bims-moremu Biomed News
on Molecular regulators of muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒11‒28
forty-seven papers selected by
Anna Vainshtein
Craft Science Inc.

  1. Elife. 2021 Nov 23. pii: e73215. [Epub ahead of print]10
      Skeletal muscle regeneration is regulated by coordinated activation of multiple signaling pathways activated in both injured myofibers and satellite cells. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a major mechanism that detects and alleviates protein-folding stresses in ER. However, the role of individual arms of the UPR in skeletal muscle regeneration remain less understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that IRE1α (also known as ERN1) and its downstream target, XBP1, are activated in skeletal muscle of mice upon injury. Myofiber-specific ablation of IRE1 or XBP1 in mice diminishes skeletal muscle regeneration that is accompanied with reduced number of satellite cells and their fusion to injured myofibers. Ex vivo cultures of myofiber explants demonstrate that ablation of IRE1α reduces the proliferative capacity of myofiber-associated satellite cells. Myofiber-specific deletion of IRE1α dampens Notch signaling and canonical NF-kB pathway in skeletal muscle of mice. Our results also demonstrate that targeted ablation of IRE1α reduces skeletal muscle regeneration in the mdx mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Collectively, our results reveal that the IRE1α-mediated signaling promotes muscle regeneration through augmenting the proliferation of satellite cells in a cell non-autonomous manner.
    Keywords:  cell biology; mouse; regenerative medicine; stem cells
  2. Cells. 2021 Nov 09. pii: 3089. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      Skeletal muscle regeneration is triggered by local inflammation and is accompanied by phagocytosis of dead cells at the injury site. Efferocytosis regulates the inflammatory program in macrophages by initiating the conversion of their inflammatory phenotype into the healing one. While pro-inflammatory cytokines induce satellite cell proliferation and differentiation into myoblasts, growth factors, such as GDF3, released by healing macrophages drive myoblast fusion and myotube growth. Therefore, improper efferocytosis may lead to impaired muscle regeneration. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a versatile enzyme participating in efferocytosis. Here, we show that TG2 ablation did not alter the skeletal muscle weights or sizes but led to the generation of small size myofibers and to decreased grip force in TG2 null mice. Following cardiotoxin-induced injury, the size of regenerating fibers was smaller, and the myoblast fusion was delayed in the tibialis anterior muscle of TG2 null mice. Loss of TG2 did not affect the efferocytic capacity of muscle macrophages but delayed their conversion to Ly6C-CD206+, GDF3 expressing cells. Finally, TG2 promoted myoblast fusion in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts. These results indicate that TG2 expressed by both macrophages and myoblasts contributes to proper myoblast fusion, and its ablation leads to impaired muscle development and regeneration in mice.
    Keywords:  macrophage; muscle development; muscle repair; myoblast fusion; transglutaminase 2
  3. J Cell Biochem. 2021 Nov 23.
      Exercise improves the insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Due to that, exercise has become a cornerstone treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The mechanisms by which exercise improves skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity are, however, incompletely understood. We conducted a systematic review to identify all genes whose gain or loss of function alters skeletal muscle glucose uptake. We subsequently cross-referenced these genes with recently generated data sets on exercise-induced gene expression and signaling. Our search revealed 176 muscle glucose-uptake genes, meaning that their genetic manipulation altered glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Notably, exercise regulates the expression or phosphorylation of more than 50% of the glucose-uptake genes or their protein products. This included many genes that previously have not been associated with exercise-induced insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, endurance and resistance exercise triggered some common but mostly unique changes in expression and phosphorylation of glucose-uptake genes or their protein products. Collectively, our work provides a resource of potentially new molecular effectors that play a role in the incompletely understood regulation of muscle insulin sensitivity by exercise.
    Keywords:  exercise metabolism; glucose uptake; insulin sensitivity; insulin signaling; resistance and endurance exercise; skeletal muscle
  4. Metabolites. 2021 Oct 25. pii: 730. [Epub ahead of print]11(11):
      Skeletal muscle atrophy is a condition associated with various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as denervation, cachexia, and fasting. It is characterized by an altered protein turnover in which the rate of protein degradation exceeds the rate of protein synthesis, leading to substantial muscle mass loss and weakness. Muscle protein breakdown reflects the activation of multiple proteolytic mechanisms, including lysosomal degradation, apoptosis, and ubiquitin-proteasome. Thyroid hormone (TH) plays a key role in these conditions. Indeed, skeletal muscle is among the principal TH target tissue, where TH regulates proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, homeostasis, and growth. In physiological conditions, TH stimulates both protein synthesis and degradation, and an alteration in TH levels is often responsible for a specific myopathy. Intracellular TH concentrations are modulated in skeletal muscle by a family of enzymes named deiodinases; in particular, in muscle, deiodinases type 2 (D2) and type 3 (D3) are both present. D2 activates the prohormone T4 into the active form triiodothyronine (T3), whereas D3 inactivates both T4 and T3 by the removal of an inner ring iodine. Here we will review the present knowledge of TH action in skeletal muscle atrophy, in particular, on the molecular mechanisms presiding over the control of intracellular T3 concentration in wasting muscle conditions. Finally, we will discuss the possibility of exploiting the modulation of deiodinases as a possible therapeutic approach to treat muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  deiodinase; muscle atrophy; thyroid hormone
  5. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2021 Nov 24.
      Muscle fibers are syncytial post-mitotic cells that can acquire exogenous nuclei from resident muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Myonuclei are added to muscle fibers by satellite cells during conditions such as load-induced hypertrophy. It is difficult to dissect the molecular contributions of resident versus satellite cell-derived myonuclei during adaptation due to the complexity of labeling distinct nuclear populations in multinuclear cells without label transference between nuclei. To sidestep this barrier, we utilized a genetic mouse model where myonuclear DNA can be specifically and stably labeled via non-constitutive H2B-GFP at any point in the lifespan. Resident myonuclei (Mn) were GFP-tagged in vivo before eight weeks of progressive weighted wheel running (PoWeR) in adult mice (>4-month-old). Resident+satellite cell-derived myonuclei (Mn+SC Mn) were labeled at the end of PoWeR in a separate cohort. Following myonuclear isolation, promoter DNA methylation profiles acquired with low-input RRBS were compared to deduce epigenetic contributions of satellite cell-derived myonuclei during adaptation. Resident myonuclear DNA has hypomethylated promoters in genes related to protein turnover, while the addition of satellite cell-derived myonuclei shifts myonuclear methylation profiles to favor transcription factor regulation and cell-cell signaling. By comparing myonucleus-specific methylation profiling to previously published single-nucleus transcriptional analysis in the absence (Mn) versus presence of satellite cells (Mn+SC Mn) with PoWeR, we provide evidence that satellite cell-derived myonuclei may preferentially supply ribosomal proteins to growing myofibers and retain an epigenetic "memory" of prior stem cell identity. These data offer insights on distinct epigenetic myonuclear characteristics and contributions during adult muscle growth.
    Keywords:  DNA Methylation; Hypertrophy; RRBS; Satellite Cells
  6. JCI Insight. 2021 Nov 23. pii: e141344. [Epub ahead of print]
      While current thinking posits that insulin signaling to GLUT4 exocytic translocation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipocytes is controlled by phosphorylation-based signaling, many proteins in this pathway are acetylated on lysine residues. However, the importance of acetylation and lysine acetyltransferases to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that combined loss of the acetyltransferases E1A binding protein p300 (p300) and cAMP response element binding protein binding protein (CBP) in mouse skeletal muscle causes a complete loss of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Similarly, brief (i.e. 1 h) pharmacological inhibition of p300/CBP acetyltransferase activity recapitulates this phenotype in human and rodent myotubes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and mouse muscle. Mechanistically, these effects are due to p300/CBP-mediated regulation of GLUT4 exocytic translocation and occurs downstream of Akt signaling. Taken together, we highlight a fundamental role for acetylation and p300/CBP in the direct regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle and adipocytes.
