bims-moremu Biomed News
on Molecular regulators of muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒09‒12
forty-two papers selected by
Anna Vainshtein
Craft Science Inc.

  1. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 2021 Sep 10. 22 222-236
      Muscle function and mass begin declining in adults long before evidence of sarcopenia and include reduced mitochondrial function, although much remains to be characterized. We found that mRNA decay factor AU-rich mRNA binding factor 1 (AUF1), which stimulates myogenesis, is strongly reduced in skeletal muscle of adult and older mice in the absence of evidence of sarcopenia. Muscle-specific adeno-associated virus (AAV)8-AUF1 gene therapy increased expression of AUF1, muscle function, and mass. AAV8 AUF1 muscle gene transfer in 12-month-old mice increased the levels of activated muscle stem (satellite) cells, increased muscle mass, reduced markers of muscle atrophy, increased markers of mitochondrial content and muscle fiber oxidative capacity, and enhanced exercise performance to levels of 3-month-old mice. With wild-type and AUF1 knockout mice and cultured myoblasts, AUF1 supplementation of muscle fibers was found to increase expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma Co-activator 1-alpha (PGC1α), a major effector of skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. AUF1 stabilized and increased translation of the pgc1α mRNA, which is strongly reduced in adult muscle in the absence of AUF1 supplementation. Skeletal muscle-specific gene transfer of AUF1 therefore restores muscle mass, increases exercise endurance, and may provide a therapeutic strategy for age-related muscle loss.
    Keywords:  AU-rich elements; AUF1; gene therapy; mRNA decay; muscle atrophy; muscle cells; myofibers; sarcopenia; satellite cells
  2. J Bone Miner Res. 2021 Sep 07.
      The nutritional level of vitamin D may affect musculoskeletal health. We have reported that vitamin D is a pivotal protector against tissue injuries by suppressing local renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This study aimed to explore the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the protection against muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanism. A cross-sectional study on participants (n = 1034) in Shanghai (China) was performed to analyze the association between vitamin D level and the risk of low muscle strength as well as to detect the circulating level of angiotensin II (Ang II). In animal studies, dexamethasone (Dex) was applied to induce muscle atrophy in wild-type (WT) and VDR-null mice, and the mice with the induction of muscle atrophy were treated with calcitriol for 10 days. The skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 and the muscle satellite cells were applied in in vitro studies. The increased risk of low muscle strength was correlated to a lower level of vitamin D (adjusted OR, 0.58) accompanied by an elevation in serum Ang II level. Ang II impaired the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts as illustrated by the decrease in the area of myotubes and the down-regulation of myogenic factors (MHC & MyoD). The phenotype of muscle atrophy induced by Dex and Ang II was aggravated by VDR ablation in mice and in muscle satellite cells, respectively, and mediated by RAS and its downstream PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 signaling. Calcitriol treatment exhibited beneficial effects on muscle function as demonstrated by the increased weight-loaded swimming time, grip strength and fiber area, and improved fiber type composition via regulating ubiquitin ligases and their substrates MHC and MyoD through suppressing renin/Ang II axis. Taken together, VDR protects against skeletal muscle atrophy by suppressing RAS. Vitamin D could be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Angiotensin II; Muscle atrophy; Myogenesis; Vitamin D; Vitamin D receptor
  3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Sep 14. pii: e2021013118. [Epub ahead of print]118(37):
