bims-moremu Biomed News
on Molecular regulators of muscle mass
Issue of 2022‒01‒23
forty-four papers selected by
Anna Vainshtein
Craft Science Inc.

  1. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 12. pii: 801. [Epub ahead of print]23(2):
      Skeletal myogenesis is essential for the maintenance of muscle quality and quantity, and impaired myogenesis is intimately associated with muscle wasting diseases. Although microRNA (miRNA) plays a crucial role in myogenesis and relates to muscle wasting in obesity, the molecular targets and roles of miRNAs modulated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-320-3p on the differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells. Palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant dietary SFA, suppressed myogenic factors expression and impaired differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts, and these effects were accompanied by CFL2 downregulation and miR-320-3p upregulation. In particular, miR-320-3p appeared to target CFL2 mRNA directly and suppress the expression of CFL2, an essential factor for filamentous actin (F-actin) depolymerization. Transfection of myoblasts with miR-320-3p mimic increased F-actin formation and nuclear translocation of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a key component of mechanotransduction. Furthermore, miR-320-3p mimic increased myoblast proliferation and markedly impeded the expression of MyoD and MyoG, consequently inhibiting myoblast differentiation. In conclusion, our current study highlights the role of miR-320-3p on CFL2 expression, YAP1 activation, and myoblast differentiation and suggests that PA-inducible miR-320-3p is a significant mediator of muscle wasting in obesity.
    Keywords:  CFL2; YAP1; differentiation; mechanotransduction; miR-320-3p; proliferation
  2. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2022 Jan 19.
      Sarcolipin (SLN) is a small integral membrane protein that regulates the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pump. When bound to SERCA, SLN reduces the apparent Ca2+ affinity of SERCA and uncouples SERCA Ca2+ transport from its ATP consumption. As such, SLN plays a direct role in altering skeletal muscle relaxation and energy expenditure. Interestingly, the expression of SLN is dynamic during times of muscle adaptation, where large increases in SLN content are found in response to development, atrophy, overload and disease. Several groups have suggested that increases in SLN, especially in dystrophic muscle, are deleterious to muscle function and exacerbate already abhorrent intracellular Ca2+ levels. However, there is also significant evidence to show that increased SLN content is a beneficial adaptive mechanism which protects the SERCA pump and activates Ca2+ signaling and adaptive remodeling during times of cell stress. In this review, we first discuss the role for SLN in healthy muscle during both development and overload, where SLN has been shown to activate Ca2+ signaling to promote mitochondrial biogenesis, fibre type shifts and muscle hypertrophy. Then, with respect to muscle disease, we summarize the discrepancies in the literature as to whether SLN upregulation is adaptive or maladaptive in nature. This review is the first to offer the concept of SLN hormesis in muscle disease, wherein both too much and too little SLN are detrimental to muscle health. Finally, the underlying mechanisms which activate SLN upregulation are discussed, specifically acknowledging a potential positive feedback loop between SLN and Ca2+ signaling molecules.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ Signaling; muscle adaptation; muscle atrophy; muscular dystrophy; sarcoplasmic reticulum
  3. FASEB J. 2022 Feb;36(2): e22152
      Catabolic conditions, such as starvation, inactivity, and cancer cachexia, induce Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor(s) expression and severe muscle atrophy via the induction of ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated muscle proteolysis, resulting in frailty and poor quality of life. Although FOXOs are clearly essential for the induction of muscle atrophy, it is unclear whether there are other factors involved in the FOXO-mediated transcriptional regulation. As such, we identified FOXO-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ (C/EBPδ) signaling pathway as a novel proteolytic pathway. By comparing the gene expression profiles of FOXO1-transgenic (gain-of-function model) and FOXO1,3a,4-/- (loss-of-function model) mice, we identified several novel FOXO1-target genes in skeletal muscle including Redd1, Sestrin1, Castor2, Chac1, Depp1, Lat3, as well as C/EBPδ. During starvation, C/EBPδ abundance was increased in a FOXOs-dependent manner. Notably, knockdown of C/EBPδ prevented the induction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and decrease of myofibers in FOXO1-activated myotubes. Conversely, C/EBPδ overexpression in primary myotubes induced myotube atrophy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that FOXO1 enhances the promoter activity of target genes in cooperation with C/EBPδ and ATF4. This research comprehensively identifies novel FOXO1 target genes in skeletal muscle and clarifies the pathophysiological role of FOXO1, a master regulator of skeletal muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  ATF4; C/EBPδ; FOXO1; fasting; skeletal muscle atrophy
  4. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 14. pii: 887. [Epub ahead of print]23(2):
      Exposure to high altitude environment leads to skeletal muscle atrophy. As a hormone secreted by skeletal muscles after exercise, irisin contributes to promoting muscle regeneration and ameliorating skeletal muscle atrophy, but its role in hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is still unclear. Our results showed that 4 w of hypoxia exposure significantly reduced body weight and gastrocnemius muscle mass of mice, as well as grip strength and the duration time of treadmill exercise. Hypoxic treatment increased HIF-1α expression and decreased both the circulation level of irisin and its precursor protein FNDC5 expression in skeletal muscle. In in vitro, CoCl2-induced chemical hypoxia and 1% O2 ambient hypoxia both reduced FNDC5, along with the increase in HIF-1α. Moreover, the decline in the area and diameter of myotubes caused by hypoxia were rescued by inhibiting HIF-1α via YC-1. Collectively, our research indicated that FNDC5/irisin was negatively regulated by HIF-1α and could participate in the regulation of muscle atrophy caused by hypoxia.
    Keywords:  FNDC5; HIF-1α; hypoxia; irisin; muscle atrophy
  5. Cells. 2022 Jan 06. pii: 187. [Epub ahead of print]11(2):
      Sarcopenia is an age-related pathological process characterized by loss of muscle mass and function, which consequently affects the quality of life of the elderly. There is growing evidence that non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), play a key role in skeletal muscle physiology. Alterations in the expression levels of miRNAs and lncRNAs contribute to muscle atrophy and sarcopenia by regulating various signaling pathways. This review summarizes the recent findings regarding non-coding RNAs associated with sarcopenia and provides an overview of sarcopenia pathogenesis promoted by multiple non-coding RNA-mediated signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss the impact of exercise on the expression patterns of non-coding RNAs involved in sarcopenia. Identifying non-coding RNAs associated with sarcopenia and understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate skeletal muscle dysfunction during aging will provide new insights to develop potential treatment strategies.
    Keywords:  long non-coding RNA; microRNA; non-coding RNA; sarcopenia; signaling pathway
  6. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2022 Jan 19.
      Suppressing mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activity with MR antagonists is therapeutic for chronic skeletal muscle pathology in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) mouse models. Although mechanisms underlying clinical MR antagonist efficacy for DMD cardiomyopathy and other cardiac diseases are defined, mechanisms on skeletal muscles are not fully elucidated. Myofiber MR knockout improves skeletal muscle force and a subset of dystrophic pathology. However, MR signaling in myeloid cells is known to be a major contributor to cardiac efficacy. To define contributions of myeloid MR in skeletal muscle function and disease, we performed parallel assessments of muscle pathology, cytokine levels and myeloid cell populations resulting from myeloid MR genetic knockout in muscular dystrophy and in acute muscle injury. Myeloid MR knockout led to lower levels of immunosuppressive macrophages resulting in sustained myofiber damage and slowed regeneration and muscle repair after acute injury of normal muscle. In acute injury, myeloid MR knockout also led to increased local muscle levels of the enzyme that produces the endogenous MR agonist aldosterone, further supporting important contributions of MR signaling in normal muscle repair. In muscular dystrophy, myeloid MR knockout altered cytokine levels differentially between quadriceps and diaphragm muscles, which contain different myeloid populations. Myeloid MR knockout led to higher levels of fibrosis in dystrophic diaphragm where pro-inflammatory macrophages are more prevalent than in quadriceps. These results support important contributions of myeloid MR signaling to skeletal muscle repair in acute and chronic injuries and highlight the useful information gained from cell-specific genetic knockouts to delineate mechanisms of pharmacological efficacy.