    Keywords:  Endocrinology; Glucose metabolism; Insulin signaling; Muscle Biology; Skeletal muscle
  7. Neurosci Lett. 2021 Nov 20. pii: S0304-3940(21)00738-2. [Epub ahead of print] 136359
      Skeletal muscle develops in a manner directly related to its innervating motor neuron. The formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a well-described process that is coordinated to allow for efficient communication between the brain and muscle for muscle contraction and movement. Some of the major mediators of NMJ formation, like muscle-specific kinase, agrin and laminin, have been thoroughly described but there are other important proteins that have an integral role in muscle health that have also been associated with proper NMJ integrity and fiber health and function. This mini-review focuses on integrins, connexin hemichannels and ephrins and their relationship with the NMJin regulating muscle health.
    Keywords:  connexins; ephrins; integrins; neuromuscular junction
  8. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Nov 22. pii: S0891-5849(21)00828-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      The progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, also known as sarcopenia, underlies disability, increasing adverse outcomes and poor quality of life in older people. Exercise interventions are commonly recommended as the primary treatment for sarcopenia. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a vital role in regulating metabolism, mitochondrial function, and the ROS-dependent adaptations of skeletal muscle, as the response to exercise. To investigate the contribution of Nrf2 to the benefits of exercise interventions in older age, aged (∼22 month old) Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-KO) mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) C57Bl6/J mice were randomly divided into 2 groups (sedentary or exercise group). We found that exercise interventions improved skeletal muscle function and restored the sarcopenia-like phenotype in WT mice, accompanied with the increasing mRNA level of Nrf2. While these alternations were minimal in Nrf2-KO mice after exercise. Further studies indicated that Nrf2 could increase the stability of Drp1 through deubiquitinating and promote Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission to attenuate mitochondrial disorder. We also observed the effects of sulforaphane (SFN), a Nrf2 activator, in restoring mitochondrial function in senescent C2C12 cells and improving sarcopenia in older WT mice, which were abolished by Nrf2 deficiency. These results indicated that some benefits of exercise intervention to skeletal muscle were Nrf2 mediated, and a future work should focus on Nrf2 signaling to identify a pharmacological treatment for sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  Aging; Drp1; Mitochondrial fission; Nrf2; Sarcopenia
  9. Cells. 2021 Nov 12. pii: 3150. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      Cancer cachexia is a frequently neglected debilitating syndrome that, beyond representing a primary cause of death and cancer therapy failure, negatively impacts on patients' quality of life. Given the complexity of its multisystemic pathogenesis, affecting several organs beyond the skeletal muscle, defining an effective therapeutic approach has failed so far. Revamped attention of the scientific community working on cancer cachexia has focused on mitochondrial alterations occurring in the skeletal muscle as potential triggers of the complex metabolic derangements, eventually leading to hypercatabolism and tissue wasting. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be simplistically viewed as a cause of energy failure, thus inducing protein catabolism as a compensatory mechanism; however, other peculiar cachexia features may depend on mitochondria. On the one side, chemotherapy also impacts on muscle mitochondrial function while, on the other side, muscle-impaired regeneration may result from insufficient energy production from damaged mitochondria. Boosting mitochondrial function could thus improve the energetic status and chemotherapy tolerance, and relieve the myogenic process in cancer cachexia. In the present work, a focused review of the available literature on mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cachexia is presented along with preliminary data dissecting the potential role of stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis via PGC-1α overexpression in distinct aspects of cancer-induced muscle wasting.
    Keywords:  PGC-1α; cancer cachexia; metabolism; mitochondria; muscle wasting; myogenesis; regeneration
  10. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Nov 16. pii: 5728. [Epub ahead of print]13(22):
      We investigated the effects of AET on myomiRs expression in the skeletal muscle and serum of colon cachectic (CT26) and breast non-cachectic (MMTV-PyMT) cancer mice models. Colon cancer decreased microRNA-486 expression, increasing PTEN in tibialis anterior muscle (TA), decreasing the PI3K/mTOR protein pathway, body and muscle wasting, fibers' cross-sectional area and muscle dysfunction, that were not preserved by AET. In contrast, breast cancer decreased those muscle functions, but were preserved by AET. In circulation, the downregulation of microRNA-486 and -206 in colon cancer, and the downregulation of microRNA-486 and upregulation of microRNA-206 expression in breast cancer might be good cancer serum biomarkers. Since the microRNA-206 is skeletal muscle specific, their expression was increased in the TA, serum and tumor in MMTV, suggesting a communication among these three compartments. The AET prevents these effects on microRNA-206, but not on microRNA-486 in MMTV. In conclusion, cancer induced a downregulation of microRNA-486 expression in TA and serum of CT26 and MMTV mice and these effects were not prevented by AET; however, to MMTV, the trained muscle function was preserved, probably sustained by the downregulation of microRNA-206 expression. Serum microRNA-206 is a potential biomarker for colon (decreased) and breast (increased) cancer to monitor the disease evolution and the effects promoted by the AET.
    Keywords:  CT26 cancer model; MMTV-PyMT mice; aerobic exercise training; breast cancer; cancer cachexia; colon cancer; muscle wasting; myomiRs
  11. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Nov 24.
      BACKGROUND: Sepsis and inflammation can cause intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). Increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels are a risk factor for ICUAW. IL-6 signalling involves the glycoprotein 130 (gp130) receptor and the JAK/STAT-pathway, but its role in sepsis-induced muscle wasting is uncertain. In a clinical observational study, we found that the IL-6 target gene, SOCS3, was increased in skeletal muscle of ICUAW patients indicative for JAK/STAT-pathway activation. We tested the hypothesis that the IL-6/gp130-pathway mediates ICUAW muscle atrophy.METHODS: We sequenced RNA (RNAseq) from tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of cecal ligation and puncture-operated (CLP) and sham-operated wildtype (WT) mice. The effects of the IL-6/gp130/JAK2/STAT3-pathway were investigated by analysing the atrophy phenotype, gene expression, and protein contents of C2C12 myotubes. Mice lacking Il6st, encoding gp130, in myocytes (cKO) and WT controls, as well as mice treated with the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 or vehicle were exposed to CLP or sham surgery for 24 or 96 h.
    RESULTS: Analyses of differentially expressed genes in RNAseq (≥2-log2-fold change, P < 0.01) revealed an activation of IL-6-signalling and JAK/STAT-signalling pathways in muscle of septic mice, which occurred after 24 h and lasted at least for 96 h during sepsis. IL-6 treatment of C2C12 myotubes induced STAT3 phosphorylation (three-fold, P < 0.01) and Socs3 mRNA expression (3.1-fold, P < 0.01) and caused myotube atrophy. Knockdown of Il6st diminished IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation (-30.0%; P < 0.01), Socs3 mRNA expression, and myotube atrophy. JAK2 (- 29.0%; P < 0.01) or STAT3 inhibition (-38.7%; P < 0.05) decreased IL-6-induced Socs3 mRNA expression. Treatment with either inhibitor attenuated myotube atrophy in response to IL-6. CLP-operated septic mice showed an increased STAT3 phosphorylation and Socs3 mRNA expression in TA muscle, which was reduced in septic Il6st-cKO mice by 67.8% (P < 0.05) and 85.6% (P < 0.001), respectively. CLP caused a loss of TA muscle weight, which was attenuated in Il6st-cKO mice (WT: -22.3%, P < 0.001, cKO: -13.5%, P < 0.001; WT vs. cKO P < 0.001). While loss of Il6st resulted in a reduction of MuRF1 protein contents, Atrogin-1 remained unchanged between septic WT and cKO mice. mRNA expression of Trim63/MuRF1 and Fbxo32/Atrogin-1 were unaltered between CLP-treated WT and cKO mice. AG490 treatment reduced STAT3 phosphorylation (-22.2%, P < 0.05) and attenuated TA muscle atrophy in septic mice (29.6% relative reduction of muscle weight loss, P < 0.05). The reduction in muscle atrophy was accompanied by a reduction in Fbxo32/Atrogin-1-mRNA (-81.3%, P < 0.05) and Trim63/MuRF1-mRNA expression (-77.6%, P < 0.05) and protein content.
    CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 via the gp130/JAK2/STAT3-pathway mediates sepsis-induced muscle atrophy possibly contributing to ICUAW.