      Aged skeletal muscle is markedly affected by fatty muscle infiltration, and strategies to reduce the occurrence of intramuscular adipocytes are urgently needed. Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) not only stimulates muscle growth but also promotes intramuscular adipogenesis. Using multiple screening assays upstream and downstream of microRNA (miR)-29a signaling, we located the secreted protein and adipogenic inhibitor SPARC to an FGF-2 signaling pathway that is conserved between skeletal muscle cells from mice and humans and that is activated in skeletal muscle of aged mice and humans. FGF-2 induces the miR-29a/SPARC axis through transcriptional activation of FRA-1, which binds and activates an evolutionary conserved AP-1 site element proximal in the miR-29a promoter. Genetic deletions in muscle cells and adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of FGF-2 or SPARC in mouse skeletal muscle revealed that this axis regulates differentiation of fibro/adipogenic progenitors in vitro and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation in vivo. Skeletal muscle from human donors aged >75 y versus <55 y showed activation of FGF-2-dependent signaling and increased IMAT. Thus, our data highlights a disparate role of FGF-2 in adult skeletal muscle and reveals a pathway to combat fat accumulation in aged human skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  FGF-2; FRA-1; IMAT; SPARC; skeletal muscle
  4. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 712389
      Arginine methylation mediated by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) is a post-translational modification of both histone and non-histone substrates related to diverse biological processes. PRMTs appear to be critical regulators in skeletal muscle physiology, including regeneration, metabolic homeostasis, and plasticity. Chronic inflammation is commonly associated with the decline of skeletal muscle mass and strength related to aging or chronic diseases, defined as sarcopenia. In turn, declined skeletal muscle mass and strength can exacerbate chronic inflammation. Thus, understanding the molecular regulatory pathway underlying the crosstalk between skeletal muscle function and inflammation might be essential for the intervention of muscle pathophysiology. In this review, we will address the current knowledge on the role of PRMTs in skeletal muscle physiology and pathophysiology with a specific emphasis on its relationship with inflammation.
    Keywords:  IL-6; PRMTs; cytokine; exercise; inflammation; inflammation-related muscle disease; muscle; myokine
  5. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 04. pii: 9605. [Epub ahead of print]22(17):
      Primary cilia are non-motile, cell cycle-associated organelles that can be found on most vertebrate cell types. Comprised of microtubule bundles organised into an axoneme and anchored by a mature centriole or basal body, primary cilia are dynamic signalling platforms that are intimately involved in cellular responses to their extracellular milieu. Defects in ciliogenesis or dysfunction in cilia signalling underlie a host of developmental disorders collectively referred to as ciliopathies, reinforcing important roles for cilia in human health. Whilst primary cilia have long been recognised to be present in striated muscle, their role in muscle is not well understood. However, recent studies indicate important contributions, particularly in skeletal muscle, that have to date remained underappreciated. Here, we explore recent revelations that the sensory and signalling functions of cilia on muscle progenitors regulate cell cycle progression, trigger differentiation and maintain a commitment to myogenesis. Cilia disassembly is initiated during myoblast fusion. However, the remnants of primary cilia persist in multi-nucleated myotubes, and we discuss their potential role in late-stage differentiation and myofiber formation. Reciprocal interactions between cilia and the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment described for other tissues may also inform on parallel interactions in skeletal muscle. We also discuss emerging evidence that cilia on fibroblasts/fibro-adipogenic progenitors and myofibroblasts may influence cell fate in both a cell autonomous and non-autonomous manner with critical consequences for skeletal muscle ageing and repair in response to injury and disease. This review addresses the enigmatic but emerging role of primary cilia in satellite cells in myoblasts and myofibers during myogenesis, as well as the wider tissue microenvironment required for skeletal muscle formation and homeostasis.
