bims-moremu Biomed News
on Molecular regulators of muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒12‒05
thirty-six papers selected by
Anna Vainshtein
Craft Science Inc.

  1. Bio Protoc. 2021 Nov 05. 11(21): e4209
      LncRNAs have been recently implicated in the epigenetic control of muscle differentiation and their functional characterization has traditionally relied upon in vitro models of myogenic differentiation. However, the use of experimental paradigms to specifically target lncRNAs expression in muscle stem cells (MuSCs), also known as satellite cells, represents an important requisite to interrogate their function in more physiological contexts. Since isolation and culture of single myofibers preserves satellite cells within their physiological niche underneath the surrounding basal lamina, this procedure represents the optimal approach to follow satellite cell dynamics ex-vivo, such as activation from quiescence, expansion of committed progenitors, differentiation, and self-renewal. Here, we detail an optimized protocol to isolate viable single myofibers from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) skeletal muscle of adult mice and to manipulate the expression of lncRNAs by antisense LNA GapmeRs-mediated knock-down (KD). Furthermore, we describe a method of EdU incorporation that, coupled to lncRNA KD and subsequent immunofluorescence analysis of proliferating, differentiating, and satellite cell-specific markers, permits the inference of lncRNAs function on muscle stem cells dynamics. Graphic abstract: Graphical representation of the single myofiber isolation method. Experimental workflow showing the main steps of the protocol procedure: EDL muscle harvesting from the mouse hindlimb; EDL digestion into single myofibers; transfection with antisense oligos and culture for 96h; immunofluorescence protocol and image outcome.
    Keywords:  EdU; Immunofluorescence; Knockdown; LncRNA; Mouse; Satellite cells; Single myofiber; Skeletal muscle
  2. FEBS J. 2021 Dec 01.
      CCAAT/Enhancer Binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) is a transcriptional regulator involved in numerous physiological processes. Herein, we describe a role for C/EBPβ as a regulator of skeletal muscle stem cell function. In particular, C/EBPβ is expressed in muscle stem cells in healthy muscle where it inhibits myogenic differentiation. Downregulation of C/EBPβ expression at the protein and transcriptional level allows for differentiation. Persistence of C/EBPβ promotes stem cell self-renewal and C/EBPβ expression is required for mitotic quiescence in this cell population. As a critical regulator of skeletal muscle homeostasis, C/EBPβ expression is stimulated in pathological conditions such as cancer cachexia, which perturbs muscle regeneration and promotes myofiber atrophy in the context of systemic inflammation. C/EBPβ is also an important regulator of cytokine expression and immune response genes, a mechanism by which it can influence muscle stem cell function. In this viewpoint, we describe a role for C/EBPβ in muscle stem cells and propose a functional intersection between C/EBPβ and NF-kB action in the regulation of cancer cachexia.
    Keywords:  CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein beta; muscle regeneration; NF-kB; cancer cachexia; muscle satellite cells
  3. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Nov 29. 12(12): 1115
      Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, termed sarcopenia, could impair the quality of life in the elderly. The mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle aging are intricate and largely unknown. However, more and more evidence demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis also play an important role in skeletal muscle aging. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU)-mediated mitochondrial calcium affects skeletal muscle mass and function by affecting mitochondrial function. During aging, we observed downregulated expression of mitochondrial calcium uptake family member3 (MICU3) in skeletal muscle, a regulator of MCU, which resulted in a significant reduction in mitochondrial calcium uptake. However, the role of MICU3 in skeletal muscle aging remains poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of MICU3 on the skeletal muscle of aged mice and senescent C2C12 cells induced by D-gal. Downregulation of MICU3 was associated with decreased myogenesis but increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Reconstitution of MICU3 enhanced antioxidants, prevented the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS, decreased apoptosis, and increased myogenesis. These findings indicate that MICU3 might promote mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and function, attenuate oxidative stress and apoptosis, and restore skeletal muscle mass and function. Therefore, MICU3 may be a potential therapeutic target in skeletal muscle aging.
  4. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2021 Dec 01.
      OBJECTIVES: Myocardial infarction (MI)-induced heart failure (HF) is commonly accompanied with profound effects on skeletal muscle. With the process of MI-induced HF, perturbations in skeletal muscle contribute to muscle atrophy. Exercise is viewed as a feasible strategy to prevent muscle atrophy. The aims of this study were to investigate whether exercise could alleviate MI-induced skeletal muscle atrophy via insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathway in mice.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57/BL6 mice were used to establish the MI model and divided into three groups: sedentary MI group, MI with aerobic exercise group and MI with resistance exercise group, sham-operated group was used as control. Exercise-trained animals were subjected to four-weeks of aerobic exercise (AE) or resistance exercise (RE). Cardiac function, muscle weight, myofiber size, levels of IGF-1 signaling and proteins related to myogenesis, protein synthesis and degradation and cell apoptosis in gastrocnemius muscle were detected. And H2O2-treated C2C12 cells were intervened with recombinant human IGF-1, IGF-1R inhibitor NVP-AEW541 and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 to explore the mechanism. Results:Exercises up-regulated the IGF-1/IGF-1R-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling, increased the expressions of Pax7, myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and protein synthesis, reduced protein degradation and cell apoptosis in MI-mice. In vitro, IGF-1 up-regulated the levels of Pax7 and MRFs, mTOR and P70S6K, reduced MuRF1, MAFbx and inhibited cell apoptosis via IGF-1R-PI3K/Akt pathway.
    CONCLUSION: AE and RE, safely and effectively, alleviate skeletal muscle atrophy by regulating the levels of myogenesis, protein degradation and cells apoptosis in mice with MI via activating IGF-1/IGF-1R-PI3K/Akt pathway.
    Keywords:  aerobic exercise; insulin-like growth factor-1; myocardial infarction; resistance exercise; skeletal muscle atrophy
  5. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021 Nov 24. pii: S0006-291X(21)01601-6. [Epub ahead of print]586 157-162
      Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and function and no pharmacological medication has been approved for its treatment. We established an atrogin-1/MAFbx promoter assay to find drug candidates that inhibit myotube atrophy. Alverine citrate (AC) was identified using high-throughput screening of an existing drug library. AC is an established medicine for stomach and intestinal spasms. AC treatment increased myotube diameter and inhibited atrophy signals induced by either C26-conditioned medium or dexamethasone in cultured C2C12 myoblasts. AC also enhanced myoblast fusion through the upregulation of fusion-related genes during C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Oral administration of AC improves muscle mass and physical performance in aged mice, as well as hindlimb-disused mice. Taken together, our data suggest that AC may be a novel therapeutic candidate for improving muscle weakness, including sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  Aging; Alverine citrate; Sarcopenia; Skeletal muscle atrophy
  6. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Nov 30.