    Keywords:  IL-6 signalling; Inflammation; Intensive care unit acquired weakness; Muscle atrophy; Sepsis; gp130
  12. Endocrine. 2021 Nov 22.
      PURPOSE: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been shown to enhance several cellular signaling pathways including protein synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis, yet population data demonstrate a correlation between circulating BCAA and severity of insulin resistance which has been hypothesized to be, in part, a byproduct of BCAA inhibition of mitochondrial function. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a BCAA mixture on muscle metabolism and related gene expression in vitro.METHODS: C2C12 myotubes were treated with a BCAA mixture containing leucine:isoleucine:valine at a ratio of 2:1:1 at 0.2, 2, or 20 mM (based on leucine content) for 6 days. qRT-PCR was used to measure metabolic gene expression. Oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification were used to assess mitochondrial and glycolytic metabolism, respectively. Mitochondrial content was determined via mitochondrial-specific staining.
    RESULTS: Despite significantly elevated mitochondrial staining, 6-day BCAA treatment reduced basal mitochondrial metabolism at a supraphysiological concentration (20 mM) in both insulin sensitive and resistant cells. Peak mitochondrial capacity was also reduced in insulin-resistant (but not insulin sensitive) cells. Conversely, basal glycolytic metabolism was elevated following 20 mM BCAA treatment, regardless of insulin resistance. In addition, insulin-resistant cells treated with 20 mM BCAA exhibited reduced gene expression of Ppargc1a, Cytc, Atp5b, Glut4, and several glycolytic enzymes versus insulin sensitive cells treated with 20 mM BCAA.
    CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest BCAA at supraphysiologically high levels may negatively alter mitochondrial metabolism, and concurrent insulin resistance may also diminish peak mitochondrial capacity, as well as impede molecular adaptations that support a transition to a glycolytic preference/compensation.
    Keywords:  Insulin resistance; Isoleucine; Leucine; Mitochondrial biogenesis; Skeletal muscle; Valine
  13. Bioengineering (Basel). 2021 Nov 01. pii: 168. [Epub ahead of print]8(11):
      Advanced age causes skeletal muscle to undergo deleterious changes including muscle atrophy, fast-to-slow muscle fiber transition, and an increase in collagenous material that culminates in the age-dependent muscle wasting disease known as sarcopenia. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) non-enzymatically accumulate on the muscular collagens in old age via the Maillard reaction, potentiating the accumulation of intramuscular collagen and stiffening the microenvironment through collagen cross-linking. This review contextualizes known aspects of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) aging, especially the role of collagens and AGE cross-linking, and underpins the motor nerve's role in this aging process. Specific directions for future research are also discussed, with the understudied role of AGEs in skeletal muscle aging highlighted. Despite more than a half century of research, the role that intramuscular collagen aggregation and cross-linking plays in sarcopenia is well accepted yet not well integrated with current knowledge of AGE's effects on muscle physiology. Furthermore, the possible impact that motor nerve aging has on intramuscular cross-linking and muscular AGE levels is posited.
    Keywords:  advanced glycation end-products; collagen; collagen cross-linking; motor nerve; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle aging
  14. Cells. 2021 Oct 20. pii: 2821. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      Calsequestrin 1 (CASQ1) in skeletal muscle buffers and senses Ca2+ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). CASQ1 also regulates store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) by binding to stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). Abnormal SOCE and/or abnormal expression or mutations in CASQ1, STIM1, or STIM2 are associated with human skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle diseases. However, the functional relevance of CASQ1 along with STIM2 has not been studied in any tissue, including skeletal muscle. First, in the present study, it was found by biochemical approaches that CASQ1 is bound to STIM2 via its 92 N-terminal amino acids (C1 region). Next, to examine the functional relevance of the CASQ1-STIM2 interaction in skeletal muscle, the full-length wild-type CASQ1 or the C1 region was expressed in mouse primary skeletal myotubes, and the myotubes were examined using single-myotube Ca2+ imaging experiments and transmission electron microscopy observations. The CASQ1-STIM2 interaction via the C1 region decreased SOCE, increased intracellular Ca2+ release for skeletal muscle contraction, and changed intracellular Ca2+ distributions (high Ca2+ in the SR and low Ca2+ in the cytosol were observed). Furthermore, the C1 region itself (which lacks Ca2+-buffering ability but has STIM2-binding ability) decreased the expression of Ca2+-related proteins (canonical-type transient receptor potential cation channel type 6 and calmodulin 1) and induced mitochondrial shape abnormalities. Therefore, in skeletal muscle, CASQ1 plays active roles in Ca2+ movement and distribution by interacting with STIM2 as well as Ca2+ sensing and buffering.
    Keywords:  CASQ1; SOCE; STIM2; skeletal muscle
  15. Cells. 2021 Nov 05. pii: 3035. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that are mainly involved in translational repression by binding to specific messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNAs have emerged as biomarkers, relevant for a multitude of pathophysiological conditions, and cells can selectively sort miRNAs into extracellular vesicles for paracrine and endocrine effects. In the overall context of muscle-wasting conditions, a multitude of miRNAs has been implied as being responsible for the typical dysregulation of anabolic and catabolic pathways. In general, chronic muscle disorders are associated with the main characteristic of a substantial loss in muscle mass. Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a group of genetic diseases that cause muscle weakness and degeneration. Typically, MDs are caused by mutations in those genes responsible for upholding the integrity of muscle structure and function. Recently, the dysregulation of miRNA levels in such pathological conditions has been reported. This revelation is imperative for both MDs and other muscle-wasting conditions, such as sarcopenia and cancer cachexia. The expression levels of miRNAs have immense potential for use as potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers. Understanding the role of miRNAs in muscle-wasting conditions may lead to the development of novel strategies for the improvement of patient management.
    Keywords:  RNA; cancer cachexia; epigenetics; exosomes; inflammation; miRNAs; muscle injury; muscular dystrophies; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle regeneration; stem cells
  16. Sports Med. 2021 Nov 25.
      Concurrent training incorporates dual exercise modalities, typically resistance and aerobic-based exercise, either in a single session or as part of a periodized training program, that can promote muscle strength, mass, power/force and aerobic capacity adaptations for the purposes of sports performance or general health/wellbeing. Despite multiple health and exercise performance-related benefits, diminished muscle hypertrophy, strength and power have been reported with concurrent training compared to resistance training in isolation. Dietary protein is well-established to facilitate skeletal muscle growth, repair and regeneration during recovery from exercise. The degree to which increased protein intake can amplify adaptation responses with resistance exercise, and to a lesser extent aerobic exercise, has been highly studied. In contrast, much less focus has been directed toward the capacity for protein to enhance anabolic and metabolic responses with divergent contractile stimuli inherent to concurrent training and potentially negate interference in muscle strength, power and hypertrophy. This review consolidates available literature investigating increased protein intake on rates of muscle protein synthesis, hypertrophy, strength and force/power adaptations following acute and chronic concurrent training. Acute concurrent exercise studies provide evidence for the significant stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis with protein compared to placebo ingestion. High protein intake can also augment increases in lean mass with chronic concurrent training, although these increases do not appear to translate into further improvements in strength adaptations. Similarly, the available evidence indicates protein intake twice the recommended intake and beyond does not rescue decrements in selective aspects of muscle force and power production with concurrent training.
  17. Skelet Muscle. 2021 Nov 19. 11(1): 26
      BACKGROUND: The Six1 transcription factor is implicated in controlling the development of several tissue types, notably skeletal muscle. Six1 also contributes to muscle metabolism and its activity is associated with the fast-twitch, glycolytic phenotype. Six1 regulates the expression of certain genes of the fast muscle program by directly stimulating their transcription or indirectly acting through a long non-coding RNA. We hypothesized that additional mechanisms of action of Six1 might be at play.METHODS: A combined analysis of gene expression profiling and genome-wide location analysis data was performed. Results were validated using in vivo RNA interference loss-of-function assays followed by measurement of gene expression by RT-PCR and transcriptional reporter assays.