    Keywords:  inflammation; mineralocorticoid receptor; muscle; muscular dystrophy; transgenic
  7. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2022 Jan 20.
      The number of myonuclei within a muscle fiber is an important factor in muscle growth, but its regulation during muscle adaptation is not well understood. We aimed to elucidate the timecourse of myonuclear dynamics during endurance training, loaded and concentric resistance training, and nerve silencing-induced disuse atrophy with subsequent recovery. We modified tibialis anterior muscle activity in free-living rats with electrical stimulation from implantable pulse generators, or with implantable osmotic pumps delivering tetrodotoxin (TTX) to silence the motor nerve without transection. We used the updated, automated software MyoVision to measure fiber type-specific responses in whole tibialis anterior cross-sections (~8000 fibers each). Seven days of continuous low frequency stimulation (CLFS) reduced muscle mass (-12%), increased slower myosin isoforms and reduced IIX/IIB fibers (-32%) and substantially increased myonuclei especially in IIX/IIB fibers (55.5%). High load resistance training (Spillover), produced greater hypertrophy (~16%) in muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) than low load resistance training (concentric, ~6%) and was associated with myonuclear addition in all fiber types (35-46%). TTX-induced nerve silencing resulted in progressive loss in muscle mass, fiber CSA, and myonuclei per fiber cross-section (-50.7%, -53.7%, -40.7%, respectively at 14 days). Myonuclear loss occurred in a fiber type-independent manner, but subsequent recovery during voluntary habitual activity suggested that type IIX/IIB fibers contained more new myonuclei during recovery from severe atrophy. This study demonstrates the power and accuracy provided by the updated MyoVision software and introduces new models for studying myonuclear dynamics in training, detraining, retraining, repeated disuse, and recovery.
    Keywords:  Atrophy; Hypertrophy; Image Analysis; Myonuclei; Skeletal Muscle
  8. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Jan 13. pii: S0006-291X(22)00043-2. [Epub ahead of print]593 5-12
      Skeletal muscle atrophy caused by various conditions including aging, nerve damage, and steroid administration, is a serious health problem worldwide. We recently reported that neuron-derived neurotrophic factor (NDNF) functions as a muscle-derived secreted factor, also known as myokine, which exerts protective actions on endothelial cell and cardiomyocyte function. Here, we investigated whether NDNF regulates skeletal muscle atrophy induced by steroid administration and sciatic denervation. NDNF-knockout (KO) mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to continuous dexamethasone (DEX) treatment or sciatic denervation. NDNF-KO mice exhibited decreased gastrocnemius muscle weight and reduced cross sectional area of myocyte fiber after DEX treatment or sciatic denervation compared with WT mice. Administration of an adenoviral vector expressing NDNF (Ad-NDNF) or recombinant NDNF protein to gastrocnemius muscle of WT mice increased gastrocnemius muscle weight after DEX treatment. NDNF-KO mice showed increased expression of ubiquitin E3-ligases, including atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, in gastrocnemius muscle after DEX treatment, whereas Ad-NDNF reduced expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in gastrocnemius muscle of WT mice after DEX treatment. Pretreatment of cultured C2C12 myocytes with NDNF protein reversed reduced myotube diameter and increased expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 after DEX stimulation. Treatment of C2C12 myocytes increased Akt phosphorylation. Pretreatment of C2C12 myotubes with the PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitor reversed NDNF-induced increase in myotube fiber diameter after DEX treatment. In conclusion, our findings indicated that NDNF prevents skeletal muscle atrophy in vivo and in vitro through reduction of ubiquitin E3-ligases expression, suggesting that NDNF could be a novel therapeutic target of muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  Denervation; Dexamethasone; Myokine; NDNF; Skeletal muscle atrophy
  9. Biomedicines. 2021 Dec 29. pii: 64. [Epub ahead of print]10(1):
      Accumulating evidence supports the existence of a tissue microbiota, which may regulate the physiological function of tissues in normal and pathological states. To gain insight into the regulation of tissue-borne bacteria in physiological conditions, we quantified and sequenced the 16S rRNA gene in aseptically collected skeletal muscle and blood samples from eight healthy male individuals subjected to six weeks of endurance training. Potential contamination bias was evaluated and the taxa profiles of each tissue were established. We detected bacterial DNA in skeletal muscle and blood, with background noise levels of detected bacterial DNA considerably lower in control versus tissue samples. In both muscle and blood, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most prominent phyla. Endurance training changed the content of resident bacterial DNA in skeletal muscle but not in blood, with Pseudomonas being less abundant, and both Staphylococcus and Acinetobacter being more abundant in muscle after exercise. Our results provide evidence that endurance training specifically remodels the bacterial DNA profile of skeletal muscle in healthy young men. Future investigations may shed light on the physiological impact, if any, of training-induced changes in bacterial DNA in skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  16S rRNA sequencing; endurance training; skeletal muscle; tissue-borne microbiome
  10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Jan 25. pii: e2119203119. [Epub ahead of print]119(4):
      Mammals rely on nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) from skeletal muscle so that cold temperatures can be tolerated. NST results from activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pump in skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms that regulate this activity are unknown. Here, we develop a single-fiber assay to investigate the role of Ca2+ leak through ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) to generate heat at the SR Ca2+ pump in resting muscle. By inhibiting a subpopulation of RyR1s in a single-fiber preparation via targeted delivery of ryanodine through transverse tubules, we achieve in-preparation isolation of RyR1 Ca2+ leak. This maneuver provided a critical increase in signal-to-noise of the SR-temperature-sensitive dye ER thermoyellow fluorescence signal from the fiber to allow detection of SR temperature changes as either RyR1 or SR Ca2+ pump activity was altered. We found that RyR1 Ca2+ leak raises cytosolic [Ca2+] in the local vicinity of the SR Ca2+ pump to amplify thermogenesis. Furthermore, gene-dose-dependent increases in RyR1 leak in RYR1 mutant mice result in progressive rises in leak-dependent heat, consistent with raised local [Ca2+] at the SR Ca2+ pump via RyR1 Ca2+ leak. We also show that basal RyR Ca2+ leak and the heat generated by the SR Ca2+ pump in the absence of RyR Ca2+ leak is greater in fibers from mice than from toads. The distinct function of RyRs and SR Ca2+ pump in endothermic mammals compared to ectothermic amphibians provides insights into the mechanisms by which mammalian skeletal muscle achieves thermogenesis at rest.
    Keywords:  SR Ca2+ pump; heat; ryanodine receptor; skeletal muscle; thermogenesis
  11. Nutrition. 2021 Dec 17. pii: S0899-9007(21)00432-9. [Epub ahead of print]96 111570
      OBJECTIVES: Muscle wasting is a common complication in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the effect of NAFLD on satellite cell (SC) content and skeletal muscle repair.METHODS: Male CD-1 mice fed a choline-deficient diet for 4 wk were used as an NAFLD model. We performed histologic and mRNA expression analyses, immunochemical staining with single muscle fibers to assess the effect of NAFLD on muscle Pax7+ SCs, and muscle regeneration by intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin.
    RESULTS: We found that the total number of Pax7+ SCs in the extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscles of mice with NAFLD was significantly decreased when compared with that in the control group, in which the depletion of the SC pool possibly impaired muscle regeneration, as evidenced by the smaller size of the regenerating myofibers. Importantly, we found that NAFLD significantly impaired the differentiation ability of SCs, as shown by a decreased number of SCs expressing a myogenic marker, MyoD. Finally, this study indicated that molecular mechanisms underlying a decline in SC numbers may be attributed to the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα]) and an oxidative stress marker (NADPH oxidase-2 [NOX2\) in mice with NAFLD.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that a decrease in SC content in the skeletal muscle is an important factor that contributes to muscle wasting in NAFLD. Thus, preservation of the muscle SC pool is a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce NAFLD-associated muscle wasting.