      Recent advances in the transcriptomics, translatomics, and proteomics have led us to the exciting new world of functional endogenous microproteins. These microproteins have a small size and are derived from small open reading frames (smORFs) of RNAs previously annotated as non-coding (e.g. lncRNAs and circRNAs) as well as from untranslated regions and canonical mRNAs. The presence of these microproteins reveals a much larger translatable portion of the genome, shifting previously defined dogmas and paradigms. These findings affect our view of organisms as a whole, including skeletal muscle tissue. Emerging evidence demonstrates that several smORF-derived microproteins play crucial roles during muscle development (myogenesis), maintenance, and regeneration, as well as lipid and glucose metabolism and skeletal muscle bioenergetics. These microproteins are also involved in processes including physical activity capacity, cellular stress, and muscular-related diseases (i.e. myopathy, cachexia, atrophy, and muscle wasting). Given the role of these small proteins as important key regulators of several skeletal muscle processes, there are rich prospects for the discovery of new microproteins and possible therapies using synthetic microproteins.
    Keywords:  Microproteins; Muscle; lncRNAs; ncRNAs; smORF
  7. Curr Mol Med. 2021 Nov 28.
      Skeletal muscles must generate and distribute energy properly in order to function perfectly. Mitochondria in skeletal muscle cells form vast networks to meet this need, and their functions may improve as a result of exercise. In the present review, we discussed exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations, age-related mitochondrial decline, and a biomarker as a mitochondrial function indicator and exercise interference.
    Keywords:  Skeletal muscle; aging; biomarker; endurance exercise; mitochondrial activity; strength training
  8. Differentiation. 2021 Nov 25. pii: S0301-4681(21)00064-5. [Epub ahead of print]123 1-8
      Mutations in optineurin (OPTN) have been identified in a small proportion of sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. Recent evidences suggest that OPTN would be involved in not only the pathophysiological mechanisms of motor neuron death of ALS but also myofiber degeneration of sporadic inclusion body myositis. However, the detailed role of OPTN in muscle remains unclear. Initially, we showed that OPTN expression levels were significantly increased in the denervated muscles of mice, suggesting that OPTN may be involved in muscle homeostasis. To reveal the molecular role of OPTN in muscle atrophy, we used cultured C2C12 myotubes treated with tumor necrosis factor-like inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) as an in vitro model of muscle atrophy. Our data showed that OPTN had no effect on the process of muscle atrophy in this model. On the other hand, we found that myogenic differentiation was affected by OPTN. Immunoblotting analysis showed that OPTN protein levels gradually decreased during C2C12 differentiation. Furthermore, OPTN knockdown inhibited C2C12 differentiation, accompanied by reduction of mRNA and protein expression levels of myogenin and MyoD. These findings suggested that OPTN may have a novel function in muscle homeostasis and play a role in the pathogenesis of neuromuscular diseases.
    Keywords:  Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Muscle atrophy; Myogenesis; Neuromuscular disease
  9. Mediators Inflamm. 2021 ;2021 1849428
      Although skeletal muscle is the main effector organ largely accounting for disability after stroke, considerably less attention is paid to the secondary abnormalities of stroke-related skeletal muscle loss. It is necessary to explore the mechanism of muscle atrophy after stroke and further develop effective rehabilitation strategy. Here, we evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity aerobic training (MOD) on physical function, muscle mass, and stroke-related gene expression profile of skeletal muscle. After the model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was successfully made, the blood lactate threshold corresponding speed (S LT) and maximum speed (S max) were measured. Different intensity training protocols (MOD < S LT; S LT < HIIT < S max) were carried out for 3 weeks beginning at 7 days after MCAO in the MOD and HIIT groups, respectively. We found that both HIIT and MOD prevented stroke-related gastrocnemius muscle mass loss in MCAO mice. HIIT was more beneficial than MOD for improvements in muscle strength, motor coordination, walking competency, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, HIIT was superior to MOD in terms of reducing lipid accumulation, levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in paretic gastrocnemius, and improving peripheral blood CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, level of IL-10. Additionally, RNA-seq analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes among HIIT, MOD, and MCAO groups were highly associated with signaling pathways involved in inflammatory response, more specifically the I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling. Following the outcome, we further investigated the infiltrating immune cells abundant in paretic muscles. The results showed that HIIT modulated macrophage activation by downregulating CD86+ (M1 type) macrophages and upregulating CD163+ (M2 type) macrophages via inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NFκB signaling pathway and exerting an anti-inflammatory effect in paretic skeletal muscle. It is expected that these data will provide novel insights into the mechanisms and potential targets underlying muscle wasting in stroke.
  10. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Nov 28. 13(undefined):
      The authors examined the ultrastructure of mitochondrial apparatus of skeletal muscles of naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber) from the age of 6 months to 11 years. The obtained results have demonstrated that the mitochondria in skeletal muscles of naked mole rats aged below 5 years is not well-developed and represented by few separate small mitochondria. Mitochondrial reticulum is absent. Starting from the age of 5 years, a powerful mitochondrial structure are develop. By the age of 11 years, it become obvious that the mitochondrial apparatus formed differs from that in the skeletal muscle of adult rats and mice, but resembles that of cardiomyocytes of rats or naked mole rats cardiomyocytes. From the age of 6 months to 11 years, percentage area of mitochondria in the skeletal muscle of naked mole rat is increasing by five times. The growth of mitochondria is mainly driven by increased number of organelles. Such significant growth of mitochondria is not associated with any abnormal changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure. We suppose that specific structure of mitochondrial apparatus developed in the skeletal muscle of naked mole rats by the age of 11 years is necessary for continual skeletal muscle activity of these small mammals burrowing very long holes in stony earth, resembling continual activity of heart muscle. In any case, ontogenesis of naked mole rat skeletal muscles is much slower than of rats and mice (one more example of neoteny).
    Keywords:  aging; electron microscopy; mitochondria; naked mole-rat; neoteny
  11. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2021 Dec 01.
      Following anabolic stimuli (mechanical loading and/or amino acid provision) the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a master regulator of protein synthesis, translocates toward the cell periphery. However, it is unknown if mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation events occur in these peripheral regions or prior to translocation (i.e. in central regions). We therefore aimed to determine the cellular location of a mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation event, RPS6Ser240/244, in human skeletal muscle following anabolic stimuli. Fourteen young, healthy males either ingested a protein-carbohydrate beverage (0.25g/kg protein, 0.75g/kg carbohydrate) alone (n=7;23±5yrs;76.8±3.6kg;13.6±3.8%BF, FED) or following a whole-body resistance exercise bout (n=7;22±2yrs;78.1±3.6kg;12.2±4.9%BF, EXFED). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at rest (PRE) and 120 and 300min following anabolic stimuli. RPS6Ser240/244 phosphorylation measured by immunofluorescent staining or immunoblot was positively correlated (r=0.76, p<0.001). Peripheral staining intensity of p-RPS6Ser240/244 increased above PRE in both FED and EXFED at 120min (~54% and ~138% respectively, p<0.05) but was greater in EXFED at both post-stimuli time points (p<0.05). The peripheral-central ratio of p-RPS6240/244 staining displayed a similar pattern, even when corrected for total RPS6 distribution, suggesting RPS6 phosphorylation occurs to a greater extent in the periphery of fibers. Moreover, p-RPS6Ser240/244 intensity within paxillin-positive regions, a marker of focal adhesion complexes, was elevated at 120min irrespective of stimulus (p=0.006) before returning to PRE at 300min. These data confirm that RPS6Ser240/244 phosphorylation occurs in the region of human muscle fibers to which mTOR translocates following anabolic stimuli and identifies focal adhesion complexes as a potential site of mTORC1 regulation in vivo.