    RESULTS: The Slc16a10 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter MCT10, was identified as a gene with a transcriptional enhancer directly bound by Six1 and requiring Six1 activity for full expression in adult mouse tibialis anterior, a predominantly fast-twitch muscle. Of the various thyroid hormone transporters, MCT10 mRNA was found to be the most abundant in skeletal muscle, and to have a stronger expression in fast-twitch compared to slow-twitch muscle groups. Loss-of-function of MCT10 in the tibialis anterior recapitulated the effect of Six1 on the expression of fast-twitch muscle genes and led to lower activity of a thyroid hormone receptor-dependent reporter gene.
    CONCLUSIONS: These results shed light on the molecular mechanisms controlling the tissue expression profile of MCT10 and identify modulation of the thyroid hormone signaling pathway as an additional mechanism by which Six1 influences skeletal muscle metabolism.
  18. Genome Res. 2021 Nov 23.
      Skeletal muscle accounts for the largest proportion of human body mass, on average, and is a key tissue in complex diseases and mobility. It is composed of several different cell and muscle fiber types. Here, we optimize single-nucleus ATAC-seq (snATAC-seq) to map skeletal muscle cell-specific chromatin accessibility landscapes in frozen human and rat samples, and single-nucleus RNA-seq (snRNA-seq) to map cell-specific transcriptomes in human. We additionally perform multi-omics profiling (gene expression and chromatin accessibility) on human and rat muscle samples. We capture type I and type II muscle fiber signatures, which are generally missed by existing single-cell RNA-seq methods. We perform cross-modality and cross-species integrative analyses on 33,862 nuclei and identify seven cell types ranging in abundance from 59.6% to 1.0% of all nuclei. We introduce a regression-based approach to infer cell types by comparing transcription start site-distal ATAC-seq peaks to reference enhancer maps and show consistency with RNA-based marker gene cell type assignments. We find heterogeneity in enrichment of genetic variants linked to complex phenotypes from the UK Biobank and diabetes genome-wide association studies in cell-specific ATAC-seq peaks, with the most striking enrichment patterns in muscle mesenchymal stem cells (∼3.5% of nuclei). Finally, we overlay these chromatin accessibility maps on GWAS data to nominate causal cell types, SNPs, transcription factor motifs, and target genes for type 2 diabetes signals. These chromatin accessibility profiles for human and rat skeletal muscle cell types are a useful resource for nominating causal GWAS SNPs and cell types.
  19. Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Nov 21. pii: S1568-1637(21)00275-0. [Epub ahead of print] 101528
      Adult stem cells sustain tissue homeostasis and regeneration; their functional decline is often linked to aging, which is characterized by the progressive loss of physiological functions across multiple tissues and organs. The resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, termed satellite cells, are normally quiescent but activate upon injury to reconstitute the damaged tissue. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the molecular processes that contribute to the functional failure of satellite cells during aging. This failure is due not only to intrinsic changes but also to extrinsic factors, most of which are still undefined but originate from the muscle tissue microenvironment of the satellite cells (the niche), or from the systemic environment. We also highlight the emerging applications of the powerful single-cell sequencing technologies in the study of skeletal muscle aging, particularly in the heterogeneity of the satellite cell population and the molecular interaction of satellite cells and other cell types in the niche. An improved understanding of how satellite cells communicate with their environment, and how this communication is perturbed with aging, will be helpful for defining countermeasures against loss of muscle regenerative capacity in sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  Aging; niche; rejuvenation; satellite cell; single-cell omics; skeletal muscle regeneration; stem cell
  20. Exp Cell Res. 2021 Nov 22. pii: S0014-4827(21)00503-6. [Epub ahead of print] 112947
      While the majority of healthy skeletal muscle consists of multinucleated syncytial repetitive contractile myofibers, repaired by skeletal muscle stem cells when damaged, the maintenance of muscle function also requires a range of tissue-resident stromal populations. In fact, the careful orchestration of damage response processes upon muscle injury relies heavily on stromal cell contribution for effective repair. The two main types of muscle-resident stromal cells are fibro/adipogenic progenitors and mural cells. The latter is comprised of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Recent publications identifying common markers for stromal cell populations have allowed investigating population dynamics throughout the regenerative process at a higher resolution. Mounting evidence now suggests that subpopulations with distinct roles may exist among stromal cells. In various degenerative muscle wasting conditions, critical cross-talk and spatial signalling amongst various cell populations become dysregulated. This can result in the failure to curb pathological fibro/adipogenic progenitor proliferation and propensity for laying down excessive extracellular matrix, which in turn leads to fibrotic infiltration, reduced contractile units and gradual decline in muscle function. Restoration of physiologically appropriate stromal cell function is therefore just as crucial for therapeutic targeting as the homeostatic maintenance of muscle function.
    Keywords:  Fibro/adipogenic progenitor; Mesenchymal stromal cell; Pericyte; Skeletal muscle
  21. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Nov 17. pii: 12378. [Epub ahead of print]22(22):
      Mag-Fluo-4 has revealed differences in the kinetics of the Ca2+ transients of mammalian fiber types (I, IIA, IIX, and IIB). We simulated the changes in [Ca2+] through the sarcomere of these four fiber types, considering classical (troponin -Tn-, parvalbumin -Pv-, adenosine triphosphate -ATP-, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump -SERCA-, and dye) and new (mitochondria -MITO-, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger -NCX-, and store-operated calcium entry -SOCE-) Ca2+ binding sites, during single and tetanic stimulation. We found that during a single twitch, the sarcoplasmic peak [Ca2+] for fibers type IIB and IIX was around 16 µM, and for fibers type I and IIA reached 10-13 µM. The release rate in fibers type I, IIA, IIX, and IIB was 64.8, 153.6, 238.8, and 244.5 µM ms-1, respectively. Both the pattern of change and the peak concentrations of the Ca2+-bound species in the sarcoplasm (Tn, PV, ATP, and dye), the sarcolemma (NCX, SOCE), and the SR (SERCA) showed the order IIB ≥ IIX > IIA > I. The capacity of the NCX was 2.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.8% of the capacity of SERCA, for fibers type I, IIA, IIX, and IIB, respectively. MITO peak [Ca2+] ranged from 0.93 to 0.23 µM, in fibers type I and IIB, respectively, while intermediate values were obtained in fibers IIA and IIX. The latter numbers doubled during tetanic stimulation. In conclusion, we presented a comprehensive mathematical model of the excitation-contraction coupling that integrated most classical and novel Ca2+ handling mechanisms, overcoming the limitations of the fast- vs. slow-fibers dichotomy and the use of slow dyes.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ dyes; ECC; mathematical simulation; muscle cells; tetanus
  22. Biomedicines. 2021 Oct 31. pii: 1589. [Epub ahead of print]9(11):
      Ca2+ overload is one of the factors leading to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) pathogenesis. However, the molecular targets of dystrophin deficiency-dependent Ca2+ overload and the correlation between Ca2+ overload and contractile DMD phenotypes in in vitro human models remain largely elusive. In this study, we utilized DMD patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to differentiate myotubes using doxycycline-inducible MyoD overexpression, and searched for a target molecule that mediates dystrophin deficiency-dependent Ca2+ overload using commercially available chemicals and siRNAs. We found that several store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOC) inhibitors effectively prevented Ca2+ overload and identified that STIM1-Orai1 is a molecular target of SOCs. These findings were further confirmed by demonstrating that STIM1-Orai1 inhibitors, CM4620, AnCoA4, and GSK797A, prevented Ca2+ overload in dystrophic myotubes. Finally, we evaluated CM4620, AnCoA4, and GSK7975A activities using a previously reported model recapitulating a muscle fatigue-like decline in contractile performance in DMD. All three chemicals ameliorated the decline in contractile performance, indicating that modulating STIM1-Orai1-mediated Ca2+ overload is effective in rescuing contractile phenotypes. In conclusion, SOCs are major contributors to dystrophin deficiency-dependent Ca2+ overload through STIM1-Orai1 as molecular mediators. Modulating STIM1-Orai1 activity was effective in ameliorating the decline in contractile performance in DMD.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ overload; STIM1-Orai1; iPSC; skeletal muscle; store-operated Ca2+ channel
  23. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Nov 22. pii: 12578. [Epub ahead of print]22(22):
      The aim of this study was to investigate differences in skeletal muscle gene expression of highly trained endurance and strength athletes in comparison to untrained individuals at rest and in response to either an acute bout of endurance or strength exercise. Endurance (ET, n = 8, VO2max 67 ± 9 mL/kg/min) and strength athletes (ST, n = 8, 5.8 ± 3.0 training years) as well as untrained controls (E-UT and S-UT, each n = 8) performed an acute endurance or strength exercise test. One day before testing (Pre), 30 min (30'Post) and 3 h (180'Post) afterwards, a skeletal muscle biopsy was obtained from the m. vastus lateralis. Skeletal muscle mRNA was isolated and analyzed by Affymetrix-microarray technology. Pathway analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of training status (trained vs. untrained) and exercise mode-specific (ET vs. ST) transcriptional responses. Differences in global skeletal muscle gene expression between trained and untrained were smaller compared to differences in exercise mode. Maximum differences between ET and ST were found between Pre and 180'Post. Pathway analyses showed increased expression of exercise-related genes, such as nuclear transcription factors (NR4A family), metabolism and vascularization (PGC1-α and VEGF-A), and muscle growth/structure (myostatin, IRS1/2 and HIF1-α. The most upregulated genes in response to acute endurance or strength exercise were the NR4A genes (NR4A1, NR4A2, NR4A3). The mode of acute exercise had a significant effect on transcriptional regulation Pre vs. 180'Post. In contrast, the effect of training status on human skeletal muscle gene expression profiles was negligible compared to strength or endurance specialization. The highest variability in gene expression, especially for the NR4A-family, was observed in trained individuals at 180'Post. Assessment of these receptors might be suitable to obtain a deeper understanding of skeletal muscle adaptive processes to develop optimized training strategies.
