    Conclusions: The protocol we developed not only facilitates the isolation of MSCs but also maximizes the retrieval of active MSCs. Our expectation is that this protocol will contribute to the development of original technologies essential for muscle therapy and artificial meat industrialization in the future.
    Keywords:  Differential plating; Enzymatic dissociation; High-yield isolation; Mouse; Muscle satellite cells
  15. Elife. 2022 Feb 28. pii: e70235. [Epub ahead of print]11
      How distinct cell fates are manifested by direct lineage ancestry from bipotent progenitors, or by specification of individual cell types is a key question for understanding the emergence of tissues. The interplay between skeletal muscle progenitors and associated connective tissue cells provides a model for examining how muscle functional units are established. Most craniofacial structures originate from the vertebrate-specific neural crest cells except in the dorsal portion of the head, where they arise from cranial mesoderm. Here, using multiple lineage-tracing strategies combined with single cell RNAseq and in situ analyses, we identify bipotent progenitors expressing Myf5 (an upstream regulator of myogenic fate) that give rise to both muscle and juxtaposed connective tissue. Following this bifurcation, muscle and connective tissue cells retain complementary signalling features and maintain spatial proximity. Disrupting myogenic identity shifts muscle progenitors to a connective tissue fate. The emergence of Myf5-derived connective tissue is associated with the activity of several transcription factors, including Foxp2. Interestingly, this unexpected bifurcation in cell fate was not observed in craniofacial regions that are colonised by neural crest cells. Therefore, we propose that an ancestral bi-fated program gives rise to muscle and connective tissue cells in skeletal muscles that are deprived of neural crest cells.
    Keywords:  developmental biology; mouse; regenerative medicine; stem cells
  16. Biomed Res Int. 2022 ;2022 7436577
      The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) can repair and remove misfolded or unfolded proteins in mitochondria and enhance mitochondrial protein homeostasis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by regular exercise is a crucial signal for promoting health, and skeletal muscle mitochondria are the primary source of ROS during exercise. To verify whether UPRmt is related to ROS produced by mitochondria in skeletal muscle during regular exercise, we adapted MitoTEMPO, mitochondrially targeted antioxidants, and ROS production by mitochondria. Our results showed that mitochondrial ROS is the key factor for activating UPRmt in different pathways.
  17. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2022 Mar 03.
      One of the most important cytosolic Ca2+ buffers present in mouse fast-twitch myofibers, but not in human myofibers, is parvalbumin (PV). Previous work using conventional PV knockout mice suggests that lifelong PV ablation increases fatigue resistance, possibly due to compensations in mitochondrial volume. In this work, PV gene ablation was induced only in adult mice (PV-KO), and contractile and cytosolic Ca2+ responses during fatigue were studied in isolated muscle and intact single myofibers. Results were compared to control littermates (PV-Ctr). We hypothesized that the reduced myofiber cytosolic Ca2+ buffering developed only in adult PV-KO mice leads to a larger cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) during repetitive contractions, increasing myofiber fatigue resistance. Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from PV-KO mice had higher force in unfused stimulations (~50%, P<0.05) and slowed relaxation (~46% higher relaxation time, P<0.05) vs PV-Ctr, but muscle fatigue resistance or fatigue-induced changes in relaxation were not different between genotypes (P>0.05). In intact single myofibers from flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles, basal and tetanic [Ca2+]c during fatiguing contractions were higher in PV-KO (P<0.05), accompanied by a greater slowing in estimated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pumping vs PV-Ctr myofibers (~84% reduction, P<0.05), but myofiber fatigue resistance was not different between genotypes (P>0.05). Our results demonstrate that although the estimated SR Ca2+ uptake was accelerated in PV-KO, the total energy demand by the major energy consumers in myofibers, the cross-bridges and SR Ca2+ ATPase, were not altered enough to affect the energy supply for contractions, and therefore fatigue resistance remained unaffected.