    Keywords:  Focal Adhesions; RPS6; Resistance Exercise; Skeletal muscle; mTOR
  12. Cell Rep. 2021 Nov 30. pii: S2211-1247(21)01552-7. [Epub ahead of print]37(9): 110066
      The role of chromatin-associated RNAi components in the nucleus of mammalian cells and in particular in the context of developmental programs remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the function of nuclear Argonaute 1 (Ago1) in gene expression regulation during skeletal muscle differentiation. We show that Ago1 is required for activation of the myogenic program by supporting chromatin modification mediated by developmental enhancer activation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that Ago1 directly controls global H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) by regulating enhancer RNA (eRNA)-CREB-binding protein (CBP) acetyltransferase interaction, a key step in enhancer-driven gene activation. In particular, we show that Ago1 is specifically required for myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) and downstream myogenic gene activation, whereas its depletion leads to failure of CBP acetyltransferase activation and blocking of the myogenic program. Our work establishes a role of the mammalian enhancer-associated RNAi component Ago1 in epigenome regulation and activation of developmental programs.
    Keywords:  CBP acetyltransferase; H3K27 acetylation; H3K27ac; MyoD expression; eRNAs; enhancer RNAs; myogenic differentiation; nuclear Ago1
  13. Cell Stem Cell. 2021 Nov 23. pii: S1934-5909(21)00451-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Adaptation to mechanical load, leading to enhanced force and power output, is a characteristic feature of skeletal muscle. Formation of new myonuclei required for efficient muscle hypertrophy relies on prior activation and proliferation of muscle stem cells (MuSCs). However, the mechanisms controlling MuSC expansion under conditions of increased load are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that interstitial mesenchymal progenitors respond to mechanical load and stimulate MuSC proliferation in a surgical mouse model of increased muscle load. Mechanistically, transcriptional activation of Yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1)/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (Taz) in mesenchymal progenitors results in local production of thrombospondin-1 (Thbs1), which, in turn, drives MuSC proliferation through CD47 signaling. Under homeostatic conditions, however, CD47 signaling is insufficient to promote MuSC proliferation and instead depends on prior downregulation of the Calcitonin receptor. Our results suggest that relayed signaling between mesenchymal progenitors and MuSCs through a Yap1/Taz-Thbs1-CD47 pathway is critical to establish the supply of MuSCs during muscle hypertrophy.
    Keywords:  CD47; CalcR; Taz; Thbs1; Yap; mechanical load; mesenchymal progenitors; muscle satellite cells
  14. Biochimie. 2021 Nov 25. pii: S0300-9084(21)00269-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Skeletal muscle injury activates satellite cells to proliferate as myoblasts and migrate, differentiate and fuse with existing fibres at the site of injury. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical produced by NO synthase, is elevated and supports healing after in vivo injury. NOS-independent elevation of NO levels in vitro is possible via donors such as molsidomine (SIN-1). We hypothesized that alterations in NO levels may directly influence myogenic processes critical for skeletal muscle wound healing. This study aimed to clarify the role of NO in myoblast proliferation, migration and differentiation. Baseline NO levels were established in vitro, whereafter NO levels were manipulated during myogenesis using l-NAME (NOS inhibitor) or SIN-1. Baseline NO levels generated by myoblasts in proliferation media did not change 1 h after stimulation. Addition of a pro-proliferative dose of HGF slightly elevated NO levels 1 h post-stimulation, whereas cell numbers assessed 24 h later increased significantly; l-NAME reduced the HGF-driven increase in NO and proliferation reducing wound closure over 16 h. In differentiation media, NO levels increased significantly within 24 h, returning to baseline over several days. Regular addition of l-NAME to differentiating cells significantly reduced NO levels and fusion. SIN-1 increased NO levels in a dose-dependent manner, reaching maximal levels 16 h post-treatment. SIN-1, added at 0, 2 and 4 days, significantly increased myofiber area (26 ± 1.8% vs 18.6 ± 3.4% in control at 5 day, p < 0.0001), without affecting proliferation or migration. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, during skeletal muscle regeneration, increased NO specifically stimulates myoblast differentiation.
    Keywords:  Myoblast; Myogenesis; NO; Regeneration; SIN-1
  15. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2021 Dec 01. 21(4): 550-559
      OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the potential key molecules involved in the progression of skeletal muscle atrophy after SCI.METHODS: Based on GSE21497 dataset, the DEmRNAs and DElncRNAs were screened after differentially expressed analysis. Then the enrichment analyses were performed on DEmRNAs. Then the PPI network and ceRNA network were constructed. Finally, the DGIdb was utilized to predict drug-gene interactions.
    RESULTS: A total of 412 DEmRNAs and 21 DElncRNAs were obtained. The DEmRNAs were significantly enriched in MAPK signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway. In addition, UBE2D1, JUN, and FBXO32 had higher node degrees in PPI network, and the top 20 genes with high degree were significantly enriched in FoxO signaling pathway and Endometrial cancer. Moreover, FOXO3 was regulated by hsa-miR-1207-5p and hsa-miR-1207-5p was regulated by lncRNA RP11-253E3.3 in ceRNA network. Finally, 37 drug-gene interactions were obtained based on the 26 genes in ceRNA network.
    CONCLUSION: UBE2D1, JUN, and FBXO32 are likely to be related to the progression of skeletal muscle atrophy after SCI, and activating of MAPK signaling pathway, Endometrial cancer and FoxO signaling pathway may induce skeletal muscle inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy and atrophy after SCI. Moreover, RP11-253E3.3-hsa-miR-1207-5p-FOXO3 axis may be a promising therapeutic target for skeletal muscle atrophy after SCI.
    Keywords:  Differential Expression Analysis; Enrichment Analysis; Protein-Protein Interaction Network; Spinal Cord Injury; ceRNA Network
  16. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Dec 02.