    Keywords:  endurance exercise; microarray; molecular muscle adaptations; pathway analysis; strength exercise; training status; transcriptional regulation
  24. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Nov 16. pii: 12356. [Epub ahead of print]22(22):
      The main function of skeletal muscles is to generate force. The force developed by myofiber contraction is transmitted to the tendon. There are two pathways of force transmission from myofibers to tendons: longitudinal transmission that depends on tension elicited via the myotendinous junction and lateral transmission that depends on shear elicited via the interface between the myofiber surface and surrounding connective tissue. Experiments using animal muscle and mathematical models indicated that lateral transmission is the dominant pathway in muscle force transmission. Studies using rat muscle showed that the efficiency of lateral force transmission declines with age. Here, the lateral transmission of force was measured using the extensor digitorum longus muscle from young and old mice. Dependence on longitudinal transmission increased in the old muscle, and there was a trend for lower efficiency of lateral force transmission in the old muscle compared to the young muscle. There was a noticeable increase in the connective tissue volume in the old muscle; however, there was no significant change in the expression of dystrophin, a critical molecule for the link between the myofiber cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. This study demonstrates the measurement of lateral force transmission in mouse muscles and that alteration in force transmission property may underlie age-related muscle weakness.
    Keywords:  lateral force transmission; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle
  25. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2021 Aug;24(8): 1153-1158
      Objectives: Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in the DMD gene, resulting in the absence of dystrophin expression leading to membrane fragility and myofibril necrosis in the muscle cells. Because of progressive weakness in the skeletal and cardiac muscles, premature death is inevitable. There is no curative treatment available for DMD. In recent years, advances in genetic engineering tools have made it possible to manipulate gene sequences and accurately modify disease-causing mutations. CRISPR/Cas9 technology is a promising tool for gene editing because of its ability to induce double-strand breaks in the DNA.Materials and Methods: In this study for the exon-skipping approach, we designed a new pair of guide RNAs (gRNA) to induce large deletion of exons 48 to 53 in the DMD gene in the human skeletal muscle cell line (HSkMC), in order to correct the frame of the gene.
    Results: Data showed successful editing of DMD gene by deletion of exons 48 to 53 and correction of the reading frame in edited cells. Despite a large deletion in the edited DMD gene, the data of real-time PCR, immune florescent staining demonstrated successful expression of truncated dystrophin in edited cells.
    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the removal of exons 48-53 by the CRISPR / Cas9 system did not alter the expression of the DMD gene due to the preservation of the reading frame of the gene.
    Keywords:  CRISPR/Cas9; DMD; Dystrophin; Gene editing; HSkMC
  26. Nat Commun. 2021 Nov 26. 12(1): 6924
      Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric malignancy of skeletal muscle lineage. The aggressive alveolar subtype is characterized by t(2;13) or t(1;13) translocations encoding for PAX3- or PAX7-FOXO1 chimeric transcription factors, respectively, and are referred to as fusion positive RMS (FP-RMS). The fusion gene alters the myogenic program and maintains the proliferative state while blocking terminal differentiation. Here, we investigated the contributions of chromatin regulatory complexes to FP-RMS tumor maintenance. We define the mSWI/SNF functional repertoire in FP-RMS. We find that SMARCA4 (encoding BRG1) is overexpressed in this malignancy compared to skeletal muscle and is essential for cell proliferation. Proteomic studies suggest proximity between PAX3-FOXO1 and BAF complexes, which is further supported by genome-wide binding profiles revealing enhancer colocalization of BAF with core regulatory transcription factors. Further, mSWI/SNF complexes localize to sites of de novo histone acetylation. Phenotypically, interference with mSWI/SNF complex function induces transcriptional activation of the skeletal muscle differentiation program associated with MYCN enhancer invasion at myogenic target genes, which is recapitulated by BRG1 targeting compounds. We conclude that inhibition of BRG1 overcomes the differentiation blockade of FP-RMS cells and may provide a therapeutic strategy for this lethal childhood tumor.
  27. Exp Gerontol. 2021 Nov 22. pii: S0531-5565(21)00414-9. [Epub ahead of print] 111632
      It is unknown if consumption of a Western diet (WD; high-fat/sucrose), versus a non-WD (healthy diet), accelerates declines in physical function over the adult lifespan, and whether regular voluntary activity attenuates age- and WD-associated declines in function. Accordingly, we studied 4 cohorts of mice that consumed either normal chow [NC] or WD with or without access (sedentary, Sed) to voluntary wheel running [VWR] beginning at 3 mo of age. We assessed coordination, grip strength and endurance every 6 mo throughout life, and measured skeletal muscle mass and inflammation at 3 pre-determined ages (6-7, 13-14 and 19-20 mo). Age-related declines (% change 3-18 mo) in physical function were accelerated in WD-Sed versus NC-Sed (coordination: +47 ± 5%; grip strength: +18 ± 2%; endurance: +32 ± 5%; all p < 0.05). VWR attenuated declines in physical function within diet group (coordination: -31 ± 3% with WD-VWR; -18 ± 2% with NC-VWR; grip strength: -26 ± 2% with WD-VWR; -24 ± 2% with NC-VWR; endurance: -48 ± 4% with WD-VWR; -23 ± 6% with NC-VWR; all p < 0.05). Skeletal muscle mass loss and pro-inflammatory cytokine abundance were exacerbated by WD throughout life (mass: NC-Sed [-]7-28%, WD-Sed [-]17-40%; inflammation: NC-Sed [+]40-65%, WD-Sed [+]40-84%, all p < 0.05 versus NC-Sed), and attenuated by VWR (mass: NC-VWR, [-]0-10%, WD-VWR [-]0-10%; inflammation: NC-VWR [+]0-30%, WD-VWR [+]0-42%, all p < 0.05 versus diet-matched Sed group). Our results depict the temporal impairment of physical function over the lifespan in mice, acceleration of dysfunction with WD, the protective effects of voluntary exercise, and the potential associations with skeletal muscle mass and inflammation.