    Keywords:  cytoskeleton; differentiation; extracellular matrix; myogenesis; primary cilia; proliferation; satellite cells
  6. Life Sci. 2021 Sep 01. pii: S0024-3205(21)00913-9. [Epub ahead of print] 119926
      Considering the expansion of human life-span over the past few decades; sarcopenia, a physiological consequence of aging process characterized with a diminution in mass and strength of skeletal muscle, has become more frequent. Thus, there is a growing need for expanding our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy in sarcopenia which are complex and involve many signaling pathways associated with protein degradation and synthesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as evolutionary conserved small RNAs, could complementarily bind to their target mRNAs and post-transcriptionally inhibit their translation. Aberrant expression of miRNAs contributes to the development of sarcopenia by regulating the expression of critical genes involved in age-related skeletal muscle mass loss. Here we have a review on the signaling pathways along with the miRNAs controlling their components expression and subsequently we provide a brief overview on the effects of exercise on expression pattern of miRNAs in sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  IGF-1; Muscle aging; Muscle mass; Non-coding RNA; miR; miRNAs
  7. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 25. pii: 9187. [Epub ahead of print]22(17):
      The troponin complex is a key regulator of muscle contraction. Multiple variants in skeletal troponin encoding genes result in congenital myopathies. TNNC2 has been implicated in a novel congenital myopathy, TNNI2 and TNNT3 in distal arthrogryposis (DA), and TNNT1 and TNNT3 in nemaline myopathy (NEM). Variants in skeletal troponin encoding genes compromise sarcomere function, e.g., by altering the Ca2+ sensitivity of force or by inducing atrophy. Several potential therapeutic strategies are available to counter the effects of variants, such as troponin activators, introduction of wild-type protein through AAV gene therapy, and myosin modulation to improve muscle contraction. The mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological effects of the variants in skeletal troponin encoding genes are incompletely understood. Furthermore, limited knowledge is available on the structure of skeletal troponin. This review focusses on the physiology of slow and fast skeletal troponin and the pathophysiology of reported variants in skeletal troponin encoding genes. A better understanding of the pathophysiological effects of these variants, together with enhanced knowledge regarding the structure of slow and fast skeletal troponin, will direct the development of treatment strategies.
    Keywords:  congenital myopathy; contractility; sarcomere; skeletal muscle; troponin
  8. Biomaterials. 2021 Aug 25. pii: S0142-9612(21)00453-1. [Epub ahead of print]277 121097
      Skeletal muscle tissue is mechanically dynamic with changes in stiffness influencing function, maintenance, and regeneration. We modeled skeletal muscle mechanical changes in culture with dynamically stiffening hydrogels demonstrating that the chaperone protein BAG3 transduces matrix stiffness by redistributing YAP and TAZ subcellular localization in muscle progenitor cells. BAG3 depletion increases cytoplasmic retention of YAP and TAZ, desensitizing myoblasts to changes in hydrogel elastic moduli. Upon differentiation, muscle progenitors depleted of BAG3 formed enlarged, round myotubes lacking the typical cylindrical morphology. The aberrant morphology is dependent on YAP/TAZ signaling, which was sequestered in the cytoplasm in BAG3-depleted myotubes but predominately nuclear in cylindrical myotubes of control cells. Control progenitor cells induced to differentiate on soft (E' = 4 and 12 kPa) hydrogels formed circular myotubes similar to those observed in BAG3-depleted cells. Inhibition of the Hippo pathway partially restored myotube morphologies, permitting nuclear translocation of YAP and TAZ in BAG3-depleted myogenic progenitors. Thus, BAG3 is a critical mediator of dynamic stiffness changes in muscle tissue, coupling mechanical alterations to intracellular signals and inducing changes in gene expression that influence muscle progenitor cell morphology and differentiation.
    Keywords:  BAG3; Differentiation; Hydrogels; Mechanotransduction; Myoblast; YAP
  9. Muscle Nerve. 2021 Sep 05.
      INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Klf10 is a member of the Krüppel-like family of transcription factors which is implicated in mediating muscle structure (fiber size, organization of the sarcomere), muscle metabolic activity (respiratory chain) and passive force. The aim of this study was to further characterize the roles of Klf10 in the contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibers.METHODS: Fifty two single fibers were extracted from female wild-type (WT) and Klf10 knock-out (KO) oxidative (soleus) and glycolytic (EDL: extensor digitorum longus) skinned muscles. Each fiber was immersed successively in relaxing (R), washing (W) and activating (A) solutions. Calcium was included in the activating solution to induce a maximum contraction of the fiber. The maximum force (Fmax ) was measured and normalized to the cross-sectional area to obtain the maximum stress (Stressmax ). After a steady state in contraction was reached, a quick stretch-release was performed; the force at the maximum stretch (Fstretch ) was measured and the stiffness was assessed.