      BACKGROUND: Activation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance, and with perturbed skeletal muscle development. Age-related sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized skeletal muscle disorder involving an accelerated loss of muscle mass and function, with changes in skeletal muscle protein homeostasis due to lipid accumulation and anabolic resistance. Hence, both obesity and sarcopenia share a common set of pathophysiological alterations leading to skeletal muscle impairment. The aim of this study was to characterize how sarcopenia impacts the ECS and if these modifications were related to the loss of muscle mass and function associated with aging in rats.METHODS: Six-month-old and 24-month-old male rats were used to measure the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship & concentric power-velocity relationship) and to evaluate locomotor activity, motor coordination, and voluntary gait by open field, rotarod, and catwalk tests, respectively. Levels of endocannabinoids (AEA & 2-AG) and endocannabinoid-like molecules (OEA & PEA) were measured by LCF-MS/MS in plasma, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, while the expression of genes coding for the ECS were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR).
    RESULTS: Sarcopenia in old rats was exemplified by a 49% decrease in hindlimb muscle mass (P < 0.01), which was associated with severe impairment of isometric torque, power, voluntary locomotor activity, motor coordination, and gait quality. Sarcopenia was associated with (1) increased 2-AG (+32%, P = 0.07) and reduced PEA and OEA levels in the plasma (-25% and -40%, respectively, P < 0.01); (2) an increased content of AEA, PEA, and OEA in subcutaneous adipose tissue (P < 0.01); and (3) a four-fold increase of 2-AG content in the soleus (P < 0.01) and a reduced OEA content in EDL (-80%, P < 0.01). These alterations were associated with profound modifications in the expression of the ECS genes in the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.
    CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings demonstrate that circulating and peripheral tissue endocannabinoid tone are altered in sarcopenia. They also demonstrate that OEA plasma levels are associated with skeletal muscle function and loss of locomotor activity in rats, suggesting OEA could be used as a circulating biomarker for sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  Endocannabinoids; Muscle function; Sarcopenia; Skeletal muscle
  17. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 03. 12(1): 7056
      Mitochondrial defects are implicated in multiple diseases and aging. Exercise training is an accessible, inexpensive therapeutic intervention that can improve mitochondrial bioenergetics and quality of life. By combining multiple omics techniques with biochemical and in silico normalisation, we removed the bias arising from the training-induced increase in mitochondrial content to unearth an intricate and previously undemonstrated network of differentially prioritised mitochondrial adaptations. We show that changes in hundreds of transcripts, proteins, and lipids are not stoichiometrically linked to the overall increase in mitochondrial content. Our findings suggest enhancing electron flow to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is more important to improve ATP generation than increasing the abundance of the OXPHOS machinery, and do not support the hypothesis that training-induced supercomplex formation enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics. Our study provides an analytical approach allowing unbiased and in-depth investigations of training-induced mitochondrial adaptations, challenging our current understanding, and calling for careful reinterpretation of previous findings.
  18. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Dec 03.
      BACKGROUND: Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is a late-onset autosomal dominant form of muscular dystrophy involving specific groups of muscles with variable weakness that precedes inflammatory response, fat infiltration, and muscle atrophy. As there is currently no cure for this disease, understanding and modelling the typical muscle weakness in FSHD remains a major milestone towards deciphering the disease pathogenesis as it will pave the way to therapeutic strategies aimed at correcting the functional muscular defect in patients.METHODS: To gain further insights into the specificity of the muscle alteration in this disease, we derived induced pluripotent stem cells from patients affected with Types 1 and 2 FSHD but also from patients affected with Bosma arhinia and microphthalmia. We differentiated these cells into contractile innervated muscle fibres and analysed their transcriptome by RNA Seq in comparison with cells derived from healthy donors. To uncover biological pathways altered in the disease, we applied MOGAMUN, a multi-objective genetic algorithm that integrates multiplex complex networks of biological interactions (protein-protein interactions, co-expression, and biological pathways) and RNA Seq expression data to identify active modules.
    RESULTS: We identified 132 differentially expressed genes that are specific to FSHD cells (false discovery rate < 0.05). In FSHD, the vast majority of active modules retrieved with MOGAMUN converges towards a decreased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in sarcomere organization (P value 2.63e-12 ), actin cytoskeleton (P value 9.4e-5 ), myofibril (P value 2.19e-12 ), actin-myosin sliding, and calcium handling (with P values ranging from 7.9e-35 to 7.9e-21 ). Combined with in vivo validations and functional investigations, our data emphasize a reduction in fibre contraction (P value < 0.0001) indicating that the muscle weakness that is typical of FSHD clinical spectrum might be associated with dysfunction of calcium release (P value < 0.0001), actin-myosin interactions, motor activity, mechano-transduction, and dysfunctional sarcomere contractility.
    CONCLUSIONS: Identification of biomarkers of FSHD muscle remain critical for understanding the process leading to the pathology but also for the definition of readouts to be used for drug design, outcome measures, and monitoring of therapies. The different pathways identified through a system biology approach have been largely overlooked in the disease. Overall, our work opens new perspectives in the definition of biomarkers able to define the muscle alteration but also in the development of novel strategies to improve muscle function as it provides functional parameters for active molecule screening.
    Keywords:  Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy; Induced pluripotent stem cells; Muscle contraction; Muscle weakening; Pathophysiology; Sarcomere; System biology
  19. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Dec 02.
      BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus increases the excretion of urinary glucose from the renal glomeruli due to elevated blood glucose levels. In the renal tubules, SGLT2 is expressed and reabsorbs the excreted urinary glucose. In the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, glucose reabsorption by SGLT2 is increased, and SGLT2 inhibitors improve hyperglycaemia by inhibiting this reabsorption. When urinary glucose excretion is enhanced, glucose supply to skeletal muscle may be insufficient and muscle protein catabolism may be accelerated. On the other hand, SGLT2 inhibitors not only ameliorate hyperglycaemia but also improve fatty acid metabolism in muscle, which may prevent muscle atrophy.METHODS: Eight-week-old male db/m mice or db/db mice were fed a standard diet with or without the SGLT2i luseogliflozin (0.01% w/w in chow) for 8 weeks. Mice were sacrificed at 16 weeks of age, and skeletal muscle and serum lipidomes, as well as skeletal muscle transcriptome, were analysed.
    RESULTS: Administration of SGLT2i led to not only decreased visceral fat accumulation (P = 0.004) but also increased soleus muscle weight (P = 0.010) and grip strength (P = 0.0001). The levels of saturated fatty acids, especially palmitic acid, decreased in both muscles (P = 0.017) and sera (P = 0.041) upon administration of SGLT2i, while the content of monosaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid, increased in both muscle (P < 0.0001) and sera (P = 0.009). Finally, the accumulation of transcripts associated with fatty acid metabolism, such as Scd1, Fasn, and Elovl6, and of muscle atrophy-associated transcripts, such as Foxo1, Mstn, Trim63, and Fbxo32, decreased following SGLT2i administration.