    Keywords:  Aging; Physical activity; Physical function; Voluntary wheel running; Western diet
  28. Cells. 2021 Nov 06. pii: 3061. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      Nesprin-1 is a large scaffold protein connecting nuclei to the actin cytoskeleton via its KASH and Calponin Homology domains, respectively. Nesprin-1 disconnection from nuclei results in altered muscle function and myonuclei mispositioning. Furthermore, Nesprin-1 mutations are associated with muscular pathologies such as Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and arthrogryposis. Nesprin-1 was thus proposed to mainly contribute to muscle function by controlling nuclei position. However, Nesprin-1's localisation at sarcomere's Z-discs, its involvement in organelles' subcellular localization, as well as the description of numerous isoforms presenting different combinations of Calponin Homology (CH) and KASH domains, suggest that the contribution of Nesprin-1 to muscle functions is more complex. Here, we investigate the roles of Nesprin-1/Msp300 isoforms in muscle function and subcellular organisation using Drosophila larvae as a model. Subsets of Msp300 isoform were down-regulated by muscle-specific RNAi expression and muscle global function and morphology were assessed. We show that nuclei anchoring in mature muscle and global muscle function are disconnected functions associated with different Msp300 isoforms. Our work further uncovers a new and unsuspected role of Msp300 in myofibril registration and nuclei peripheral displacement supported by Msp300 CH containing isoforms, a function performed by Desmin in mammals.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; Msp300; Nesprin-1; desmin; isoform; isoforms; myofibrils; nuclei clustering
  29. Cells. 2021 Oct 28. pii: 2917. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      Nutraceutical products possess various anti-inflammatory, antiarrhythmic, cardiotonic, and antioxidant pharmacological activities that could be useful in preventing oxidative damage, mainly induced by reactive oxygen species. Previously published data showed that a mixture of polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, mediate an antioxidative response in mdx mice, Duchenne muscular dystrophy animal model. Dystrophic muscles are characterized by low regenerative capacity, fibrosis, fiber necrosis, inflammatory process, altered autophagic flux and inadequate anti-oxidant response. FLAVOmega β is a mixture of flavonoids and docosahexaenoic acid. In this study, we evaluated the role of these supplements in the amelioration of the pathological phenotype in dystrophic mice through in vitro and in vivo assays. FLAVOmega β reduced inflammation and fibrosis, dampened reactive oxygen species production, and induced an oxidative metabolic switch of myofibers, with consequent increase of mitochondrial activity, vascularization, and fatigue resistance. Therefore, we propose FLAVOmega β as food supplement suitable for preventing muscle weakness, delaying inflammatory milieu, and sustaining physical health in patients affected from DMD.
    Keywords:  Duchenne muscular dystrophy; food supplement; inflammatory response; muscle homeostasis; muscle regeneration; satellite cells
  30. Physiol Rep. 2021 Nov;9(22): e15119
      Rheumatoid arthritis targets numerous organs in patients, including the skeletal muscle, resulting in rheumatoid cachexia. In the muscle niche, satellite cells, macrophages, and myofibroblasts may be affected and the factors they release altered. This study aimed to assess these cell types, cytokines, and growth factors and their relationships to muscle fiber size and number in a rodent collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, in order to identify new therapeutic targets. Fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) was 57% lower in CIA than controls (p < 0.0001), thus smaller but more fibers visible per field of view. Immunostaining indicated the increased presence of satellite cells, macrophages, myofibroblasts, and myonuclei per field of view in CIA (p < 0.01), but this finding was not maintained when taking fiber number into consideration. Western blots of gastrocnemius samples indicated that tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly elevated (p < 0.01) while interleukin-10 (IL-10) was decreased (p < 0.05) in CIA. This effect was maintained (and heightened for IL-10) when expressed per fiber number. Myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD and myogenin), transforming growth factor-β and inhibitor of differentiation were significantly elevated in CIA muscle and levels correlated significantly with CSA. Several of these factors remained elevated, but bone morphogenetic protein-7 decreased when considering fiber number per area. In conclusion, CIA-muscle demonstrated a good regenerative response. Myoblast numbers per fiber were not elevated, suggesting their activity results from the persistent inflammatory signaling which also significantly hampered maintenance of muscle fiber size. A clearer picture of signaling events at cellular level in arthritis muscle may be derived from expressing data per fiber.
    Keywords:  cachexia; collagen-induced arthritis; macrophage; myofibroblast; satellite cell
  31. Cells. 2021 Nov 02. pii: 2984. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      Rho guanosine triphosphate hydrolases (GTPases) are molecular switches that cycle between an inactive guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound and an active guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound state during signal transduction. As such, they regulate a wide range of both cellular and physiological processes. In this review, we will summarize recent work on the role of Rho GTPase-regulated pathways in skeletal muscle development, regeneration, tissue mass homeostatic balance, and metabolism. In addition, we will present current evidence that links the dysregulation of these GTPases with diseases caused by skeletal muscle dysfunction. Overall, this information underscores the critical role of a number of members of the Rho GTPase subfamily in muscle development and the overall metabolic balance of mammalian species.
    Keywords:  Cdc42; GTPase activating proteins; Rac1; RhoA; guanosine nucleotide exchange factors; metabolism; muscle mass; muscle regeneration; myogenesis; pak; rock; satellite cells; signaling; small G protein
  32. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Nov 23. 12(12): 1102
      Lipid droplet (LD), a multi-functional organelle, is found in most eukaryotic cells. LDs participate in the regulation of many cellular processes including proliferation, stress, and apoptosis. Previous studies showed the athlete's paradox that trained athletes accumulate LDs in their skeletal muscle. However, the impact of LDs on skeletal muscle and myogenesis is not clear. We discovered that C2C12 myoblast cells containing more LDs formed more multinucleated muscle fibers. We also discovered that LDs promoted cell migration and fusion by promoting actin-filaments remodeling. Mechanistically, two LD-proteins, Acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 3 (ACSL3) and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1), medicated the recruitment of actinin proteins which contributed to actin-filaments formation on the surface of LDs. During remodeling, the actinin proteins on LDs surface translocated to actin-filaments via ARF1/COPI vesicles. Our study demonstrate LDs contribute to cell differentiation, which lead to new insight into the LD function.
  33. Genes (Basel). 2021 Oct 21. pii: 1655. [Epub ahead of print]12(11):
      Mammalian skeletal muscle (SkM) tissue engages the Nrf2-Keap1-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism to respond adaptively to stress. Redox homeostasis mediated by the reversible modification of selective cysteines is the prevalent mode of regulation. The protein targets of SkM redox regulation are largely unknown. We previously reported the proteomic profiles of soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) with Nrf2 or Keap1 gene deletion, using SkM-specific Nrf2 or Keap1 knockout models; iMS-Nrf2flox/flox; and iMS-Keap1flox/flox. Here, we employed these two animal models to understand the global expression profile of red tibialis anterior (RTA) using a label free approach and its redox proteomics using iodoacetyl tandem mass tag (iodoTMTTM)-labeled cysteine quantitation. We quantified 298 proteins that were significantly altered globally in the RTA with Nrf2 deficiency but only 21 proteins in the Keap1 KO samples. These proteins are involved in four intracellular signaling pathways: sirtuin signaling, Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrion dysfunction. Moreover, we identified and quantified the cysteine redox peptides of 34 proteins, which are associated with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, energy metabolism, and extracellular matrix. Our findings suggest that Nrf2-deficient RTA is implicated in metabolic myopathy, mitochondrial disorders, and motor dysfunction, possibly due to an enhanced oxidative modification of the structure and functional proteins in skeletal myocytes.
    Keywords:  IPA; Nrf2/Keap1 system; quantitative proteomics; sedox cysteine; skeletal muscle
  34. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2021 11 22. 9(1): 186
      The type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) is an intracellular calcium (Ca2+) release channel on the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum that is required for skeletal muscle contraction. RyR1 channel activity is modulated by ligands, including the activators Ca2+ and ATP. Patients with inherited mutations in RyR1 may exhibit muscle weakness as part of a heterogeneous, complex disorder known as RYR1-related myopathy (RYR1-RM) or more recently termed RYR1-related disorders (RYR1-RD). Guided by high-resolution structures of skeletal muscle RyR1, obtained using cryogenic electron microscopy, we introduced mutations into putative Ca2+ and ATP binding sites and studied the function of the resulting mutant channels. These mutations confirmed the functional significance of the Ca2+ and ATP binding sites identified by structural studies based on the effects on channel regulation. Under normal conditions, Ca2+ activates RyR1 at low concentrations (µM) and inhibits it at high concentrations (mM). Mutations in the Ca2+-binding site impaired both activating and inhibitory regulation of the channel, suggesting a single site for both high and low affinity Ca2+-dependent regulation of RyR1 function. Mutation of residues that interact with the adenine ring of ATP abrogated ATP binding to the channel, whereas mutating residues that interact with the triphosphate tail only affected the degree of activation. In addition, patients with mutations at the Ca2+ or ATP binding sites suffer from muscle weakness, therefore impaired RyR1 channel regulation by either Ca2+ or ATP may contribute to the pathophysiology of RYR1-RM in some patients.