    Keywords:  Choline-deficient diet; Muscle atrophy; Muscle regeneration; NAFLD; Satellite cell
  12. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2022 Jan 18. pii: S1084-9521(22)00004-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      The biogenesis of mitochondria requires the coordinated expression of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genomes. However, the vast majority of gene products within the organelle are encoded in the nucleus, synthesized in the cytosol, and imported into mitochondria via the protein import machinery, which permit the entry of proteins to expand the mitochondrial network. Once inside, proteins undergo a maturation and folding process brought about by enzymes comprising the unfolded protein response (UPRmt). Protein import and UPRmt activity must be synchronized and matched with mtDNA-encoded subunit synthesis for proper assembly of electron transport chain complexes to avoid proteotoxicity. This review discusses the functions of the import and UPRmt systems in mammalian skeletal muscle, as well as how exercise alters the equilibrium of these pathways in a time-dependent manner, leading to a new steady state of mitochondrial content resulting in enhanced oxidative capacity and improved muscle health.
    Keywords:  Adaptation; Exercise; Mitochondrial biogenesis; Protein folding; Protein import machinery; Proteostasis
  13. Nat Commun. 2022 Jan 20. 13(1): 424
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Syntaxin 4 (STX4) levels are reduced in human diabetic skeletal muscle, and global transgenic enrichment of STX4 expression improves insulin sensitivity in mice. Here, we show that transgenic skeletal muscle-specific STX4 enrichment (skmSTX4tg) in mice reverses established insulin resistance and improves mitochondrial function in the context of diabetogenic stress. Specifically, skmSTX4tg reversed insulin resistance caused by high-fat diet (HFD) without altering body weight or food consumption. Electron microscopy of wild-type mouse muscle revealed STX4 localisation at or proximal to the mitochondrial membrane. STX4 enrichment prevented HFD-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction through a mechanism involving STX4-Drp1 interaction and elevated AMPK-mediated phosphorylation at Drp1 S637, which favors fusion. Our findings challenge the dogma that STX4 acts solely at the plasma membrane, revealing that STX4 localises at/proximal to and regulates the function of mitochondria in muscle. These results establish skeletal muscle STX4 enrichment as a candidate therapeutic strategy to reverse peripheral insulin resistance.
  14. Ann Geriatr Med Res. 2022 Jan 18.
      Muscle aging ultimately leads to the deterioration of human physiological functioning, including declining muscle strength, loss of muscle mass, and decreased quality of life in advanced age. Eccentric exercise is a key intervention that has the potential to ameliorate this problem. Recent studies have focused on evidence-based exercise interventions to prevent declines in muscle strength and physical function in older adults. This paper reviewed relevant literature on the use of eccentric exercise to improve muscle and mobility function in older adults. We explained not only the changes in mobility that occur with aging but also the rationale for and positive effects of eccentric intervention in older adults. We also explored several proposed mechanisms for the intramuscular changes caused by eccentric muscle contraction and considered the safety and side effects accompanying eccentric training. We concluded by suggesting that eccentric exercise is an exercise modality that can potentially improve muscle strength and enhance mobility in older adults.
    Keywords:  Aging; Exercise; Mobility; Muscle
  15. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 790437
      Loss of muscle mass and strength contributes to decreased independence and an increased risk for morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy therefore has significant clinical and therapeutic implications. Fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) are a skeletal muscle resident stem cell population that have recently been shown to play vital roles in muscle regeneration and muscle hypertrophy; however, the role that these cells play in muscle disuse atrophy is not well understood. We investigated the role of FAPs in disuse atrophy in vivo utilizing a 2-week single hindlimb immobilization model. RNA-seq was performed on FAPs isolated from the immobilized and non-immobilized limb. The RNAseq data show that IL-1β is significantly upregulated in FAPs following 2 weeks of immobilization, which we confirmed using droplet-digital PCR (ddPCR). We further validated the RNA-seq and ddPCR data from muscle in situ using RNAscope technology. IL-1β is recognized as a key component of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, or SASP. We then tested the hypothesis that FAPs from the immobilized limb would show elevated senescence measured by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (Cdkn2a) expression as a senescence marker. The ddPCR and RNAscope data both revealed increased Cdkn2a expression in FAPs with immobilization. These data suggest that the gene expression profile of FAPs is significantly altered with disuse, and that disuse itself may drive senescence in FAPs further contributing to muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  RNA-seq; SASP; atrophy; disuse; progenitor cell
  16. Diabetes. 2022 Jan 14. pii: db200814. [Epub ahead of print]
      Dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism influences whole body insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. We hypothesized that type 2 diabetes-associated alterations in the plasma metabolome directly contributes to skeletal muscle immunometabolism and the subsequent development of insulin resistance. To this end, we analyzed the plasma and skeletal muscle metabolite profile and identified glutamine as a key amino acid that was inversely correlating with body mass index (BMI) and HOMA-IR index in people with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Using an in vitro model of human myotubes and an in vivo model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice, we provide evidence that glutamine levels directly influence the inflammatory response of skeletal muscle and regulates the expression of the adaptor protein GRB10, an inhibitor of insulin signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that a systemic increase of glutamine levels in a mouse model of obesity improves insulin sensitivity and restores glucose homeostasis. We conclude that glutamine supplementation may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent or delay the onset of insulin resistance in obesity by reducing inflammatory markers and promoting skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity.
  17. Geroscience. 2022 Jan 15.
      Age-related muscle mass and strength decline (sarcopenia) impairs the performance of daily living activities and can lead to mobility disability/limitation in older adults. Biological pathways in muscle that lead to mobility problems have not been fully elucidated. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) infiltration in muscle is a known marker of increased fiber membrane permeability and damage vulnerability, but whether this translates to impaired function is unknown. Here, we report that IgG1 and IgG4 are abundantly present in the skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) of ~ 50% (11 out of 23) of older adults (> 65 years) examined. Skeletal muscle IgG1 was inversely correlated with physical performance (400 m walk time: r = 0.74, p = 0.005; SPPB score: r =  - 0.73, p = 0.006) and muscle strength (r =  - 0.6, p = 0.05). In a murine model, IgG was found to be higher in both muscle and blood of older, versus younger, C57BL/6 mice. Older mice with a higher level of muscle IgG had lower motor activity. IgG in mouse muscle co-localized with cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and markers of complement activation and apoptosis/necroptosis. Skeletal muscle-inducible cTnT knockin mice also showed elevated IgG in muscle and an accelerated muscle degeneration and motor activity decline with age. Most importantly, anti-cTnT autoantibodies were detected in the blood of cTnT knockin mice, old mice, and older humans. Our findings suggest a novel cTnT-mediated autoimmune response may be an indicator of sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  Autoimmunity; Cardiac troponin T; Mice; Older adults; Sarcopenia; Transgenic mice
  18. Genes (Basel). 2021 Dec 28. pii: 81. [Epub ahead of print]13(1):
      SPX (spexin) and its receptors GalR2 and GalR3 (galanin receptor subtype 2 and galanin receptor subtype 3) play an important role in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in human and animal fat tissue. However, little is still known about the role of this peptide in the metabolism of muscle. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of SPX on the metabolism, proliferation and differentiation of the skeletal muscle cell line C2C12. Moreover, we determined the effect of exercise on the SPX transduction pathway in mice skeletal muscle. We found that increased SPX, acting via GalR2 and GalR3 receptors, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation stimulated the proliferation of C2C12 cells (p < 0.01). We also noted that SPX stimulated the differentiation of C2C12 by increasing mRNA and protein levels of differentiation markers Myh, myogenin and MyoD (p < 0.01). SPX consequently promoted myoblast fusion into the myotubule (p < 0.01). Moreover, we found that, in the first stage (after 2 days) of myocyte differentiation, GalR2 and GalR3 were involved, whereas in the last stage (day six), the effect of SPX was mediated by the GalR3 isoform. We also noted that exercise stimulated SPX and GalR2 expression in mice skeletal muscle as well as an increase in SPX concentration in blood serum. These new insights may contribute to a better understanding of the role of SPX in the metabolism of skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  C2C12 cells; differentiation; skeletal muscle; spexin
  19. Biomedicines. 2022 Jan 07. pii: 126. [Epub ahead of print]10(1):
      Exercise and physical activity induces physiological responses in organisms, and adaptations in skeletal muscle, which is beneficial for maintaining health and preventing and/or treating most chronic diseases. These adaptations are mainly instigated by transcriptional responses that ensue in reaction to each individual exercise, either resistance or endurance. Consequently, changes in key metabolic, regulatory, and myogenic genes in skeletal muscle occur as both an early and late response to exercise, and these epigenetic modifications, which are influenced by environmental and genetic factors, trigger those alterations in the transcriptional responses. DNA methylation and histone modifications are the most significant epigenetic changes described in gene transcription, linked to the skeletal muscle transcriptional response to exercise, and mediating the exercise adaptations. Nevertheless, other alterations in the epigenetics markers, such as epitranscriptomics, modifications mediated by miRNAs, and lactylation as a novel epigenetic modification, are emerging as key events for gene transcription. Here, we provide an overview and update of the impact of exercise on epigenetic modifications, including the well-described DNA methylations and histone modifications, and the emerging modifications in the skeletal muscle. In addition, we describe the effects of exercise on epigenetic markers in other metabolic tissues; also, we provide information about how systemic metabolism or its metabolites influence epigenetic modifications in the skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  epigenetics; exercise; metabolism; physical activity; skeletal muscle
  20. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2022 Jan 21.