    CONCLUSIONS: Intramuscular fatty acid metabolism and gene expression were influenced by the extracellular lipidome, which was modified by SGLT2i. Hence, secondary effects, other than the hypoglycaemic effects of SGLT2i, might lead to the alleviation of sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  Lipidome; Muscle atrophy; SGLT2 inhibitor; Sarcopenia; Transcriptome
  20. Nano Converg. 2021 Dec 04. 8(1): 40
      The degeneration or loss of skeletal muscles, which can be caused by traumatic injury or disease, impacts most aspects of human activity. Among various techniques reported to regenerate skeletal muscle tissue, controlling the external cellular environment has been proven effective in guiding muscle differentiation. In this study, we report a nano-sized graphene oxide (sGO)-modified nanopillars on microgroove hybrid polymer array (NMPA) that effectively controls skeletal muscle cell differentiation. sGO-coated NMPA (sG-NMPA) were first fabricated by sequential laser interference lithography and microcontact printing methods. To compensate for the low adhesion property of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) used in this study, graphene oxide (GO), a proven cytophilic nanomaterial, was further modified. Among various sizes of GO, sGO (< 10 nm) was found to be the most effective not only for coating the surface of the NM structure but also for enhancing the cell adhesion and spreading on the fabricated substrates. Remarkably, owing to the micro-sized line patterns that guide cellular morphology to an elongated shape and because of the presence of sGO-modified nanostructures, mouse myoblast cells (C2C12) were efficiently differentiated into skeletal muscle cells on the hybrid patterns, based on the myosin heavy chain expression levels. Therefore, the developed sGO coated polymeric hybrid pattern arrays can serve as a potential platform for rapid and highly efficient in vitro muscle cell generation.
    Keywords:  Cell behavior; Micro−nano hybrid pattern; Myogenesis; Nano-sized graphene oxide
  21. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2021 Nov 30.
      AIMS: Dystrophin, the protein product of the DMD gene, plays a critical role in muscle integrity by stabilizing the sarcolemma during contraction and relaxation. The DMD gene is vulnerable to a variety of mutations that may cause complete loss, depletion, or truncation of the protein, leading to Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. Precise and reproducible dystrophin quantification is essential in characterising DMD mutations and evaluating the outcome of efforts to induce dystrophin through gene therapies. Immunofluorescence microscopy offers high sensitivity to low levels of protein expression along with confirmation of localization, making it a critical component of quantitative dystrophin expression assays.METHODS: We have developed an automated and unbiased approach for precise quantification of dystrophin immunofluorescence in muscle sections. This methodology uses microscope images of whole-tissue sections stained for dystrophin and spectrin to measure dystrophin intensity and the proportion of dystrophin-positive coverage at the sarcolemma of each muscle fibre. To ensure objectivity, the thresholds for dystrophin and spectrin are derived empirically from non-sarcolemmal signal intensity within each tissue section. Furthermore, this approach is readily adaptable for measuring fibre morphology and other tissue markers.
    RESULTS: Our method demonstrates the sensitivity and reproducibility of this quantification approach across a wide range of dystrophin expression in both dystrophinopathy patient and healthy control samples, with high inter-operator concordance.
    CONCLUSION: As efforts to restore dystrophin expression in dystrophic muscle bring new potential therapies into clinical trials, this methodology represents a valuable tool for efficient and precise analysis of dystrophin and other muscle markers that reflect treatment efficacy.
    Keywords:  Becker muscular dystrophy; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; computer-assisted image analysis; dystrophin; fluorescence microscopy; immunofluorescence
  22. J Dev Biol. 2021 Nov 23. pii: 52. [Epub ahead of print]9(4):
      Muscle development and homeostasis are critical for normal muscle function. A key aspect of muscle physiology during development, growth, and homeostasis is modulation of protein turnover, the balance between synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. Protein degradation depends upon lysosomal pH, generated and maintained by proton pumps. Sphingolipid transporter 1 (spns1), a highly conserved gene encoding a putative late endosome/lysosome carbohydrate/H+ symporter, plays a pivotal role in maintaining optimal lysosomal pH and spns1-/- mutants undergo premature senescence. However, the impact of dysregulated lysosomal pH on muscle development and homeostasis is not well understood. We found that muscle development proceeds normally in spns1-/- mutants prior to the onset of muscle degeneration. Dysregulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) coincided with the onset of muscle degeneration in spns1-/- mutants. Expression of the ECM proteins laminin 111 and MMP-9 was upregulated. Upregulation of laminin 111 mitigated the severity of muscle degeneration, as inhibition of adhesion to laminin 111 exacerbated muscle degeneration in spns1-/- mutants. MMP-9 upregulation was induced by tnfsf12 signaling, but abrogation of MMP-9 did not impact muscle degeneration in spns1-/- mutants. Taken together, these data indicate that dysregulated lysosomal pH impacts expression of ECM proteins at the myotendinous junction.
    Keywords:  basement membrane; lysosomal myopathy; myotendinous junction; skeletal muscle; spinster; zebrafish
  23. Exp Gerontol. 2021 Nov 30. pii: S0531-5565(21)00430-7. [Epub ahead of print] 111648
      PURPOSE: Exercise helps improve mitochondrial function to combat sarcopenia. Certain parts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex can form a higher-order structure called "supercomplex" to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species and improve muscle mass. The effect of exercise on the assembly of the mitochondrial supercomplex is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, and mitochondrial supercomplexes (mitoSCs) assembly in aging soleus muscle.METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 36) were randomly divided into four groups: young sedentary (Y-SED, 8 months old, n = 12), old sedentary (O-SED, 26 months old, n = 12), moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, from 18 to 26 months old, n = 12), and HIIT (from 18 to 26 months old, n = 12). Rats in the MICT and HIIT groups were subjected to an 8-month training program. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of the antioxidative factors, inflammatory factors, and mitochondrial fusion- and division-related genes. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy markers and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway proteins. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine serum irisin contents. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to assess the formation of mitochondrial supercomplexes.
    RESULTS: Compared with the Y-SED group, the soleus muscle and mitochondria in the O-SED group showed reduced expression of mitophagy- and mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins. In the HIIT group, the expression of autophagy-related proteins in the soleus muscle and mitochondria was significantly increased compared with that in the MICT group. Serum irisin and mitochondrial fusion protein levels significantly decreased with age. Superoxide dismutase 2 protein levels and AMPK pathway protein expression were significantly increased in the HIIT group compared with those in the other groups. Additionally, the expression levels of mitoSCs and the mRNA levels of interleukin-15 and optical atrophy 1 increased in the HIIT group compared with that in the MICT group.
    CONCLUSION: Compared with MICT, HIIT activated the AMPK pathway to upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis- and mitophagy-related proteins, and promote the assembly and formation of mitoSCs to improve the mitochondrial function of aging soleus muscles.
    Keywords:  AMPK pathway; High-intensity interval training, aging; Mitochondrial supercomplex; Mitophagy
  24. Bio Protoc. 2021 Nov 05. 11(21): e4215
      The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse that connects the terminal end of a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber. Defects in NMJ cause abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission, leading to NMJ disorders. The mammalian diaphragm muscle is essential for respiration and has been widely used to study NMJ formation. Here, we provide a simple and straightforward protocol for preparing diaphragms from embryonic, neonatal, and adult mice and for subsequent NMJ staining.