  35. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Oct 27. pii: 1712. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 Nfe2l2 (Nrf2) is believed to play a crucial role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. In addition to its primary function of maintaining redox homeostasis, there is emerging evidence that Nrf2 is also involved in energy metabolism. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of Nrf2 in skeletal muscle metabolism from the perspective of exercise physiology. This article is part of a special issue "Mitochondrial Function, Reactive Oxygen/Nitrogen Species and Skeletal Muscle" edited by Håkan Westerblad and Takashi Yamada.
    Keywords:  Nrf2; mitochondria; oxidative stress; skeletal muscle
  36. Cells. 2021 Nov 17. pii: 3210. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      Two of the main pathologies characterizing dysferlinopathies are disrupted muscle membrane repair and chronic inflammation, which lead to symptoms of muscle weakness and wasting. Here, we used recombinant human Galectin-1 (rHsGal-1) as a therapeutic for LGMD2B mouse and human models. Various redox and multimerization states of Gal-1 show that rHsGal-1 is the most effective form in both increasing muscle repair and decreasing inflammation, due to its monomer-dimer equilibrium. Dose-response testing shows an effective 25-fold safety profile between 0.54 and 13.5 mg/kg rHsGal-1 in Bla/J mice. Mice treated weekly with rHsGal-1 showed downregulation of canonical NF-κB inflammation markers, decreased muscle fat deposition, upregulated anti-inflammatory cytokines, increased membrane repair, and increased functional movement compared to non-treated mice. Gal-1 treatment also resulted in a positive self-upregulation loop of increased endogenous Gal-1 expression independent of NF-κB activation. A similar reduction in disease pathologies in patient-derived human cells demonstrates the therapeutic potential of Gal-1 in LGMD2B patients.
    Keywords:  Galectin-1; LGMD2B; NF-ĸB; cytokines; inflammation; membrane repair; muscular dystrophy
  37. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Nov 22.
      BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) represent a novel class of non-coding RNAs formed by a covalently closed loop and play crucial roles in many biological processes. Several circRNAs associated with myogenesis have been reported. However, the dynamic expression, function, and mechanism of circRNAs during myogenesis and skeletal muscle development are largely unknown.METHODS: Strand-specific RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and microarray datasets were used to profile the dynamic circRNAome landscape during skeletal muscle development and myogenic differentiation. Bioinformatics analyses were used to characterize the circRNAome and identify candidate circRNAs associated with myogenesis. Bulk and single-cell RNA-seq were performed to identify the downstream genes and pathways of circFgfr2. The primary myoblast cells, C2C12 cells, and animal model were used to assess the function and mechanism of circFgfr2 in myogenesis and muscle regeneration in vitro or in vivo by RT-qPCR, western blotting, dual-luciferase activity assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, and chromatin immunoprecipitation.
    RESULTS: We profiled the dynamic circRNAome in pig skeletal muscle across 27 developmental stages and detected 52 918 high-confidence circRNAs. A total of 2916 of these circRNAs are conserved across human, mouse, and pig, including four circRNAs (circFgfr2, circQrich1, circMettl9, and circCamta1) that were differentially expressed (|log2 fold change| > 1 and adjusted P value < 0.05) in various myogenesis systems. We further focused on a conserved circRNA produced from the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) gene, termed circFgfr2, which was found to inhibit myoblast proliferation and promote differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration. Mechanistically, circFgfr2 acted as a sponge for miR-133 to regulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 20 (Map3k20) gene and JNK/MAPK pathway. Importantly, transcription factor Kruppel like factor 4 (Klf4), the downstream target of the JNK/MAPK pathway, directly bound to the promoter of circFgfr2 and affected its expression via an miR-133/Map3k20/JNK/Klf4 auto-regulatory feedback loop. RNA binding protein G3BP stress granule assembly factor 1 (G3bp1) inhibited the biogenesis of circFgfr2.
    CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides a comprehensive circRNA resource for skeletal muscle study. The functional and mechanistic analysis of circFgfr2 uncovered a circRNA-mediated auto-regulatory feedback loop regulating myogenesis and muscle regeneration, which provides new insight to further understand the regulatory mechanism of circRNAs.
    Keywords:  Development; Feedback loop; Regeneration; Skeletal muscle; circFgfr2; circRNA
  38. Nutrients. 2021 Oct 29. pii: 3884. [Epub ahead of print]13(11):
      Muscular adaptations can be triggered by exercise and diet. As vegan and vegetarian diets differ in nutrient composition compared to an omnivorous diet, a change in dietary regimen might alter physiological responses to physical exercise and influence physical performance. Mitochondria abundance, muscle capillary density, hemoglobin concentration, endothelial function, functional heart morphology and availability of carbohydrates affect endurance performance and can be influenced by diet. Based on these factors, a vegan and vegetarian diet possesses potentially advantageous properties for endurance performance. Properties of the contractile elements, muscle protein synthesis, the neuromuscular system and phosphagen availability affect strength performance and can also be influenced by diet. However, a vegan and vegetarian diet possesses potentially disadvantageous properties for strength performance. Current research has failed to demonstrate consistent differences of performance between diets but a trend towards improved performance after vegetarian and vegan diets for both endurance and strength exercise has been shown. Importantly, diet alters molecular signaling via leucine, creatine, DHA and EPA that directly modulates skeletal muscle adaptation. By changing the gut microbiome, diet can modulate signaling through the production of SFCA.
    Keywords:  diet; endurance; microbiome; molecular; performance; signaling; strength; vegan; vegetarian
  39. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Nov 09. pii: 12133. [Epub ahead of print]22(22):
      In a global aging population, it is important to understand the factors affecting systemic aging and lifespan. Mitohormesis, an adaptive response caused by different insults affecting the mitochondrial network, triggers a response from the nuclear genome inducing several pathways that promote longevity and metabolic health. Understanding the role of mitochondrial function during the aging process could help biomarker identification and the development of novel strategies for healthy aging. Herein, we interfered the muscle expression of the Drosophila genes Marf and Opa1, two genes that encode for proteins promoting mitochondrial fusion, orthologues of human MFN2 and OPA1. Silencing of Marf and Opa1 in muscle increases lifespan, improves locomotor capacities in the long term, and maintains muscular integrity. A metabolomic analysis revealed that muscle down-regulation of Marf and Opa1 promotes a non-autonomous systemic metabolome reorganization, mainly affecting metabolites involved in the energetic homeostasis: carbohydrates, lipids and aminoacids. Interestingly, the differences are consistently more evident in younger flies, implying that there may exist an anticipative adaptation mediating the protective changes at the older age. We demonstrate that mild mitochondrial muscle disturbance plays an important role in Drosophila fitness and reveals metabolic connections between tissues. This study opens new avenues to explore the link of mitochondrial dynamics and inter-organ communication, as well as their relationship with muscle-related pathologies, or in which muscle aging is a risk factor for their appearance. Our results suggest that early intervention in muscle may prevent sarcopenia and promote healthy aging.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; insulin pathway; lifespan; metabolomics; mitohormesis
  40. BMB Rep. 2021 Nov 24. pii: 5487. [Epub ahead of print]
      Physical exercise can be effective in preventing or ameliorating various diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. However, not everyone may be able to participate in exercise due to illnesses, age-related frailty, or difficulty in long-term behavior change. An alternative option is to utilize pharmacological interventions that mimic the positive effects of exercise training. Recent studies have identified signaling pathways associated with the benefits of physical activity and discovered exercise mimetics that can partially simulate the systemic impact of exercise. This review describes the molecular targets for exercise mimetics and their effect on skeletal muscle and other tissues. We will also discuss the potential advantages of using natural products as a multi-targeting agent for mimicking the health-promoting effects of exercise.