    Keywords:  Muscle fatigue; calcium pumping; cytosolic calcium buffering; muscle relaxation; parvalbumin
  18. Eur J Transl Myol. 2022 Feb 28.
      In 2013 we presented results showing that at the histological level lifelong increased physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers in aging muscles. Indeed, in muscle biopsies from 70-year old men with a lifelong history of high-level physical activity, we observed a considerable increase in fiber-type groupings (F-TG), almost exclusively of the slow type. Slow-type transformation by denervation-reinnervation in senior sportsmen seems to fluctuate from those with scarce fiber-type transformation and groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, going through a process in which isolated fibers co-expressing fast and slow Myosin Heavy Chains (MHCs) seems to fill the gaps. Taken together, our results suggest that, beyond the direct effects of aging on the muscle fibers, changes occurring in skeletal muscle tissue appear to be largely, although not solely, a result of sparse denervation-reinnervation. The lifelong exercise allows the body to adapt to the consequences of the age-related denervation and to preserve muscle structure and function by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through recruitment to different, mainly slow, motor units. These beneficial effects of high-level life-long exercise on motoneurons, specifically on the slow type motoneurones that are those with higher daily activity, and on muscle fibers, serve to maintain size, structure and function of muscles, delaying the functional decline and loss of independence that are commonly seen in late aging. Several studies of independent reserchers with independent analyses confirmed and cited our 2013 results. Thus, the results we presented in our paper in 2013 seem to have held up rather well.
  19. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2022 Mar 01.
      BACKGROUND: The relative role of skeletal muscle mechano-transduction in comparison with systemic hormones, such as testosterone (T), in regulating hypertrophic responses to exercise is contentious. We investigated the mechanistic effects of chemical endogenous T depletion adjuvant to 6 weeks of resistance exercise training (RET) on muscle mass, function, myogenic regulatory factors, and muscle anabolic signalling in younger men.METHODS: Non-hypogonadal men (n = 16; 18-30 years) were randomized in a double-blinded fashion to receive placebo (P, saline n = 8) or the GnRH analogue, Goserelin [Zoladex (Z), 3.6 mg, n = 8], injections, before 6 weeks of supervised whole-body RET. Participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), ultrasound of m. vastus lateralis (VL), and VL biopsies for assessment of cumulative muscle protein synthesis (MPS), myogenic gene expression, and anabolic signalling pathway responses.
    RESULTS: Zoladex suppressed endogenous T to within the hypogonadal range and was well tolerated; suppression was associated with blunted fat free mass [Z: 55.4 ± 2.8 to 55.8 ± 3.1 kg, P = 0.61 vs. P: 55.9 ± 1.7 to 57.4 ± 1.7 kg, P = 0.006, effect size (ES) = 0.31], composite strength (Z: 40 ± 2.3% vs. P: 49.8 ± 3.3%, P = 0.03, ES = 1.4), and muscle thickness (Z: 2.7 ± 0.4 to 2.69 ± 0.36 cm, P > 0.99 vs. P: 2.74 ± 0.32 to 2.91 ± 0.32 cm, P < 0.0001, ES = 0.48) gains. Hypogonadism attenuated molecular transducers of muscle growth related to T metabolism (e.g. androgen receptor: Z: 1.2 fold, P > 0.99 vs. P: 1.9 fold, P < 0.0001, ES = 0.85), anabolism/myogenesis (e.g. IGF-1Ea: Z: 1.9 fold, P = 0.5 vs. P: 3.3 fold, P = 0.0005, ES = 0.72; IGF-1Ec: Z: 2 fold, P > 0.99 vs. P: 4.7 fold, P = 0.0005, ES = 0.68; myogenin: Z: 1.3 fold, P > 0.99 vs. P: 2.7 fold, P = 0.002, ES = 0.72), RNA/DNA (Z: 0.47 ± 0.03 to 0.53 ± 0.03, P = 0.31 vs. P: 0.50 ± 0.01 to 0.64 ± 0.04, P = 0.003, ES = 0.72), and RNA/ASP (Z: 5.8 ± 0.4 to 6.8 ± 0.5, P > 0.99 vs. P: 6.5 ± 0.2 to 8.9 ± 1.1, P = 0.008, ES = 0.63) ratios, as well as acute RET-induced phosphorylation of growth signalling proteins (e.g. AKTser473 : Z: 2.74 ± 0.6, P = 0.2 vs. P: 5.5 ± 1.1 fold change, P < 0.001, ES = 0.54 and mTORC1ser2448 : Z: 1.9 ± 0.8, P > 0.99 vs. P: 3.6 ± 1 fold change, P = 0.002, ES = 0.53). Both MPS (Z: 1.45 ± 0.11 to 1.50 ± 0.06%·day-1 , P = 0.99 vs. P: 1.5 ± 0.12 to 2.0 ± 0.15%·day-1 , P = 0.01, ES = 0.97) and (extrapolated) muscle protein breakdown (Z: 93.16 ± 7.8 vs. P: 129.1 ± 13.8 g·day-1 , P = 0.04, ES = 0.92) were reduced with hypogonadism result in lower net protein turnover (3.9 ± 1.1 vs. 1.2 ± 1.1 g·day-1 , P = 0.04, ES = 0.95).