      BACKGROUND: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), a key enzyme in NAD salvage pathway is decreased in metabolic diseases, and its precise role in skeletal muscle function is not known. We tested the hypothesis, Nampt activation by P7C3 (3,6-dibromo-α-[(phenylamino)methyl]-9H-carbazol-9-ethanol) ameliorates diabetes and muscle function.METHODS: We assessed the functional, morphometric, biochemical, and molecular effects of P7C3 treatment in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice. Nampt+/- mice were utilized to test the specificity of P7C3.
    RESULTS: Insulin resistance increased 1.6-fold in diabetic mice compared with wild-type mice and after 4 weeks treatment with P7C3 rescued diabetes (P < 0.05). In the db-P7C3 mice fasting blood glucose levels decreased to 0.96-fold compared with C57Bl/6J wild-type naïve control mice. The insulin and glucose tolerance tests blood glucose levels were decreased to 0.6-fold and 0.54-folds, respectively, at 120 min along with an increase in insulin secretion (1.76-fold) and pancreatic β-cells (3.92-fold) in db-P7C3 mice. The fore-limb and hind-limb grip strengths were increased to 1.13-fold and 1.17-fold, respectively, together with a 14.2-fold increase in voluntary running wheel distance in db-P7C3 mice. P7C3 treatment resulted in a 1.4-fold and 7.1-fold increase in medium-sized and larger-sized myofibres cross-sectional area, with a concomitant 0.5-fold decrease in smaller-sized myofibres of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. The transmission electron microscopy images also displayed a 1.67-fold increase in myofibre diameter of extensor digitorum longus muscle along with 2.9-fold decrease in mitochondrial area in db-P7C3 mice compared with db-Veh mice. The number of SDH positive myofibres were increased to 1.74-fold in db-P7C3 TA muscles. The gastrocnemius and TA muscles displayed a decrease in slow oxidative myosin heavy chain type1 (MyHC1) myofibres expression (0.46-fold) and immunostaining (6.4-fold), respectively. qPCR analysis displayed a 2.9-fold and 1.3-fold increase in Pdk4 and Cpt1, and 0.55-fold and 0.59-fold decrease in Fgf21 and 16S in db-P7C3 mice. There was also a 3.3-fold and 1.9-fold increase in Fabp1 and CD36 in db-Veh mice. RNA-seq differential gene expression volcano plot displayed 1415 genes to be up-regulated and 1726 genes down-regulated (P < 0.05) in db-P7C3 mice. There was 1.02-fold increase in serum HDL, and 0.9-fold decrease in low-density lipoprotein/very low-density lipoprotein ratio in db-P7C3 mice. Lipid profiling of gastrocnemius muscle displayed a decrease in inflammatory lipid mediators n-6; AA (0.83-fold), and n-3; DHA (0.69-fold) and EPA (0.81-fold), and a 0.66-fold decrease in endocannabinoid 2-AG and 2.0-fold increase in AEA in db-P7C3 mice.
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we demonstrate that P7C3 activates Nampt, improves type 2 diabetes and skeletal muscle function in db/db mice.
    Keywords:  Insulin sensitivity; Nampt; P7C3; Pathophysiology; Physical performance; Skeletal muscle
  21. Mol Med Rep. 2022 Mar;pii: 94. [Epub ahead of print]25(3):
      Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), amplified by iterative heating processing with fresh ginseng, has a broad range of pharmacological activities and improves mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. However, thus far no study has examined how Rg3 affects myotube growth or muscle atrophy, to the best of the authors' knowledge. The present study was conducted to examine the myogenic effect of Rg3 on dexamethasone (DEX)‑induced myotube atrophy and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rg3 activated Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling to prevent DEX‑induced myotube atrophy thereby stimulating the expression of muscle‑specific genes, including myosin heavy chain and myogenin, and suppressing muscle‑specific ubiquitin ligases as demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunostaining assays. Furthermore, Rg3 efficiently prevented DEX‑triggered mitochondrial dysfunction of myotubes through peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ coactivator1α activities and its mitochondrial biogenetic transcription factors, nuclear respiratory factor‑1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A. These were confirmed by immunoblotting, luciferase assays, RT‑qPCR and mitochondrial analysis measuring the levels of ROS, ATP and membrane potential. By providing a mechanistic insight into the effect of Rg3 on myotube atrophy, the present study suggested that Rg3 has potential as a therapeutic or nutraceutical remedy to intervene in muscle aging or diseases including cancer cachexia.
    Keywords:  PGC1‑α; glucocorticoids; mitochondria; muscle atrophy; myotube growth
  22. Matrix Biol. 2022 Jan 16. pii: S0945-053X(22)00003-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      The regulation of skeletal muscle growth following pro-hypertrophic stimuli requires a coordinated response by different cell types that leads to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and increases in muscle cross-sectional area. Indeed, matricellular proteins serve a key role as communication vehicles that facilitate the propagation of signaling stimuli required for muscle adaptation to environmental challenges. We found that the matricellular protein cellular communication network factor 2 (CCN2), also known as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), is induced during a time course of overload-driven skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice. To elucidate the role of CCN2 in mediating the hypertrophic response, we utilized genetically engineered mouse models for myofiber-specific CCN2 gain- and loss-of-function and then examined their response to mechanical stimuli through muscle overload. Interestingly, myofiber-specific deletion of CCN2 blunted muscle's hypertrophic response to overload without interfering with ECM deposition. On the other hand, when in excess through transgenic CCN2 overexpression, CCN2 was efficient in promoting overload-induced aberrant ECM accumulation without affecting myofiber growth. Altogether, our genetic approaches highlighted independent ECM and myofiber stress adaptation responses, and positioned CCN2 as a central mediator of both. Mechanistically, CCN2 acts by regulating focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mediated transduction of overload-induced extracellular signals, including interleukin 6 (IL6), and their regulatory impact on global protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Overall, our study highlights the contribution of muscle-derived extracellular matrix factor CCN2 for proper hypertrophic muscle growth.