  41. Genes (Basel). 2021 Oct 28. pii: 1718. [Epub ahead of print]12(11):
      Next-generation sequencing provides an opportunity for an in-depth biocomputational analysis to identify gene expression patterns between soleus and tibialis anterior, two well-characterized skeletal muscles, and analyze their gene expression profiling. RNA read counts were analyzed for differential gene expression using the R package edgeR. Differentially expressed genes were filtered using a false discovery rate of less than 0.05 c, a fold-change value of more than twenty, and an association with overrepresented pathways based on the Reactome pathway over-representation analysis tool. Most of the differentially expressed genes associated with soleus are coded for components of lipid metabolism and unique contractile elements. Differentially expressed genes associated with tibialis anterior encoded mostly for glucose and glycogen metabolic pathway regulatory enzymes and calcium-sensitive contractile components. These gene expression distinctions partly explain the genetic basis for skeletal muscle specialization, and they may help to explain skeletal muscle susceptibility to disease and drugs and further refine tissue engineering approaches.
    Keywords:  contraction; gene expression; metabolism; mouse; signaling; skeletal muscle; soleus; tibialis anterior
  42. Biology (Basel). 2021 Oct 25. pii: 1098. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      The molecular mechanisms by which free fatty acids (FFA) inhibit muscle glucose oxidation is still elusive. We recently showed that C2C12 myotubes treated with palmitate (PAL) presented with greater protein expression levels of PDK4 and transcription factors PPARα and PPARδ and lower p-FOXO/t-FOXO protein ratios when compared to control. This was complemented with the hallmarks of metabolic inflexibility (MI), i.e., reduced rates of glucose uptake, PDC activity and maximal pyruvate-derived ATP production rates (MAPR). However, the relative contribution of these transcription factors to the increase in PDK4 and reduced glucose oxidation could not be established. Therefore, by using a similar myotube model, a series of individual siRNA gene silencing experiments, validated at transcriptional and translation levels, were performed in conjunction with measurements of glucose uptake, PDC activity, MAPR and concentrations of metabolites reflecting PDC flux (lactate and acetylcarnitine). Gene silencing of PPARα, δ and FOXO1 individually reduced PAL-mediated inhibition of PDC activity and increased glucose uptake, albeit by different mechanisms as only PPARδ and FOXO1 silencing markedly reduced PDK4 protein content. Additionally, PPARα and FOXO1 silencing, but not PPARδ, increased MAPR with PAL. PPARδ silencing also decreased FOXO1 protein. Since FOXO1 silencing did not alter PPARδ protein, this suggests that FOXO1 might be a PPARδ downstream target. In summary, this study suggests that the molecular mechanisms by which PAL reduces PDC-mediated glucose-derived pyruvate oxidation in muscle occur primarily through increased PPARδ and FOXO1 mediated increases in PDK4 protein expression and secondarily through PPARα mediated allosteric inhibition of PDC flux. Furthermore, since PPARδ seems to control FOXO1 expression, this may reflect an important role for PPARδ in preventing glucose oxidation under conditions of increased lipid availability.
    Keywords:  free fatty acids; fuel selection; metabolic inflexibility; muscle cell
  43. Cells. 2021 Nov 03. pii: 2990. [Epub ahead of print]10(11):
      Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a cytokine best known for affecting systemic energy metabolism through its anorectic action. GDF15 expression and secretion from various organs and tissues is induced in different physiological and pathophysiological states, often linked to mitochondrial stress, leading to highly variable circulating GDF15 levels. In skeletal muscle and the heart, the basal expression of GDF15 is very low compared to other organs, but GDF15 expression and secretion can be induced in various stress conditions, such as intense exercise and acute myocardial infarction, respectively. GDF15 is thus considered as a myokine and cardiokine. GFRAL, the exclusive receptor for GDF15, is expressed in hindbrain neurons and activation of the GDF15-GFRAL pathway is linked to an increased sympathetic outflow and possibly an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis. There is also evidence for peripheral, direct effects of GDF15 on adipose tissue lipolysis and possible autocrine cardiac effects. Metabolic and behavioral outcomes of GDF15 signaling can be beneficial or detrimental, likely depending on the magnitude and duration of the GDF15 signal. This is especially apparent for GDF15 production in muscle, which can be induced both by exercise and by muscle disease states such as sarcopenia and mitochondrial myopathy.
    Keywords:  anorexia; appetite regulation; cardiokine; cytokine; exercise; mitochondria; muscle; myokine; myopathy; sarcopenia
  44. Nutrients. 2021 Nov 10. pii: 4013. [Epub ahead of print]13(11):
      Vitamin D is a key micronutrient modulating function and health in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we sought to systematically review the role of vitamin D in muscle recovery. A search in different databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, WOS, Google Scholar, and Scopus) was carried out following PRISMA® and PICOS. The search period was from inception to April 2020. Changes in post-exercise muscle damage were quantified comparing experimental group vs. placebo in each study by using number of participants, standardized mean difference (SMD), and standard error of the SMD. Hedges's g was used to calculate the SMDs for each study group and biased by the inverse of variance that allows calculating an overall effect and the 95% confidence interval (CI). The net vitamin D supplementation effect was calculated by subtracting the placebo SMD from SMD of the experimental group. The DerSimonian and Laird method was used as a random effect model, taking into account that the effect of vitamin D on muscular damage may vary according to the dose administered and additional moderators. Six studies were selected. In conclusion, regarding circulating levels of muscle biomarkers and additional limitations of the studies, it cannot be concluded that vitamin D supplementation exerts an effect in post-exercise muscle recovery. Likely, the anti-inflammatory action of vitamin D is quicker than the recovery of tissue structure and function. This aspect is pending verification in future research.
    Keywords:  creatine kinase; exercise; muscle damage; myoglobin; recovery; vitamin D
  45. Mol Metab. 2021 Nov 18. pii: S2212-8778(21)00256-8. [Epub ahead of print] 101398
      OBJECTIVE: To analyze the genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic changes induced by long term resistance or endurance training in the hippocampus of wild-type mice.METHODS: We performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of mice hippocampus after 4 weeks of specific training. In addition, we used a novel object recognition test before and after the intervention to determine whether the exercise led to an improvement in cognitive function.
    RESULTS: Although the majority of DNA methylation changes identified in this study were training-model specific, most were associated with hypomethylation, and were enriched in similar histone marks, chromatin states, and transcription factor biding sites. In this sense, it is worth highlighting the significant association found between the loss of DNA methylation in Tet1 binding sites and gene expression changes, indicating the importance of these epigenomic changes in transcriptional regulation. However, endurance and resistance training activate different gene pathways, those being associated with neuroplasticity in the case of endurance exercise, and interferon response pathways in the case of resistance exercise, which also appears to be associated with improved learning and memory functions.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results help both understand the molecular mechanisms by which different exercise models exert beneficial effects for brain health and provide new potential therapeutic targets for future research.
    Keywords:  Epigenome; endurance training; exercise; hippocampus; neuroplasticity; resistance training; transcriptome
  46. Nat Commun. 2021 Nov 25. 12(1): 6838
      Brown adipocytes share the same developmental origin with skeletal muscle. Here we find that a brown adipocyte-to-myocyte remodeling also exists in mature brown adipocytes, and is induced by prolonged high fat diet (HFD) feeding, leading to brown fat dysfunction. This process is regulated by the interaction of epigenetic pathways involving histone and DNA methylation. In mature brown adipocytes, the histone demethylase UTX maintains persistent demethylation of the repressive mark H3K27me3 at Prdm16 promoter, leading to high Prdm16 expression. PRDM16 then recruits DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 to Myod1 promoter, causing Myod1 promoter hypermethylation and suppressing its expression. The interaction between PRDM16 and DNMT1 coordinately serves to maintain brown adipocyte identity while repressing myogenic remodeling in mature brown adipocytes, thus promoting their active brown adipocyte thermogenic function. Suppressing this interaction by HFD feeding induces brown adipocyte-to-myocyte remodeling, which limits brown adipocyte thermogenic capacity and compromises diet-induced thermogenesis, leading to the development of obesity.