    RESULTS: Deletion of the Klf10 gene induced changes in the contractile parameters (Fmax , Stressmax , Stiffness), which were lower and higher for soleus and EDL fibers compared to littermates, respectively. These measurements also revealed changes in the proportion and resistance of attached cross bridges.
    DISCUSSION: Klf10 plays an important role in the homeostasis of the contractile behavior of skeletal muscle fibers in a muscle fiber type specific manner. These findings further implicate important roles for Klf10 in skeletal muscle function and shed new light on understanding the molecular processes regulating the contractility of skeletal muscle fibers.
    Keywords:  Contractile properties; Klf10; TEM; skeletal muscle; stiffness active test
  10. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 689533
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked neuromuscular disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin protein, which is essential for muscle fiber integrity. Loss of dystrophin protein leads to recurrent myofiber damage, chronic inflammation, progressive fibrosis, and dysfunction of muscle stem cells. There is still no cure for DMD so far and the standard of care is principally limited to symptom relief through glucocorticoids treatments. Current therapeutic strategies could be divided into two lines. Dystrophin-targeted therapeutic strategies that aim at restoring the expression and/or function of dystrophin, including gene-based, cell-based and protein replacement therapies. The other line of therapeutic strategies aims to improve muscle function and quality by targeting the downstream pathological changes, including inflammation, fibrosis, and muscle atrophy. This review introduces the important developments in these two lines of strategies, especially those that have entered the clinical phase and/or have great potential for clinical translation. The rationale and efficacy of each agent in pre-clinical or clinical studies are presented. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of gene profiling in DMD patients has been performed to understand the molecular mechanisms of DMD.
    Keywords:  Duchenne muscular dystrophy; fibrosis; inflammation; meta-analysis; pharmacological therapeutics; regeneration; skeletal muscle
  11. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Sep 14. pii: e2025281118. [Epub ahead of print]118(37):
      Skeletal muscle possesses remarkable regenerative ability because of the resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). A prominent feature of quiescent MuSCs is a high content of heterochromatin. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which heterochromatin is maintained in MuSCs. By comparing gene-expression profiles from quiescent and activated MuSCs, we found that the mammalian Hairless (Hr) gene is expressed in quiescent MuSCs and rapidly down-regulated upon MuSC activation. Using a mouse model in which Hr can be specifically ablated in MuSCs, we demonstrate that Hr expression is critical for MuSC function and muscle regeneration. In MuSCs, loss of Hr results in reduced trimethylated Histone 3 Lysine 9 (H3K9me3) levels, reduced heterochromatin, increased susceptibility to genotoxic stress, and the accumulation of DNA damage. Deletion of Hr leads to an acceleration of the age-related decline in MuSC numbers. We have also demonstrated that despite the fact that Hr is homologous to a family of histone demethylases and binds to di- and trimethylated H3K9, the expression of Hr does not lead to H3K9 demethylation. In contrast, we show that the expression of Hr leads to the inhibition of the H3K9 demethylase Jmjd1a and an increase in H3K9 methylation. Taking these data together, our study has established that Hr is a H3K9 demethylase antagonist specifically expressed in quiescent MuSCs.
    Keywords:  aging; heterochromatin; muscle stem cells
  12. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 06. pii: 9630. [Epub ahead of print]22(17):
      Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases characterized by the progressive degeneration and weakness of skeletal muscles, leading to disability and, often, premature death. To date, no effective therapies are available to halt or reverse the pathogenic process, and meaningful treatments are urgently needed. From this perspective, it is particularly important to establish reliable in vitro models of human muscle that allow the recapitulation of disease features as well as the screening of genetic and pharmacological therapies. We herein review and discuss advances in the development of in vitro muscle models obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells, which appear to be capable of reproducing the lack of myofiber proteins as well as other specific pathological hallmarks, such as inflammation, fibrosis, and reduced muscle regenerative potential. In addition, these platforms have been used to assess genetic correction strategies such as gene silencing, gene transfer and genome editing with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), as well as to evaluate novel small molecules aimed at ameliorating muscle degeneration. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges related to in vitro drug testing and provide a critical view of potential therapeutic developments to foster the future clinical translation of preclinical muscular dystrophy studies.