    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that endogenous T sufficiency has a central role in the up-regulation of molecular transducers of RET-induced muscle hypertrophy in humans that cannot be overcome by muscle mechano-transduction alone.
    Keywords:  Exercise training; Hypertrophy; Muscle protein synthesis; Testosterone
  20. J Vis Exp. 2022 Feb 10.
      Most of the cell's energy is obtained through the degradation of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids by different pathways that converge on the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, which is regulated in response to cellular demands. The lipid molecule Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is essential in this process by transferring electrons to complex III in the electron transport chain (ETC) through constant oxidation/reduction cycles. Mitochondria status and, ultimately, cellular health can be assessed by measuring ETC oxygen consumption using respirometric assays. These studies are typically performed in established or primary cell lines that have been cultured for several days. In both cases, the respiration parameters obtained may have deviated from normal physiological conditions in any given organ or tissue. Additionally, the intrinsic characteristics of cultured single fibers isolated from skeletal muscle impede this type of analysis. This paper presents an updated and detailed protocol for the analysis of respiration in freshly isolated mitochondria from mouse skeletal muscle. We also provide solutions to potential problems that could arise at any step of the process. The method presented here could be applied to compare oxygen consumption rates in diverse transgenic mouse models and study the mitochondrial response to drug treatments or other factors such as aging or sex. This is a feasible method to respond to crucial questions about mitochondrial bioenergetics metabolism and regulation.
  21. Sci Rep. 2022 Feb 28. 12(1): 3344
      Incomplete functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) often results in devastating physical disabilities in human patients. Despite improved progress in surgical and non-surgical approaches, achieving complete functional recovery following PNI remains a challenge. This study demonstrates that phentolamine may hold a significant promise in treating nerve injuries and denervation induced muscle atrophy following PNI. In a sciatic nerve crush injury mouse model, we found that phentolamine treatment enhanced motor and functional recovery, protected axon myelination, and attenuated injury-induced muscle atrophy in mice at 14 days post-injury (dpi) compared to saline treatment. In the soleus of phentolamine treated animals, we observed the downregulation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (p-STAT3) as well as muscle atrophy-related genes Myogenin, muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF-1), and Forkhead box O proteins (FoxO1, FoxO3). Our results show that both nerve and muscle recovery are integral components of phentolamine treatment-induced global functional recovery in mice at 14 dpi. Moreover, phentolamine treatment improved locomotor functional recovery in the mice after spinal cord crush (SCC) injury. The fact that phentolamine is an FDA approved non-selective alpha-adrenergic blocker, clinically prescribed for oral anesthesia reversal, hypertension, and erectile dysfunction makes this drug a promising candidate for repurposing in restoring behavioral recovery following PNI and SCC injuries, axonal neuropathy, and muscle wasting disorders.
  22. Acta Histochem. 2022 Feb 24. pii: S0065-1281(22)00028-9. [Epub ahead of print]124(3): 151869
      Skeletal muscle physiology remains of paramount importance in understanding insulin resistance. Due to its high lipid turnover rates, regulation of intramyocellular lipid droplets (LDs) is a key factor. Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is one of the most critical agents in such regulation, being often referred as a protector against lipotoxicity and consequent skeletal muscle insulin resistance. We examined area fraction, size, subcellular localization and PLIN5 association of LDs in two fiber types of type 2 diabetic (T2D), obese (OB) and healthy (HC) individuals by means of fluorescence microscopy and image analysis. We found that T2D type II fibers have a significant sub-population of large and internalized LDs, uncoated by PLIN5. Based on this novel result, additional hypotheses for the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle insulin resistance are formulated, together with future research directions.