    Keywords:  Diaphragm; Immunofluorescence; NMJ; Whole-mount staining
  25. J Cell Sci. 2021 Dec 03. pii: jcs.259097. [Epub ahead of print]
      Hippo signaling in Drosophila and mammals is prominent in regulating cell proliferation, death and differentiation. Hippo signaling effectors (YAP/TAZ) exhibit crosstalk with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-Smad and Wnt-β-catenin pathways. Previously, we implicated Smad7 and β-catenin in myogenesis. Therefore, we assessed a potential role of TAZ on theSmad7/β-catenin complex in muscle cells. Here, we document functional interactions between Smad7, TAZ and β-catenin in myogenic cells. Ectopic TAZ expression resulted in repression of the muscle-specific creatine kinase muscle (ckm) gene promoter and its corresponding protein level. Depletion of endogenous TAZ enhanced ckm promoter activation. Ectopic TAZ, while potently active on a TEAD reporter (HIP-HOP), repressed myogenin and myod enhancer regions and Myogenin protein level. Additionally, a Wnt/β-catenin readout (TOP flash) demonstrated TAZ inhibition of β-catenin activity. In myoblasts, TAZ is predominantly localized in nuclear speckles, while in differentiation conditions TAZ is hyperphosphorylated at Ser 89 leading to enhanced cytoplasmic sequestration. Finally, live cell imaging indicates that TAZ exhibits properties of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). These observations indicate that TAZ, as an effector of Hippo signaling, supresses the myogenic differentiation machinery.
    Keywords:   creatine kinase muscle (ckm) ; Catenin beta-1 (β-catenin); Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS); Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 (Smad7); Myogenesis; Transcription; WW domain-containing transcription regulator protein 1 (TAZ)
  26. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 709039
      The effect of treadmill training loads on the content of cytokines in mice skeletal muscles with metabolic disorders induced by a 16 week high fat diet (HFD) was studied. The study included accounting the age and biorhythmological aspects. In the experiment, mice were used at the age of 4 and 32 weeks, by the end of the experiment-respectively 20 and 48 weeks. HFD feeding lasted 16 weeks. Treadmill training were carried out for last 4 weeks six times a week, the duration 60 min and the speed from 15 to 18 m/min. Three modes of loading were applied. The first subgroup was subjected to stress in the morning hours (light phase); the second subgroup was subjected to stress in the evening hours (dark phase); the third subgroup was subjected to loads in the shift mode (the first- and third-weeks treadmill training was used in the morning hours, the second and fourth treadmill training was used in the evening hours). In 20-week-old animals, the exercise effect does not depend on the training regime, however, in 48-week-old animals, the decrease in body weight in mice with the shift training regime was more profound. HFD affected muscle myokine levels. The content of all myokines, except for LIF, decreased, while the concentration of CLCX1 decreased only in young animals in response to HFD. The treadmill training caused multidirectional changes in the concentration of myokines in muscle tissue. The IL-6 content changed most profoundly. These changes were observed in all groups of animals. The changes depended to the greatest extent on the training time scheme. The effect of physical activity on the content of IL-15 in the skeletal muscle tissue was observed mostly in 48-week-old mice. In 20-week-old animals, physical activity led to an increase in the concentration of LIF in muscle tissue when applied under the training during the dark phase or shift training scheme. In the HFD group, this effect was significantly more pronounced. The content of CXCL1 did not change with the use of treadmill training in almost all groups of animals. Physical activity, introduced considering circadian rhythms, is a promising way of influencing metabolic processes both at the cellular and systemic levels, which is important for the search for new ways of correcting metabolic disorders.
    Keywords:  biorhythms; cytokines; diabetes mellitus; muscles; myokines; running load
  27. NMR Biomed. 2021 Nov 28. e4659
      31 Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31 P-MRS) has been shown to detect altered energetic status (e.g. the ratio of inorganic phosphate to phosphocreatine: Pi/PCr), intracellular acid-base status, and free intracellular magnesium ([Mg2+ ]) in dystrophic muscle compared with unaffected muscle; however, the causes of these differences are not well understood. The purposes of this study were to examine 31 P-MRS indices of energetic status and sarcolemma integrity in young mdx mice compared with wild-type and to evaluate the effects of downhill running to induce muscle damage on 31 P-MRS indices in dystrophic muscle. In vivo 31 P-MRS spectra were acquired from the posterior hindlimb muscles in young (4-10 weeks of age) mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-DMDmdx) and wild-type (C57BL/10ScSnJ) mice using an 11.1-T MR system. The flux of phosphate from PCr to ATP was estimated by 31 P-MRS saturation transfer experiments. Relative concentrations of high-energy phosphates were measured, and intracellular pH and [Mg2+ ] were calculated. 1 H2 O-T2 was measured using single-voxel 1 H-MRS from the gastrocnemius and soleus using a 4.7-T MR system. Downhill treadmill running was performed in a subset of mice. Young mdx mice were characterized by elevated 1 H2 O-T2 (p < 0.01), Pi/PCr (p = 0.02), PCr to ATP flux (p = 0.04) and histological inflammatory markers (p < 0.05) and reduced (p < 0.01) [Mg2+ ] compared with wild-type. Furthermore, 24 h after downhill running, an increase (p = 0.02) in Pi/PCr was observed in mdx and wild-type mice compared with baseline, and a decrease (p < 0.001) in [Mg2+ ] and a lower (p = 0.048) intracellular [H+ ] in damaged muscle regions of mdx mice were observed, consistent with impaired sarcolemma integrity. Overall, our findings demonstrate that 31 P-MRS markers of energetic status and sarcolemma integrity are altered in young mdx compared with wild-type mice, and these indices are exacerbated following downhill running.
    Keywords:  downhill running; energetics; inflammation; mdx; muscle damage; muscular dystrophy
  28. EMBO Mol Med. 2021 Dec 01. e13968
      Pompe disease is a severe disorder caused by loss of acid α-glucosidase (GAA), leading to glycogen accumulation in tissues and neuromuscular and cardiac dysfunction. Enzyme replacement therapy is the only available treatment. AT845 is an adeno-associated viral vector designed to express human GAA specifically in skeletal muscle and heart. Systemic administration of AT845 in Gaa-/- mice led to a dose-dependent increase in GAA activity, glycogen clearance in muscles and heart, and functional improvement. AT845 was tolerated in cynomolgus macaques at low doses, while high doses caused anti-GAA immune response, inflammation, and cardiac abnormalities resulting in unscheduled euthanasia of two animals. Conversely, a vector expressing the macaque GAA caused no detectable pathology, indicating that the toxicity observed with AT845 was an anti-GAA xenogeneic immune response. Western blot analysis showed abnormal processing of human GAA in cynomolgus muscle, adding to the species-specific effects of enzyme expression. Overall, these studies show that AAV-mediated GAA delivery to muscle is efficacious in Gaa-/- mice and highlight limitations in predicting the toxicity of AAV vectors encoding human proteins in non-human species.