    Keywords:  cellular differentiation; drug screening platforms; dystrophin; iPSC; muscular dystrophy; skeletal muscle; stem cell model
  13. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 671857
      In the present study, the roles of a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), lnc-GD2H, in promoting C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation and muscle regeneration were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, Cell Counting Kit-8, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), immunofluorescence staining, luciferase reporter, mass spectrometry, pulldown, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA immunoprecipitation assay, wound healing assays, and cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury assays. It was observed that lnc-GD2H promoted myoblast proliferation as evidenced by the enhancement of the proliferation markers c-Myc, CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6, percentage of EdU-positive cells, and rate of cell survival during C2C12 myoblast proliferation. Additional experiments confirmed that c-Myc bound to the lnc-GD2H promoter and regulated its transcription. lnc-GD2H promoted cell differentiation with enhanced MyHC immunostaining as well as increased expression of the myogenic marker genes myogenin (Myog), Mef2a, and Mef2c during myoblast differentiation. Additional assays indicated that lnc-GD2H interacted with NACA which plays a role of transcriptional regulation in myoblast differentiation, and the enrichment of NACA at the Myog promoter was impaired by lnc-GD2H. Furthermore, inhibition of lnc-GD2H impaired muscle regeneration after CTX-induced injury in mice. lnc-GD2H facilitated the expression of proliferating marker genes and formed a feedback loop with c-Myc during myoblast proliferation. In differentiating myoblasts, lnc-GD2H interacted with NACA to relieve the inhibitory effect of NACA on Myog, facilitating Myog expression to promote differentiation. The results provide evidence for the role of lncRNAs in muscle regeneration and are useful for developing novel therapeutic targets for muscle disorders.
    Keywords:  C2C12 myoblast; Myog; NACA; c-Myc; differentiation; lnc-GD2H; lncRNA; proliferation
  14. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 01. pii: 9509. [Epub ahead of print]22(17):
      As the largest tissue in the body, skeletal muscle has multiple functions in movement and energy metabolism. Skeletal myogenesis is controlled by a transcriptional cascade including a set of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) that includes Myogenic Differentiation 1 (MYOD1), Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2), and Myogenin (MYOG), which direct the fusion of myogenic myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes. Neddylation is a posttranslational modification that covalently conjugates ubiquitin-like NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8) to protein targets. Inhibition of neddylation impairs muscle differentiation; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain less explored. Here, we report that neddylation is temporally regulated during myoblast differentiation. Inhibition of neddylation through pharmacological blockade using MLN4924 (Pevonedistat) or genetic deletion of NEDD8 Activating Enzyme E1 Subunit 1 (NAE1), a subunit of the E1 neddylation-activating enzyme, blocks terminal myoblast differentiation partially through repressing MYOG expression. Mechanistically, we found that neddylation deficiency enhances the mRNA and protein expressions of class IIa histone deacetylases 4 and 5 (HDAC4 and 5) and prevents the downregulation and nuclear export of class III HDAC (NAD-Dependent Protein Deacetylase Sirtuin-1, SIRT1), all of which have been shown to repress MYOD1-mediated MYOG transcriptional activation. Together, our findings for the first time identify the crucial role of neddylation in mediating class IIa and III HDAC co-repressors to control myogenic program and provide new insights into the mechanisms of muscle disease and regeneration.