    Keywords:  Fiber type; Insulin resistance; Lipid droplets; PLIN5; Skeletal muscle; Type II diabetes
  23. Elife. 2022 Mar 02. pii: e75658. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Mitochondrial biogenesis has two major steps: the transcriptional activation of nuclear genome-encoded mitochondrial proteins and the import of nascent mitochondrial proteins that are synthesized in the cytosol. These nascent mitochondrial proteins are aggregation-prone and can cause cytosolic proteostasis stress. The transcription factor-dependent transcriptional regulations and the TOM-TIM complex-dependent import of nascent mitochondrial proteins have been extensively studied. Yet, little is known regarding how these two steps of mitochondrial biogenesis coordinate with each other to avoid the cytosolic accumulation of these aggregation-prone nascent mitochondrial proteins. Here we show that in budding yeast, Tom70, a conserved receptor of the TOM complex, moonlights to regulate the transcriptional activity of mitochondrial proteins. Tom70's transcription regulatory role is conserved in Drosophila. The dual roles of Tom70 in both transcription/biogenesis and import of mitochondrial proteins allow the cells to accomplish mitochondrial biogenesis without compromising cytosolic proteostasis. The age-related reduction of Tom70, caused by reduced biogenesis and increased degradation of Tom70, is associated with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, mtDNA, and mitochondrial proteins. While loss of Tom70 accelerates aging and age-related mitochondrial defects, overexpressing TOM70 delays these mitochondrial dysfunctions and extends the replicative lifespan. Our results reveal unexpected roles of Tom70 in mitochondrial biogenesis and aging.
    Keywords:  S. cerevisiae; cell biology
  24. Elife. 2022 Mar 04. pii: e57393. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Sustained exposure to a young systemic environment rejuvenates aged organisms and promotes cellular function. However, due to the intrinsic complexity of tissues it remains challenging to pinpoint niche-independent effects of circulating factors on specific cell populations. Here we describe a method for the encapsulation of human and mouse skeletal muscle progenitors in diffusible polyethersulfone hollow fiber capsules that can be used to profile systemic aging in vivo independent of heterogeneous short-range tissue interactions. We observed that circulating long-range signaling factors in the old systemic environment lead to an activation of Myc and E2F transcription factors, induce senescence and suppress myogenic differentiation. Importantly, in vitro profiling using young and old serum in 2D culture does not capture all pathways deregulated in encapsulated cells in aged mice. Thus, in vivo transcriptomic profiling using cell encapsulation allows for the characterization of effector pathways of systemic aging with unparalleled accuracy.
    Keywords:  cell biology; mouse
  25. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 834597
      Physical activity is now recognized as an essential element of healthy lifestyles. However, intensive and repeated exercise practice produces a high level of stress that must be managed, particularly oxidative damage and inflammation. Many studies investigated the effect of antioxidants, but reported only few positive effects, or even muscle recovery impairment. Secondary antioxidants are frequently highlighted as a way to optimize these interactions. Ergothioneine is a potential nutritional supplement and a secondary antioxidant that activates the cellular NRF2 pathway, leading to antioxidant response gene activation. Here, we hypothesized that ergothioneine could improve performance during aerobic exercise up to exhaustion and reduce exercise-related stress without impairing early muscle recovery signaling. To test this hypothesis, 5-month-old C56B6J female mice were divided in two groups matched for maximal aerobic speed (MAS): control group (Ctrl; n = 9) and group supplemented with 70 mg ergothioneine/kg/day (ET; n = 9). After 1 week of supplementation (or not), mice performed a maximum time-to-exhaustion test by running on a treadmill at 70% of their MAS, and gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were collected 2 h after exercise. Time to exhaustion was longer in the ET than Ctrl group (+41.22%, p < 0.01). Two hours after exercise, the ET group showed higher activation of protein synthesis and satellite cells, despite their longer effort. Conversely, expression in muscles of metabolic stress and inflammation markers was decreased, as well as oxidative damage markers in the ET group. Moreover, ergothioneine did not seem to impair mitochondrial recovery. These results suggest an important effect of ergothioneine on time-to-exhaustion performance and improved muscle recovery after exercise.