    Keywords:  CCN2; CTGF; fibrosis; hypertrophy; muscle
  23. Sci Rep. 2022 Jan 17. 12(1): 827
      In vitro skeletal muscle cell production is emerging in the field of artificial lab-grown meat as alternative future food. Currently, there is an urgent paradigm shift towards a serum replacement culture system. Surprisingly, little is known about the impact of serum-free culture on skeletal muscle cells to date. Therefore, we performed metabolic profiling of the C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes in serum-free mediums (B27, AIM-V) and compared it with conventional serum supplementation culture. Furthermore, cell morphology, viability, and myogenic differentiation were observed for 7 days of cultivation. Intriguingly, the metabolic difference is more dominant between the cell status than medium effects. In addition, proliferative myoblast showed more distinct metabolic differences than differentiated myotubes in different culture conditions. The intracellular levels of GL3P and UDP-GlcNAc were significantly increased in myotubes versus myoblast. Non-essential amino acids and pyruvate reduction and transamination showed significant differences among serum, B27, and AIM-V cultures. Intracellular metabolite profiles indicated that C2C12 myotubes cultured in serum and B27 had predominant glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, respectively, indicating fast and slow types of muscle confirmed by MHC immunostaining. This work might be helpful to understand the altered metabolism of skeletal muscle cells in serum-free culture and contribute to future artificial meat research work.
  24. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Dec 28. pii: 66. [Epub ahead of print]11(1):
      Denervated muscle atrophy is a common clinical disease that has no effective treatments. Our previous studies have found that oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in the process of denervated muscle atrophy. Extracellular vesicles derived from skin precursor-derived Schwann cells (SKP-SC-EVs) contain a large amount of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory factors. This study explored whether SKP-SC-EVs alleviate denervated muscle atrophy by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. In vitro studies have found that SKP-SC-EVs can be internalized and caught by myoblasts to promote the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Nutrient deprivation can cause myotube atrophy, accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation. However, SKP-SC-EVs can inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation caused by nutritional deprivation and subsequently relieve myotube atrophy. Moreover, there is a remarkable dose-effect relationship. In vivo studies have found that SKP-SC-EVs can significantly inhibit a denervation-induced decrease in the wet weight ratio and myofiber cross-sectional area of target muscles. Furthermore, SKP-SC-EVs can dramatically inhibit highly expressed Muscle RING Finger 1 and Muscle Atrophy F-box in target muscles under denervation and reduce the degradation of the myotube heavy chain. SKP-SC-EVs may reduce mitochondrial vacuolar degeneration and autophagy in denervated muscles by inhibiting autophagy-related proteins (i.e., PINK1, BNIP3, LC3B, and ATG7). Moreover, SKP-SC-EVs may improve microvessels and blood perfusion in denervated skeletal muscles by enhancing the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. SKP-SC-EVs can also significantly inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in target muscles after denervation, which indicates that SKP-SC-EVs elicit their role by upregulating Nrf2 and downregulating ROS production-related factors (Nox2 and Nox4). In addition, SKP-SC-EVs can significantly reduce the levels of interleukin 1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor α in target muscles. To conclude, SKP-SC-EVs may alleviate the decrease of target muscle blood perfusion and passivate the activities of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory response, then reduce skeletal muscle atrophy caused by denervation. This study not only enriches the molecular regulation mechanism of denervated muscle atrophy, but also provides a scientific basis for SKP-SC-EVs as a protective drug to prevent and treat muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  SKP-SC-EVs; denervated muscle atrophy; inflammation; microcirculation; oxidative stress
  25. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2022 Jan 17.
      Skeletal muscle cells can both gain and lose volume during periods of exercise and rest. Muscle cells do not behave as perfect osmometers because the cell volume changes are less than predicted from the change in extracellular osmolality. Therefore, there are mechanisms involved in regulating cell volume, and they are different for regulatory volume decreases and regulatory volume increases. Also, after an initial rapid change in cell volume, there is a gradual and partial recovery of cell volume that is effected by ion and water transport mechanisms. The mechanisms have been studied in non-contracting muscle cells, but remain to be fully elucidated in contracting muscle. Changes in muscle cell volume are known to affect the strength of contractile activity as well as anabolic/catabolic signaling, perhaps indicating that cell volume should be a regulated variable in skeletal muscle cells. Muscles contracting at moderate to high intensity gain intracellular volume because of increased intracellular osmolality. Concurrent increases in interstitial (extracellular) muscle volume occur from an increase in osmotically active molecules and increased vascular filtration pressure. At the same time, non-contracting muscles lose cell volume because of increased extracellular (blood) osmolality. This review provides the physiological foundations and highlights key concepts that underpin our current understanding of volume regulatory processes in skeletal muscle, beginning with consideration of osmosis more than 200 years ago and continuing through to the process of regulatory volume decrease and regulatory volume increase.
    Keywords:  History of exercise; Muscle ion transport; Regulatory volume decrease; Regulatory volume increase; Skeletal muscle
  26. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Jan 07. pii: S0006-291X(22)00005-5. [Epub ahead of print]592 87-92
      We screened pre-approved drugs for the survival of the Hu5/KD3 human myogenic progenitors. We found that meclozine, an anti-histamine drug that has long been used for motion sickness, promoted the proliferation and survival of Hu5/KD3 cells. Meclozine increased expression of MyoD, but reduced expression of myosin heavy chain and suppressed myotube formation. Withdrawal of meclozine, however, resumed the ability of Hu5/KD3 cells to differentiate into myotubes. We examined the effects of meclozine on mdx mouse carrying a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene and modeling for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Intragastric administration of meclozine in mdx mouse increased the body weight, the muscle mass in the lower limbs, the cross-sectional area of the paravertebral muscle, and improved exercise performances. Previous reports show that inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK1/2 improves muscle functions in mouse models for Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and cancer cachexia, as well as in mdx mice. We and others previously showed that meclozine blocks the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in cultured cells. We currently showed that meclozine decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in muscles in mdx mice but not in wild-type mice. This was likely to be one of the underlying mechanisms of the effects of meclozine on mdx mice.
    Keywords:  Drug repositioning; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Meclozine
  27. FASEB J. 2022 Feb;36(2): e22155
      The extracellular matrix (ECM) in skeletal muscle plays an integral role in tissue development, structural support, and force transmission. For successful adaptation to mechanical loading, remodeling processes must occur. In a large cohort of older adults, transcriptomics revealed that genes involved in ECM remodeling, including matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14), were the most upregulated following 14 weeks of progressive resistance exercise training (PRT). Using single-cell RNA-seq, we identified macrophages as a source of Mmp14 in muscle following a hypertrophic exercise stimulus in mice. In vitro contractile activity in myotubes revealed that the gene encoding cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is robustly upregulated and can stimulate Mmp14 expression in macrophages. Functional experiments confirmed that modulation of this muscle cell-macrophage axis facilitated Type I collagen turnover. Finally, changes in LIF expression were significantly correlated with MMP14 expression in humans following 14 weeks of PRT. Our experiments reveal a mechanism whereby muscle fibers influence macrophage behavior to promote ECM remodeling in response to mechanical loading.