    Keywords:  adeno-associated virus; glycogen accumulation; heart inflammation; lysosomal storage disease; xenogeneic immune response
  29. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Dec 04.
    EpiGen Global Research Consortium
      BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass, strength, and function. Epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, which integrate both genetic and environmental exposures, have been suggested to contribute to the development of sarcopenia. This study aimed to determine whether differences in the muscle methylome are associated with sarcopenia and its component measures: grip strength, appendicular lean mass index (ALMi), and gait speed.METHODS: Using the Infinium Human MethylationEPIC BeadChip, we measured DNA methylation in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 83 male participants (12 with sarcopenia) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 75.7 (3.6) years from the Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study (HSS) and Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study extension (HSSe) and examined associations with sarcopenia and its components. Pathway, histone mark, and transcription factor enrichment of the differentially methylated CpGs (dmCpGs) were determined, and sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to validate the sarcopenia-associated dmCpGs. Human primary myoblasts (n = 6) isolated from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from male individuals from HSSe were treated with the EZH2 inhibitor GSK343 to assess how perturbations in epigenetic processes may impact myoblast differentiation and fusion, measured by PAX7 and MYHC immunocytochemistry, and mitochondrial bioenergetics determined using the Seahorse XF96.
    RESULTS: Sarcopenia was associated with differential methylation at 176 dmCpGs (false discovery rate ≤ 0.05) and 141 differentially methylated regions (Stouffer ≤ 0.05). The sarcopenia-associated dmCpGs were enriched in genes associated with myotube fusion (P = 1.40E-03), oxidative phosphorylation (P = 2.78E-02), and voltage-gated calcium channels (P = 1.59E-04). ALMi was associated with 71 dmCpGs, grip strength with 49 dmCpGs, and gait speed with 23 dmCpGs (false discovery rate ≤ 0.05). There was significant overlap between the dmCpGs associated with sarcopenia and ALMi (P = 3.4E-35), sarcopenia and gait speed (P = 4.78E-03), and sarcopenia and grip strength (P = 7.55E-06). There was also an over-representation of the sarcopenia, ALMi, grip strength, and gait speed-associated dmCpGs with sites of H3K27 trimethylation (all P ≤ 0.05) and amongst EZH2 target genes (all P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, treatment of human primary myoblasts with the EZH2 inhibitor GSK343 inhibitor led to an increase in PAX7 expression (P ≤ 0.05), decreased myotube fusion (P = 0.043), and an increase in ATP production (P = 0.008), with alterations in the DNA methylation of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and myogenesis.
    CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that differences in the muscle methylome are associated with sarcopenia and individual measures of muscle mass, strength, and function in older individuals. This suggests that changes in the epigenetic regulation of genes may contribute to impaired muscle function in later life.
    Keywords:  DNA methylation; EZH2; Myoblasts; Sarcopenia
  30. Eur J Transl Myol. 2021 Nov 29.
      In 2021, as the situation due to COVID-19 pandemic was still uncertain, the 18 th annual meeting of the Interuniversity Institute of Myology (IIM), took place on a virtual platform, following the same organization already tested for the previous edition. Participants from Italy, European countries, Canada and USA included clinicians, scientists, pharmaceutical companies and representatives of patient organizations. Four keynote speakers presented new insights into the modulation of muscle stem cell self-renewal in the treatment of neuromuscular disease, the role of nuclear positioning in muscle function, regeneration and tumorigenesis in the heart and advances on therapies of muscular dystrophies. Young PhD students and trainees presented oral communications distributed in five scientific sessions and posters in two poster sessions. On October 21, 2021, selected young scientists participated in the "High Training Course on Advanced Myology", organized with the University of Perugia, Italy. This course consisted of lectures on muscle regeneration and therapeutic perspectives by internationally recognized speakers, followed by roundtable discussions on "Omics technologies in myology" and "New therapeutic approaches", plus the meeting itself. Young trainees, winners of past IIM conferences, forming the Young IIM Committee, selected one of Keynote speakers and were involved in the organization of scientific sessions and roundtable discussions. The friendly welcoming of the meeting, which has strongly characterized this event and is of great help in facilitating scientific exchanges and stimulating novel collaborations, was the hallmark of the conference this year again, even on virtual platform. Breakthrough studies showing interdisciplinary works are fostering new avenues in the field of myology. This year again, scientists and students attended the meeting at the huger number, challenging the difficulties due to the COVID-19 pandemic. All participants shared the wish to continue and implement IIM meeting with new insights on muscle biology, perspectives in the understanding of the muscle-related diseases and in novel therapeutic approaches. We report here abstracts of the meeting describing basic, translational, and clinical research contributing to the large field of myology.
  31. Genetics. 2021 Oct 02. pii: iyab114. [Epub ahead of print]219(2):
      Muscleblind-like splicing regulators (MBNLs) are RNA-binding factors that have an important role in developmental processes. Dysfunction of these factors is a key contributor of different neuromuscular degenerative disorders, including Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Since DM1 is a multisystemic disease characterized by symptoms resembling accelerated aging, we asked which cellular processes do MBNLs regulate that make them necessary for normal lifespan. By utilizing the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that loss of MBL-1 (the sole ortholog of mammalian MBNLs), which is known to be required for normal lifespan, shortens lifespan by decreasing the activity of p38 MAPK/PMK-1 as well as the function of transcription factors ATF-7 and SKN-1. Furthermore, we show that mitochondrial stress caused by the knockdown of mitochondrial electron transport chain components promotes the longevity of mbl-1 mutants in a partially PMK-1-dependent manner. Together, the data establish a mechanism of how DM1-associated loss of muscleblind affects lifespan. Furthermore, this study suggests that mitochondrial stress could alleviate symptoms caused by the dysfunction of muscleblind splicing factor, creating a potential approach to investigate for therapy.
    Keywords:   C. elegans ; ATF-1; Muscleblind splicing factor; PMK-1; SKN-1; lifespan; mitochondrial stress; p38 MAPK
  32. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Dec;pii: S2405-4577(21)01094-9. [Epub ahead of print]46 73-86
      BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sarcopenia is characterized by the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, which reduces mobility and quality of life. Risk factors for sarcopenia include advanced age, physical inactivity, obesity, and chronic diseases such as cancer or rheumatoid arthritis. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFAs) might be associated with a reduction in risk of sarcopenia due to their anti-inflammatory effects.METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the effects of omega-3 LC PUFAs on muscle mass, volume and function parameters. The National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE/PubMed database was searched on 9th October 2020 for randomized controlled trials that used omega-3 LC PUFAs as an intervention with muscle-related endpoints. A snowballing search to identify additional studies was completed on 23rd April 2021. The meta-analysis was conducted using meta-essentials worksheet 3. Bias was assessed using the Jadad scale.