    Keywords:  antioxidant; ergothioneine; exercise; exercise performance; exercise recovery; muscle
  26. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Feb 21. pii: S0006-291X(22)00248-0. [Epub ahead of print]601 45-51
      Exercise training has been demonstrated as an effective therapy for insulin resistance (IR) to relieve skeletal muscle metabolic disorders. Physiologic protective autophagy was found blocked by IR induced severe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which may lead to progression of IR. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, this study sought to investigate that how exercise training act on IR through an exploration into the mechanism of ER stress and high-fat diet (HFD)-blocked autophagy. A rodent model was adopted in mice via a HFD and an 8-week swim exercise training intervention. The mouse IR model was successfully established through HFD treatment: body mass, adipose weight, HOMA-IR index increased, as well as IRS1, inhibited in the muscle of HFD mice. Moreover, the AMPK/PGC1α pathway was depressed and IRE1, PERK, ATF6-related ER stress signaling was activated in the muscle of HFD mice. While autophagy factors, including BNIP3, LC3II/LC3I, and PINK1, decreased. However, additional 8-week exercise training during HFD was found to reverse all these changes and alleviate IR. Thus, exercise training could facilitate HFD-blocked protective autophagy via the activation of the AMPK/PGC1α pathway to relieve insulin resistance in mice. Our study provides experimental data for the prevention of T2DM and insulin resistance.
    Keywords:  AMPK; Autophagy; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Exercise; Insulin resistance
  27. Elife. 2022 Mar 03. pii: e73718. [Epub ahead of print]11
      To date there are no therapies for patients with congenital myopathies, muscle disorders causing poor quality of life of affected individuals. In approximately 30% of the cases, patients with congenital myopathies carry either dominant or recessive mutations in the RYR1 gene; recessive RYR1 mutations are accompanied by reduction of RyR1 expression and content in skeletal muscles and are associated with fiber hypotrophy and muscle weakness. Importantly, muscles of patients with recessive RYR1 mutations exhibit increased content of class II histone de-acetylases and of DNA genomic methylation. We recently created a mouse model knocked-in for the p.Q1970fsX16+p.A4329D RyR1 mutations, which are isogenic to those carried by a severely affected child suffering from a recessive form of RyR1-related multi-mini core disease. The phenotype of the RyR1 mutant mice recapitulates many aspects of the clinical picture of patients carrying recessive RYR1 mutations. We treated the compound heterozygous mice with a combination of two drugs targeting DNA methylases and class II histone de-acetylases. Here we show that treatment of the mutant mice with drugs targeting epigenetic enzymes improves muscle strength, RyR1 protein content and muscle ultrastructure. This study provides proof of concept for the pharmacological treatment of patients with congenital myopathies linked to recessive RYR1 mutations.
    Keywords:  medicine; mouse
  28. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2022 Feb 26. pii: ijsnem.2022-0019. [Epub ahead of print] 1-4
      This invited editorial celebrates the distinguished professional life of Professor Kevin D. Tipton, who sadly passed away on January 9, 2022. Professor Tipton made an outstanding contribution to the scientific field of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism over an exceptional 30-year career. He dedicated his academic career to understanding the response of muscle protein metabolism to exercise and nutrition. The impact of his work is far-reaching with application to athletes in terms of promoting training adaptation, recovery, and performance, alongside clinical implications for injury management and healthy aging. Notable scientific contributions included the first in vivo human study to demonstrate the role of orally ingested essential amino acids in stimulating muscle protein synthesis during acute post-exercise recovery. This finding laid the foundation for future studies to interrogate the response of muscle protein synthesis to the ingestion of different protein types. Professor Tipton's work also included investigating the maximally effective dose and timing (regarding exercise) of ingested protein for the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. Kevin will be remembered fondly by academics, applied scientists, and students across the sport nutrition and exercise metabolism community as a leading researcher in the field, a critical thinker, and an inspirational teacher. His mission was to educate the next generation of exercise scientists by sharing his distinct wealth of knowledge accrued over three decades. Above all else, Kevin was kind, generous (with his time and knowledge), honest, and incredibly social. He was a unique character and will be greatly missed among our community but certainly never forgotten.