    Keywords:  extracellular matrix remodeling; macrophage; muscle hypertrophy; scRNA-seq
  28. Metabolites. 2022 Jan 16. pii: 84. [Epub ahead of print]12(1):
      Dexamethasone (DEX) induces dysregulation of protein turnover, leading to muscle atrophy and impairment of glucose metabolism. Positive protein balance, i.e., rate of protein synthesis exceeding rate of protein degradation, can be induced by dietary essential amino acids (EAAs). In this study, we investigated the roles of an EAA-enriched diet in the regulation of muscle proteostasis and its impact on glucose metabolism in the DEX-induced muscle atrophy model. Mice were fed normal chow or EAA-enriched chow and were given daily injections of DEX over 10 days. We determined muscle mass and functions using treadmill running and ladder climbing exercises, protein kinetics using the D2O labeling method, molecular signaling using immunoblot analysis, and glucose metabolism using a U-13C6 glucose tracer during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The EAA-enriched diet increased muscle mass, strength, and myofibrillar protein synthesis rate, concurrent with improved glucose metabolism (i.e., reduced plasma insulin concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity) during the OGTT. The U-13C6 glucose tracing revealed that the EAA-enriched diet increased glucose uptake and subsequent glycolytic flux. In sum, our results demonstrate a vital role for the EAA-enriched diet in alleviating the DEX-induced muscle atrophy through stimulation of myofibrillar proteins synthesis, which was associated with improved glucose metabolism.
    Keywords:  dexamethasone; essential amino acids; glucose metabolic flux; muscle atrophy; protein turnover
  29. Cells. 2022 Jan 08. pii: 206. [Epub ahead of print]11(2):
      Skeletal muscle is perceived as a major tissue in glucose and lipid metabolism. High fat diet (HFD) lead to the accumulation of intramuscular lipids, including: long chain acyl-CoA, diacylglycerols, and ceramides. Ceramides are considered to be one of the most important lipid groups in the generation of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. So far, it has not been clearly established whether all ceramides adversely affect the functioning of the insulin pathway, or whether there are certain ceramide species that play a pivotal role in the induction of insulin resistance. Therefore, we designed a study in which the expression of CerS1 and CerS5 genes responsible for the synthesis of C18:0-Cer and C16:0-Cer, respectively, was locally silenced in the gastrocnemius muscle of HFD-fed mice through in vivo electroporation-mediated shRNA plasmids. Our study indicates that HFD feeding induced both, the systemic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance, which was accompanied by an increase in the intramuscular lipid levels, decreased activation of the insulin pathway and, consequently, a decrease in the skeletal muscle glucose uptake. CerS1 silencing leads to a reduction in C18:0-Cer content, with a subsequent increase in the activity of the insulin pathway, and an improvement in skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Such effects were not visible in case of CerS5 silencing, which indicates that the accumulation of C18:0-Cer plays a decisive role in the induction of skeletal muscle insulin resistance.
    Keywords:  ceramides; gene silencing; insulin resistance; mass spectrometry; skeletal muscle
  30. PLoS One. 2022 ;17(1): e0262875
      With the renewed interest in low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) in the sports field, a few animal studies have investigated their potential. However, most rodent studies have used an LCD containing low protein, which does not recapitulate a human LCD, and the muscle-specific adaptation in response to an LCD remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of two types of LCDs, both containing the same proportion of protein as a regular diet (isonitrogenous LCD; INLCD), on body composition, exercise performance, and metabolic fuel selection at the genetic level in the skeletal muscles of exercise-trained mice. Three groups of mice (n = 8 in each group), one fed a regular AIN-93G diet served as the control, and the others fed either of the two INLCDs containing 20% protein and 10% carbohydrate (INLCD-10%) or 20% protein and 1% carbohydrate (INLCD-1%) had a regular exercise load (5 times/week) for 12 weeks. Body weight and muscle mass did not decrease in either of the INLCD-fed groups, and the muscle glycogen levels and endurance capacity did not differ among the three groups. Only in the mice fed INLCD-1% did the plasma ketone concentration significantly increase, and gene expression related to glucose utilization significantly declined in the muscles. Both INLCD-1% and INLCD-10% consumption increased gene expression related to lipid utilization. These results suggest that, although INLCD treatment did not affect endurance capacity, it helped maintain muscle mass and glycogen content regardless of the glucose intake restrictions in trained mice. Moreover, an INLCD containing a low carbohydrate content might present an advantage by increasing lipid oxidation without ketosis and suppressing muscle glucose utilization.
  31. Biochem J. 2022 Jan 20. pii: BCJ20210700. [Epub ahead of print]
      There has been a concern that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors could reduce skeletal muscle mass and function. Here, we examine the effect of canagliflozin (CANA), an SGLT2 inhibitor, on slow and fast muscles from nondiabetic C57BL/6J mice. In this study, mice were fed with or without CANA under ad libitum feeding, and then evaluated for metabolic valuables as well as slow and fast muscle mass and function. We also examined the effect of CANA on gene expressions and metabolites in slow and fast muscles. During SGLT2 inhibition, fast muscle function is increased, as accompanied by increased food intake, whereas slow muscle function is unaffected, although slow and fast muscle mass is maintained. When the amount of food in CANA-treated mice is adjusted to that in vehicle-treated mice, fast muscle mass and function are reduced, but slow muscle was unaffected during SGLT2 inhibition. In metabolome analysis, glycolytic metabolites and ATP are increased in fast muscle, whereas glycolytic metabolites are reduced but ATP is maintained in slow muscle during SGLT2 inhibition. Amino acids and free fatty acids are increased in slow muscle, but unchanged in fast muscle during SGLT2 inhibition. The metabolic effects on slow and fast muscles are exaggerated when food intake is restricted. This study demonstrates the differential effects of an SGLT2 inhibitor on slow and fast muscles independent of impaired glucose metabolism, thereby providing new insights into how they should be used in patients with diabetes, who are at a high risk of sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  SGLT2 inhibitor; fast muscle; metabolomics; skeletal muscle; slow muscle
  32. Aging Cell. 2022 Jan 20. e13552
      BACKGROUND: Muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with poor mobility in aging. Whether mitochondrial dysfunction predicts subsequent mobility decline is unknown.METHODS: We examined 380 cognitively normal participants aged 60 and older (53%women, 22%Black) who were well-functioning (gait speed ≥ 1.0 m/s) and free of Parkinson's disease and stroke at baseline and had data on baseline skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and one or more mobility assessments during an average 2.5 years. Muscle oxidative capacity was measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy as the post-exercise recovery rate of phosphocreatine (kPCr ). Mobility was measured by four walking tests. Associations of baseline kPCr with mobility changes were examined using linear mixed-effects models, adjusted for covariates. In a subset, we examined whether changes in muscle strength and mass affected these associations by adjusting for longitudinal muscle strength, lean mass, and fat mass.
    RESULTS: Lower baseline kPCr was associated with greater decline in all four mobility measures (β, p-value: (0.036, 0.020) 6-m usual gait speed; (0.029, 0.038) 2.5-min usual gait speed; (0.034, 0.011) 6-m rapid gait speed; (-0.042, <0.001) 400-m time). In the subset, further adjustment for longitudinal muscle strength, lean mass, and fat mass attenuated longitudinal associations with changes in mobility (Δβ reduced 26-63%).
    CONCLUSION: Among initially well-functioning older adults, worse muscle mitochondrial function predicts mobility decline, and part of this longitudinal association is explained by decline in muscle strength and mass. Our findings suggest that worse mitochondrial function contributes to mobility decline with aging. These findings need to be verified in studies correlating longitudinal changes in mitochondrial function, muscle, and mobility performance.