    RESULTS: 123 studies were identified with the systematic searches. Most studies were performed in disease populations, such as cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or in healthy individuals after a fatiguing exercise bout. The endpoints lean body mass, skeletal muscle mass, mid-arm muscle circumference, handgrip strength, quadriceps maximal voluntary capacity (MVC), and 1-repetition maximum chest press were selected for meta-analysis based on the number of available studies; thus 66 studies were included in the quantitative synthesis. Using a random effects model and 2-tailed p-value, there was a significant relationship in favor of omega-3 LC PUFA supplementation for lean body mass (effect size 0.27, 95%CI 0.04 to 0.51), skeletal muscle mass (effect size 0.31, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.60) and quadriceps MVC (effect size 0.47, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.93).
    CONCLUSION: The results indicate that there is a positive effect of omega-3 LC PUFA supplementation on overall body muscle mass and strength. Small study size and heterogeneity limit the applicability of these findings for sarcopenia prevention. Larger trials in populations at risk of sarcopenia would strengthen the evidence base.
    Keywords:  Fish oil; Muscle mass; Muscle strength; Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; Sarcopenia
  33. Endocrinology. 2021 Nov 25. pii: bqab242. [Epub ahead of print]
      Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has recently moved to the forefront of metabolism research. When administered pharmacologically, GDF15 reduces food intake and lowers body weight via the hindbrain-situated receptor GFRAL (glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha like). Endogenous GDF15 is a ubiquitous cellular stress signal that can be produced and secreted by a variety of cell types. Circulating levels are elevated in a series of disease states, but also in response to exogenous agents such as metformin, colchicine, AICAR and cisplatin. Recently, exercise has emerged as a relevant intervention to interrogate GDF15 physiology. Prolonged endurance exercise increases circulating GDF15 to levels otherwise associated with certain pathological states and in response to metformin treatment. Yet, the jury is still out as to whether GDF15 is a functional 'exerkine' mediating organ-to-brain cross-talk or whether it is a coincidental bystander. In this review, we discuss the putative physiological implication of exercise-induced GDF15, focusing on the potential impact on appetite and metabolism.
    Keywords:  Exercise; GDF15; appetite; energy balance; exerkine; growth differentiation factor 15
  34. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2021 Nov 29. pii: S0303-7207(21)00369-5. [Epub ahead of print] 111525
      Adiponectin and insulin resistance creates a vicious cycle that exacerbates type 2 diabetes. Earlier, we observed that female leptin receptor-deficient BLKS mice (BKS-db/db) were more sensitive to an adiponectin mimetic GTDF than males, which led us to explore if E2 plays a crucial role in modulation of adiponectin-sensitivity. Male but not female BKS-db/db mice were resistant to metabolic effects of globular adiponectin treatment. Male BKS-db/db displayed reduced skeletal muscle AdipoR1 protein expression, which was consequent to elevated polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTB) and miR-221. E2 treatment in male BKS-db/db, and ovariectomized BALB/c mice rescued AdipoR1 protein expression via downregulation of PTB and miR-221, and also directly increased AdipoR1 mRNA by its classical nuclear receptors. Estrogen receptor regulation via dietary or pharmacological interventions may improve adiponectin resistance and consequently ameliorate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.
    Keywords:  AdipoR; Adiponectin; Estradiol; Estrogen receptor; PTBP1; miR-221
  35. J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2021 Nov 24. pii: 96. [Epub ahead of print]6(4):
      The goals of this narrative review are to provide a brief overview of the muscle and tendon adaptations to eccentric resistance exercise and address the applications of this form of training to aid rehabilitative interventions and enhance sports performance. This work is centered on the author contributions to the Special Issue entitled "Eccentric Exercise: Adaptations and Applications for Health and Performance". The major themes from the contributing authors include the need to place greater attention on eccentric exercise mode selection based on training goals and individual fitness level, optimal approaches to implementing eccentric resistance exercise for therapeutic purposes, factors that affect the use of eccentric exercise across the lifespan, and general recommendations to integrate eccentric exercise in athletic training regimens. The authors propose that movement velocity and the absorption or recovery of kinetic energy are critical components of eccentric exercise programming. Regarding the therapeutic use of eccentric resistance training, patient-level factors regarding condition severity, fitness level, and stage of rehabilitation should govern the plan of care. In athletic populations, use of eccentric exercise may improve movement competency and promote improved safety and performance of sport-specific tasks. Eccentric resistance training is a viable option for youth, young adults, and older adults when the exercise prescription appropriately addresses program goals, exercise tolerability, and compliance. Despite the benefits of eccentric exercise, several key questions remain unanswered regarding its application underscoring the need for further investigation.
    Keywords:  aging; eccentric training; flywheel training; hypertrophy; power; rehabilitation; resistance training; strength; tendinopathy; youth athletes
  36. Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Nov 25. pii: S1568-1637(21)00277-4. [Epub ahead of print]73 101530
      BACKGROUND: Physical frailty and sarcopenia show extensive clinical similarities. Whether biomarkers exist that are shared by the two conditions is presently unclear.METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigated the association of frailty and/or sarcopenia with biomarkers as a primary or secondary outcome in adults aged 60 years and older. Only studies published in English that defined frailty using a validated scale and/or questionnaire and diagnosed sarcopenia according to the presence of muscle atrophy plus dynapenia or low physical function were included. Studies were identified from a systematic search of MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases from inception through August 2020. The quality of reporting of each study was assessed by using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort, Cross-Sectional and Case-Control studies of the National Institute of Health. A meta-analysis was conducted when at least three studies investigated the same biomarker in both frailty and sarcopenia. Pooled effect size was calculated based on standard mean differences and random-effect models. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on age and the setting where the study was conducted.
    RESULTS: Eighty studies (58 on frailty and 22 on sarcopenia) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative analysis. Studies on frailty included 33,160 community-dwellers, hospitalized, or institutionalized older adults (60-88 years) from 21 countries. Studies on sarcopenia involved 4904 community-living and institutionalized older adults (68-87.6 years) from 9 countries. Several metabolic, inflammatory, and hematologic markers were found to be shared between the two conditions. Albumin and hemoglobin were negatively associated with both frailty and sarcopenia. Interleukin 6 was associated with frailty and sarcopenia only in people aged < 75. Community-dwelling older adults with frailty and sarcopenia had higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha compared with their robust and non-sarcopenic counterparts.
    CONCLUSIONS: A set of metabolic, hematologic, and inflammatory biomarkers was found to be shared by frailty and sarcopenia. These findings fill a knowledge gap in the quest of biomarkers for these conditions and provide a rationale for biomarker selection in studies on frailty and sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  Amino acids; Cytokines; Hematologic markers; Inflammation; Multivariate; Muscle