    Keywords:  muscle protein synthesis; protein; stable isotopes
  29. Front Nutr. 2022 ;9 825629
      COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been considered a public health emergency, extensively investigated by researchers. Accordingly, the respiratory tract has been the main research focus, with some other studies outlining the effects on the neurological, cardiovascular, and renal systems. However, concerning SARS-CoV-2 outcomes on skeletal muscle, scientific evidence is still not sufficiently strong to trace, treat and prevent possible muscle impairment due to the COVID-19. Simultaneously, there has been a considerable amount of studies reporting skeletal muscle damage in the context of COVID-19. Among the detrimental musculoskeletal conditions associated with the viral infection, the most commonly described are sarcopenia, cachexia, myalgia, myositis, rhabdomyolysis, atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Of note, the risk of developing sarcopenia during or after COVID-19 is relatively high, which poses special importance to the condition amid the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The yet uncovered mechanisms by which musculoskeletal injury takes place in COVID-19 and the lack of published methods tailored to study the correlation between COVID-19 and skeletal muscle hinder the ability of healthcare professionals to provide SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with an adequate treatment plan. The present review aims to minimize this burden by both thoroughly exploring the interaction between COVID-19 and the musculoskeletal system and examining the cutting-edge 3D cell culture techniques capable of revolutionizing the study of muscle dynamics.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; biomaterials; inflammation; skeletal muscle
  30. J Exp Biol. 2022 Feb 28. pii: jeb.243643. [Epub ahead of print]
      The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate that muscle fiber mechanics can be assessed on micro-biopsies obtained from human medial gastrocnemii. Three micro-biopsy samples were collected from female dancers (n=15). Single fibers and fiber bundles were isolated and passively stretched from 2.4 µm to 3.0 µm at 0.015 µm•s-1 and 0.04 µm•s-1 (n=50 fibers total) and in five increments at 0.12 µm•s-1 (n=42 fibers total). Muscle fibers were then activated isometrically at 2.4 µm (n=4 fibers total) and 3.0 µm (n=3 fibers total). Peak stress and steady state stress were significantly greater (p<0.0001) after stretching at 0.04 µm•s-1 than 0.015 µm•s-1. Furthermore, peak stresses and steady state stresses increased non-linearly with fiber length (p<0.0001). We conclude that active and passive muscle fiber mechanics can be investigated using tissue from micro-biopsies.
    Keywords:  Dancers; Gastrocnemius; Myofibers; Stress
  31. Sci Rep. 2022 Mar 03. 12(1): 3501
      Sarcopenia is an age-related disorder characterised by a progressive decrease in skeletal muscle mass. As the genetic biomarkers for sarcopenia are not yet well characterised, this study aimed to investigate the genetic variations related to sarcopenia in a relatively aged cohort, using genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of lean body mass (LBM) in 6961 subjects. Two Korean cohorts were analysed, and subgroup GWAS was conducted for appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and skeletal muscle index. The effects of significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on gene expression were also investigated using multiple expression quantitative trait loci datasets, differentially expressed gene analysis, and gene ontology analyses. Novel genetic biomarkers were identified for LBM (rs1187118; rs3768582) and ASM (rs6772958). Their related genes, including RPS10, NUDT3, NCF2, SMG7, and ARPC5, were differently expressed in skeletal muscle tissue, while GPD1L was not. Furthermore, the 'mRNA destabilisation' biological process was enriched for sarcopenia. Our study identified RPS10, NUDT3, and GPD1L as significant genetic biomarkers for sarcopenia. These genetic loci were related to lipid and energy metabolism, suggesting that genes involved in metabolic dysregulation may lead to the pathogenesis of age-related sarcopenia.