    Keywords:  magnetic resonance spectroscopy; mitochondrial energetics; mobility decline; skeletal muscle; walking speed
  33. FASEB J. 2022 Feb;36(2): e22133
      Shift-workers show an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A possible mechanism is the disruption of the circadian timing of glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function is modulated by the molecular clock. We used time-restricted feeding (TRF) during the inactive phase to investigate how mistimed feeding affects muscle mitochondrial metabolism. Rats on an ad libitum (AL) diet were compared to those that could eat only during the light (inactive) or dark (active) phase. Mitochondrial respiration, metabolic gene expressions, and metabolite concentrations were determined in the soleus muscle. Rats on AL feeding or dark-fed TRF showed a clear daily rhythm in muscle mitochondrial respiration. This rhythm in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity was abolished in light-fed TRF animals and overall 24h respiration was lower. The expression of several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and the fission/fusion machinery was altered in light-fed animals. Metabolomics analysis indicated that light-fed animals had lost rhythmic levels of α-ketoglutarate and citric acid. Contrastingly, lipidomics showed that light-fed animals abundantly gained rhythmicity in levels of triglycerides. Furthermore, while the RER shifted entirely with the food intake in the light-fed animals, many measured metabolic parameters (e.g., activity and mitochondrial respiration) did not strictly align with the shifted timing of food intake, resulting in a mismatch between expected metabolic supply/demand (as dictated by the circadian timing system and light/dark-cycle) and the actual metabolic supply/demand (as dictated by the timing of food intake). These data suggest that shift-work impairs mitochondrial metabolism and causes metabolic inflexibility, which can predispose to T2DM.
    Keywords:  lipidomics; metabolomics; mitochondrial respiration; soleus muscle; time-restricted feeding
  34. FEBS Open Bio. 2022 Jan 17.
      β2 -Adrenoceptor (β2 -AR) signaling decreases the transcriptional activity of forkhead box O (FoxO), but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated how β2 -AR signaling regulates the protein abundance of FoxO and its transcriptional activity in skeletal muscle. We observed that stimulation of β2 -AR with its selective agonist, clenbuterol, rapidly decreased FoxO1 mRNA expression, and this was accompanied by a decrease in either FoxO1 protein level or FoxO transcriptional activity. We subsequently observed that miR-374b-5p and miR-7a-1-3p were rapidly upregulated in response to β2 -AR stimulation. Transfection with mimics of either miRNA successfully decreased FoxO1 mRNA. Moreover, because β2 -AR stimulation increased cAMP concentration, pretreatment with an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor canceled out these effects of β2 -AR stimulation. These results suggest that β2 -AR stimulation results in rapid upregulation of miR-374b-5p and miR-7a-1-3p in myotubes, which in turn results in a decrease in FoxO1 mRNA expression via the β2 -AR-cAMP signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  FoxO; microRNA; skeletal muscle; ubiquitin ligase; β2-adrenoceptor
  35. Sci Rep. 2022 Jan 20. 12(1): 1082
      Contractile activity is a fundamental property of skeletal muscles. We describe the establishment of a "feeder-supported in vitro exercise model" using human-origin primary satellite cells, allowing highly-developed contractile myotubes to readily be generated by applying electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). The use of murine fibroblasts as the feeder cells allows biological responses to EPS in contractile human myotubes to be selectively evaluated with species-specific analyses such as RT-PCR. We successfully applied this feeder-supported co-culture system to myotubes derived from primary satellite cells obtained from sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) patients who are incapable of strenuous exercise testing. Our results demonstrated that sIBM myotubes possess essentially normal muscle functions, including contractility development, de novo sarcomere formation, and contraction-dependent myokine upregulation, upon EPS treatment. However, we found that some of sIBM myotubes, but not healthy control myotubes, often exhibit abnormal cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation upon EPS-evoked contraction, suggesting potential pathogenic involvement of the contraction-inducible TDP-43 distribution peculiar to sIBM. Thus, our "feeder-supported in vitro exercise model" enables us to obtain contractile human-origin myotubes, potentially utilizable for evaluating exercise-dependent intrinsic and pathogenic properties of patient muscle cells. Our approach, using feeder layers, further expands the usefulness of the "in vitro exercise model".
  36. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2022 Jan 17.
      Factors underpinning the time-course of resistance-type exercise training (RET) adaptations are not fully understood. The present study hypothesized that consuming a twice-daily protein-polyphenol beverage (PPB; n=15; age, 24 ± 1 years; BMI, 22.3 ± 0.7 kg·m-2) previously shown to accelerate recovery from muscle damage and increase daily myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) rates would accelerate early (10 sessions) improvements in muscle function and potentiate quadriceps volume and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (fCSA) following 30 unilateral RET sessions in healthy, recreationally active, adults. Versus isocaloric placebo (PLA; n=14; age, 25 ± 2 years; BMI, 23.9 ± 1.0 kg·m-2), PPB increased 48 h MyoPS rates after the first RET session measured using deuterated water (2.01 ± 0.15 %·d-1 vs. 1.51 ± 0.16 , respectively; P<0.05). Additionally, PPB increased isokinetic muscle function over 10 sessions of training relative to the untrained control leg (%U) from 99.9 ± 1.8 pre-training to 107.2 ± 2.4 %U at session 10 (versus 102.6 ± 3.9 to 100.8 ± 2.4 %U at session 10 in PLA; interaction P<0.05). Pre-to-post-training, PPB increased type II fCSA (PLA: 120.8 ± 8.2 to 109.5 ± 8.6 %U; PPB: 92.8 ± 6.2 to 108.4 ± 9.7 %U; interaction P<0.05), but the gain in quadriceps muscle volume was similar between groups. Similarly, PPB did not further increase peak isometric torque, muscle function or MyoPS measured post-training. This suggests that although PPB increases MyoPS and early adaptation, it may not influence longer term adaptations to unilateral RET.
    Keywords:  hypertrophy; protein synthesis; protein-polyphenol; resistance training; training adaptations
  37. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2022 Jan 15. 15353702211066908
      B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein is a member of BAG family of co-chaperones that modulates major biological processes, including apoptosis, autophagy, and development to promote cellular adaptive responses to stress stimuli. Although BAG3 is constitutively expressed in several cell types, its expression is also inducible and is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that mostly bind to the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of mRNAs to inhibit their translation or to promote their degradation. miRNAs can potentially regulate over 50% of the protein-coding genes in a cell and therefore are involved in the regulation of all major functions, including cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy. Dysregulation of miRNA expression is associated with pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including peripheral artery disease (PAD). BAG3 plays a critical role in regulating the response of skeletal muscle cells to ischemia by its ability to regulate autophagy. However, the biological role of miRNAs in the regulation of BAG3 in biological processes has only been elucidated recently. In this review, we discuss how miRNA may play a key role in regulating BAG3 expression under normal and pathological conditions.
    Keywords:  BAG3; MicroRNA; apoptosis; autophagy; gene regulation; peripheral artery disease; skeletal muscle
  38. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2022 Jan 20.
      A new framework is presented for comprehensive analysis of the three-dimensional shape and architecture of human skeletal muscles from magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging data. The framework comprises three key features: (1) identification of points on the surface of and inside a muscle that have a correspondence to points on and inside another muscle, (2) reconstruction of average muscle shape and average muscle fibre orientations, and (3) utilization of data on between-muscle variation to visualize and make statistical inferences about changes or differences in muscle shape and architecture. The general use of the framework is demonstrated by its application to three case studies. Analysis of data obtained before and after eight weeks of strength training revealed there was little regional variation in hypertrophy of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis, and no systematic change in pennation angle. Analysis of passive muscle lengthening revealed heterogeneous changes in shape of the medial gastrocnemius, and confirmed the ability of the methods to detect subtle changes in muscle fibre orientation. Analysis of the medial gastrocnemius of children with unilateral cerebral palsy showed that muscles in the more-affected limb were shorter, thinner and less wide than muscles in the less-affected limb, and had slightly more pennate muscle fibres in the central and proximal part of the muscle. Amongst other applications, the framework can be used to explore the mechanics of muscle contraction, investigate adaptations of muscle architecture, build anatomically realistic computational models of skeletal muscles, and compare muscle shape and architecture between species.