    Keywords:  histone deacetylases; myoblast differentiation; neddylation
  15. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 25. pii: 9163. [Epub ahead of print]22(17):
      Though effective in treating various types of cancer, the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) is associated with skeletal muscle wasting and fatigue. The purpose of this study was to assess muscle function in situ following DOX administration in mice. Furthermore, pre-treatments with exercise (EX) or metformin (MET) were used in an attempt to preserve muscle function following DOX. Mice were assigned to the following groups: control, DOX, DOX + EX, or DOX + MET, and were given a single injection of DOX (15 mg/kg) or saline 3 days prior to sacrifice. Preceding the DOX injection, DOX + EX mice performed 60 min/day of running for 5 days, while DOX + MET mice received 5 daily oral doses of 500 mg/kg MET. Gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus complex function was assessed in situ via direct stimulation of the sciatic nerve. DOX treatment increased time to half-relaxation following contractions, indicating impaired recovery (p < 0.05). Interestingly, EX prevented any increase in half-relaxation time, while MET did not. An impaired relaxation rate was associated with a reduction in SERCA1 protein content (p = 0.07) and AMPK phosphorylation (p < 0.05). There were no differences between groups in force production or mitochondrial respiration. These results suggest that EX, but not MET may be an effective strategy for the prevention of muscle fatigue following DOX administration in mice.
    Keywords:  chemotherapy; exercise; metformin; mitochondria; muscle contractions; skeletal muscle
  16. JCI Insight. 2021 Sep 08. pii: 143472. [Epub ahead of print]6(17):
      Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) transmembrane protein, activates store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in skeletal muscle and, thereby, coordinates Ca2+ homeostasis, Ca2+-dependent gene expression, and contractility. STIM1 occupies space in the junctional SR membrane of the triads and the longitudinal SR at the Z-line. How STIM1 is organized and is retained in these specific subdomains of the SR is unclear. Here, we identified desmin, the major type III intermediate filament protein in muscle, as a binding partner for STIM1 based on a yeast 2-hybrid screen. Validation of the desmin-STIM1 interaction by immunoprecipitation and immunolocalization confirmed that the CC1-SOAR domains of STIM1 interact with desmin to enhance STIM1 oligomerization yet limit SOCE. Based on our studies of desmin-KO mice, we developed a model wherein desmin connected STIM1 at the Z-line in order to regulate the efficiency of Ca2+ refilling of the SR. Taken together, these studies showed that desmin-STIM1 assembles a cytoskeletal-SR connection that is important for Ca2+ signaling in skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  Calcium signaling; Muscle Biology
  17. FASEB J. 2021 Oct;35(10): e21867
      Obesity alters skeletal muscle lipidome and promotes myopathy, but it is unknown whether aberrant muscle lipidome contributes to the reduction in skeletal muscle contractile force-generating capacity. Comprehensive lipidomic analyses of mouse skeletal muscle revealed a very strong positive correlation between the abundance of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), a class of lipids that is known to be downregulated with obesity, with maximal tetanic force production. The level of lyso-PC is regulated primarily by lyso-PC acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3), which acylates lyso-PC to form phosphatidylcholine. Tamoxifen-inducible skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of LPCAT3 (LPCAT3-MKI) was sufficient to reduce muscle lyso-PC content in both standard chow diet- and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed conditions. Strikingly, the assessment of skeletal muscle force-generating capacity ex vivo revealed that muscles from LPCAT3-MKI mice were weaker regardless of diet. Defects in force production were more apparent in HFD-fed condition, where tetanic force production was 40% lower in muscles from LPCAT3-MKI compared to that of control mice. These observations were partly explained by reductions in the cross-sectional area in type IIa and IIx fibers, and signs of muscle edema in the absence of fibrosis. Future studies will pursue the mechanism by which LPCAT3 may alter protein turnover to promote myopathy.