    Keywords:  diffusion tensor imaging; hypertrophy; magnetic resonance imaging; muscle architecture; shape analysis
  39. Sci Rep. 2022 Jan 17. 12(1): 848
      High expectations have been set on gene therapy with an AAV-delivered shortened version of dystrophin (µDys) for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), with several drug candidates currently undergoing clinical trials. Safety concerns with this therapeutic approach include the immune response to introduced dystrophin antigens observed in some DMD patients. Recent reports highlighted microutrophin (µUtrn) as a less immunogenic functional dystrophin substitute for gene therapy. In the current study, we created a human codon-optimized µUtrn which was subjected to side-by-side characterization with previously reported mouse and human µUtrn sequences after rAAV9 intramuscular injections in mdx mice. Long-term studies with systemic delivery of rAAV9-µUtrn demonstrated robust transgene expression in muscles, with localization to the sarcolemma, functional improvement of muscle performance, decreased creatine kinase levels, and lower immunogenicity as compared to µDys. An extensive toxicity study in wild-type rats did not reveal adverse changes associated with high-dose rAAV9 administration and human codon-optimized µUtrn overexpression. Furthermore, we verified that muscle-specific promoters MHCK7 and SPc5-12 drive a sufficient level of rAAV9-µUtrn expression to ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice. Our results provide ground for taking human codon-optimized µUtrn combined with muscle-specific promoters into clinical development as safe and efficient gene therapy for DMD.
  40. Ann Neurol. 2022 Jan 22.
      OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to elucidate the molecular features of inclusion body myositis (IBM).METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing analysis of muscle biopsy samples from 67 participants, consisting of 58 patients of myositis with the pathological finding of CD8-positive T cells invading non-necrotic muscle fibers expressing major histocompatibility complex class I (43 IBM, 6 polymyositis, and 9 unclassifiable myositis), and 9 controls.
    RESULTS: Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and pathway analysis showed that differentially expressed genes and pathways identified in IBM and polymyositis were mostly comparable. However, pathways related to cell adhesion molecules were upregulated in IBM as compared with polymyositis and controls (p < 0.01). Notably, CDH1, which encodes the epidermal cell junction protein cadherin 1, was overexpressed in the muscles of IBM, which was validated by another RNA-sequencing dataset from previous publications. Western blotting confirmed the presence of mature cadherin 1 protein in the muscles of IBM. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the positivity for anti-cadherin 1 antibody in the muscles of IBM while there was no muscle fiber positive for anti-cadherin 1 antibody in immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy, antisynthetase syndrome, and controls. The fibers stained with anti-cadherin 1 antibody did not have rimmed vacuoles or abnormal protein accumulation. Experimental skeletal muscle regeneration and differentiation systems showed that CDH1 is expressed during skeletal muscle regeneration and differentiation.
    INTERPRETATION: CDH1 was detected as a differentially expressed gene and immunohistochemistry showed that cadherin 1 exists in the muscles of IBM while it was rarely seen in those of other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Cadherin 1 upregulation in muscle could provide a valuable clue to the pathological mechanisms of IBM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  41. Biomolecules. 2022 Jan 10. pii: 109. [Epub ahead of print]12(1):
      Contraction of striated muscle is triggered by a massive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) into the cytoplasm. This intracellular calcium release is initiated by membrane depolarization, which is sensed by voltage-gated calcium channels CaV1.1 (in skeletal muscle) and CaV1.2 (in cardiac muscle) in the plasma membrane (PM), which in turn activate the calcium-releasing channel ryanodine receptor (RyR) embedded in the SR membrane. This cross-communication between channels in the PM and in the SR happens at specialized regions, the SR-PM junctions, where these two compartments come in close proximity. Junctophilin1 and Junctophilin2 are responsible for the formation and stabilization of SR-PM junctions in striated muscle and actively participate in the recruitment of the two essential players in intracellular calcium release, CaV and RyR. This short review focuses on the roles of junctophilins1 and 2 in the formation and organization of SR-PM junctions in skeletal and cardiac muscle and on the functional consequences of the absence or malfunction of these proteins in striated muscle in light of recently published data and recent advancements in protein structure prediction.
    Keywords:  ER-PM junctions; excitation-contraction coupling; junctophilins; striated muscle
  42. Histol Histopathol. 2022 Jan 19. 18422
      The contractile and metabolic properties of skeletal muscles depend on the composition of muscle fibers. There are two major fiber types: type 1 and type 2. Type 2 fibers are further subdivided into type 2A, 2X, and 2B fibers. Muscle fiber type composition is an important property that affects sports performance and metabolic ability in humans, and meat quality in domestic animals. In this review, we summarize the history of muscle fiber type classification based on various staining methods for skeletal muscle sections. The history illustrates the development of an experimental method to detect myosin heavy chain (MyHC) proteins, which are the most common marker molecules for muscle fiber type. Metabolic enzymes, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-tetrazolium reductase and succinate dehydrogenase are also described for histochemical staining combined with myosin ATPase staining. We found an improvement in the quality of antibodies used for immunostaining of MyHC, from polyclonal antibodies to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and then to mAbs produced by synthetic peptides as antigens. We believe that the information presented herein will assist researchers in selecting optimal staining methods, dependent on the experimental conditions and purposes.
  43. J Exerc Rehabil. 2021 Dec;17(6): 395-402
      The purpose of this study was to investigate whether combination of low-intensity exercise with bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation could regulate protein kinas B (Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Wnt3a-β-catenin signaling pathways for prevention of soleus muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve injury (SNI). The experimental rats divided into 5 groups (n=10): normal control group, SNI+sedentary group (SED), SNI+low-intensity treadmill exercise group (TEX), SNI+BMSC transplantation group (BMSC), SNI+TEX+BMSC transplantation group (TEX+BMSC). Sciatic nerve crush injury was applied into the middle of thigh twice for 1 min and 30 sec at interval. Low-intensity treadmill exercise was comprised of walking at a speed of 4 to 8 m/min for 30 min once a day. cultured BMSC at a density of 5×106 in 50-μL phosphate-buffered saline was injected into the distal portion of the injured sciatic nerves. TEX+BMSC group dramatically up-regulated expression levels of growth-associated protein-43 in the injured sciatic nerve at 2 weeks postinjury. Also, although Akt and mTOR signaling pathway significantly increased in TEX and BMSC groups than SED group, TEX+BMSC group showed more potent increment on this signaling in soleus muscle after SNI. Lastly, Wnt3a and the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and nuclear factor-kappa B in soleus were increased by SNI, but TEX+BMSC group significantly downregulated activity of this signaling pathway in the nuclear cell lysate of soleus muscle. Present findings provide new information that combination of low-intensity treadmill exercise might be effective therapeutic approach on restriction of soleus muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury.
    Keywords:  Bone marrow stromal cell transplantation; Sciatic nerve; Treadmill exercise; Wnt3a
  44. J Gen Physiol. 2022 Feb 07. pii: e202112990. [Epub ahead of print]154(2):
      Myofilaments and their associated proteins, which together constitute the sarcomeres, provide the molecular-level basis for contractile function in all muscle types. In intact muscle, sarcomere-level contraction is strongly coupled to other cellular subsystems, in particular the sarcolemmal membrane. Skinned muscle preparations (where the sarcolemma has been removed or permeabilized) are an experimental system designed to probe contractile mechanisms independently of the sarcolemma. Over the last few decades, experiments performed using permeabilized preparations have been invaluable for clarifying the understanding of contractile mechanisms in both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Today, the technique is increasingly harnessed for preclinical and/or pharmacological studies that seek to understand how interventions will impact intact muscle contraction. In this context, intrinsic functional and structural differences between skinned and intact muscle pose a major interpretational challenge. This review first surveys measurements that highlight these differences in terms of the sarcomere structure, passive and active tension generation, and calcium dependence. We then highlight the main practical challenges and caveats faced by experimentalists seeking to emulate the physiological conditions of intact muscle. Gaining an awareness of these complexities is essential for putting experiments in due perspective.