    Keywords:  diabetes; lysophospholipid; myopathy; skeletal muscle
  18. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 710112
      Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an inherited neuromuscular disease caused by expanded CTG repeats in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the DMPK gene. The myogenesis process is defective in DM1, which is closely associated with progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Despite many proposed explanations for the myogenesis defects in DM1, the underlying mechanism and the involvement of the extracellular microenvironment remained unknown. Here, we constructed a DM1 myoblast cell model and reproduced the myogenesis defects. By RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we discovered that periostin (Postn) was the most significantly upregulated gene in DM1 myogenesis compared with normal controls. This difference in Postn was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blotting. Moreover, Postn was found to be significantly upregulated in skeletal muscle and myoblasts of DM1 patients. Next, we knocked down Postn using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in DM1 myoblast cells and found that the myogenesis defects in the DM1 group were successfully rescued, as evidenced by increases in the myotube area, the fusion index, and the expression of myogenesis regulatory genes. Similarly, Postn knockdown in normal myoblast cells enhanced myogenesis. As POSTN is a secreted protein, we treated the DM1 myoblast cells with a POSTN-neutralizing antibody and found that DM1 myogenesis defects were successfully rescued by POSTN neutralization. We also tested the myogenic ability of myoblasts in the skeletal muscle injury mouse model and found that Postn knockdown improved the myogenic ability of DM1 myoblasts. The activity of the TGF-β/Smad3 pathway was upregulated during DM1 myogenesis but repressed when inhibiting Postn with a Postn shRNA or a POSTN-neutralizing antibody, which suggested that the TGF-β/Smad3 pathway might mediate the function of Postn in DM1 myogenesis. These results suggest that Postn is a potential therapeutical target for the treatment of myogenesis defects in DM1.
    Keywords:  Postn; microenvironment; myoblast; myogenesis; myotonic dystrophy type 1
  19. JCI Insight. 2021 Sep 07. pii: 149969. [Epub ahead of print]
      Obesity, a major healthcare issue, is characterized by metabolic abnormalities in multiple tissues, including the skeletal muscle. Although dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence the homeostasis of systemic energy, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We found promoter hypermethylation and decreased gene expression of fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6) in the skeletal muscle of individuals with obesity using high-throughput sequencing. Reduced binding of the cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein-1 (CREB1) to the hypermethylated cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element, which is a regulatory element upstream of the transcription initiation site, partially contributed to the downregulation of FGF6 in patients with obesity. Overexpression of Fgf6 in mice skeletal muscle stimulated protein synthesis, activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and prevented the increase in weight and the development of insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice. Thus, our findings highlight the role played by Fgf6 in regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy and whole-body metabolism, indicating its potential in strategies aimed at preventing and treating metabolic diseases.
    Keywords:  Metabolism; Muscle Biology; Obesity; Skeletal muscle
  20. Life Sci. 2021 Sep 01. pii: S0024-3205(21)00905-X. [Epub ahead of print] 119918
      AIMS: Insulin resistance is defined as the decreased sensitivity of tissues and organs to insulin and it is the main pathological basis of metabolic syndrome. PDCD5 is widely expressed in tissues including skeletal muscle and liver, but its exact function and the role in insulin resistance has not been studied. The present study is to explore the effect of PDCD5 on insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, the largest target organ of insulin, and its mechanism.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were fed with high-fat diet to establish obesity model. C2C12 myoblasts differentiated into myotubes and then were treated with palmitate to induce insulin resistance. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments were performed by infecting C2C12 with adenovirus containing PDCD5 cDNA or PDCD5 shRNA.
    KEY FINDINGS: PDCD5 protein was first increased and then decreased in the skeletal muscle from high-fat diet induced obese mice and consistently in palmitate induced insulin resistance C2C12 myotubes. Overexpression of PDCD5 in C2C12 cells did not affect the sensitivity to insulin but inhibited the palmitate induced insulin resistance, while knockdown of PDCD5 aggravated the insulin resistance. Mechanistically, PDCD5 interacted with ubiquitin ligase MDM2; overexpression of PDCD5 decreased MDM2 protein level, inhibited the increased interaction of MDM2 with IRS-1 and the degradation of IRS-1 by palmitate stimulation.
    SIGNIFICANCE: PDCD5 is upregulated during the early stage of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. The increased PDCD5 inhibits IRS-1 ubiquitination, increases the stability of IRS-1 by interacting with and degrading MDM2, thus providing a protective effect on insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  IRS-1; MDM2; PDCD5; Skeletal muscle insulin resistance
  21. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2021 Sep 08.
      Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ secreting exercise-induced factors (exerkines), which play a pivotal role in inter-organ crosstalk. Using mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, we characterized the secretome and identified thymosin beta-4 (TMSB4X) as the most upregulated secreted protein in the media of contracting C2C12 myotubes. TMSB4X was also acutely increased in plasma of exercising humans irrespective of the insulin resistance condition or exercise mode. Treatment of mice with TMSB4X did not ameliorate the metabolic disruptions associated with diet induced-obesity, nor did it enhance muscle regeneration in vivo. However, TMSB4X increased osteoblast proliferation and neurite outgrowth, consistent with its WADA-classification as a prohibited growth factor. Therefore, we report TMSB4X as a human exerkine with a potential role in cellular crosstalk.
    Keywords:  exercise; exerkine; growth factors; muscle contraction; secreted factors
  22. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2021 Sep 08. 12(1): 102
      BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle development, a long-term and complex process, is controlled by a set of the myogenic genes. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a class of noncoding RNA, have been shown to regulate various biological processes. Recent studies indicate circRNAs may be involved in myogenesis, but the role and regulatory mechanism of circRNAs in myogenesis is largely unknown. In the present study, circCPE was firstly found to promote the bovine myoblast proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis and differentiation by influencing the expression of FOXC1 in a miR138-mediated manner. And in vivo experiments revealed that overexpression of circCPE attenuates skeletal muscle regeneration.RESULTS: We identified a novel circular RNA circCPE by analyzing circRNAs sequencing data of bovine muscle tissue. Sequencing verification, RNase R treatment and Actinomycin D treatment confirmed the circular nature of circCPE in bovine muscle. Functional assays showed that overexpression of circCPE could inhibit bovine myoblast apoptosis and differentiation, as well as facilitate cell proliferation. Moreover, in vivo experiments revealed that overexpression of circCPE attenuates skeletal muscle regeneration. In consideration of circRNA action as miRNAs sponge, we found that circCPE harbors miR-138 binding sites and absorbed miR-138. Mechanistically, the rescue experiments showed that the overexpression of circCPE can counteract the inhibitory effect of miR-138 on the cell proliferation and the accelerated effects on the differentiation and apoptosis. Subsequently, we found that circCPE sequester the inhibitory effect of miR-138 on FOXC1 so as to involve in myogenesis.
    CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, we constructed a novel circCPE/miR-138/FOXC1 regulatory network in bovine myogenesis, which further provide stronger evidence that circRNA involved in muscle development acting as miRNA sponge.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Bovine; CircRNA; Differentiation; MiR-138; Proliferation
  23. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 02. pii: 9524. [Epub ahead of print]22(17):
      Diabetes mellitus is a systemic metabolic disorder associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, with mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore opening being recognized as one of its pathogenic mechanisms. Alisporivir has been recently identified as a non-immunosuppressive analogue of the MPT pore blocker cyclosporin A and has broad therapeutic potential. The purpose of the present work was to study the effect of alisporivir (2.5 mg/kg/day i.p.) on the ultrastructure and functions of the skeletal muscle mitochondria of mice with diabetes mellitus induced by a high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin injections. The glucose tolerance tests indicated that alisporivir increased the rate of glucose utilization in diabetic mice. An electron microscopy analysis showed that alisporivir prevented diabetes-induced changes in the ultrastructure and content of the mitochondria in myocytes. In diabetes, the ADP-stimulated respiration, respiratory control, and ADP/O ratios and the level of ATP synthase in the mitochondria decreased, whereas alisporivir treatment restored these indicators. Alisporivir eliminated diabetes-induced increases in mitochondrial lipid peroxidation products. Diabetic mice showed decreased mRNA levels of Atp5f1a, Ant1, and Ppif and increased levels of Ant2 in the skeletal muscles. The skeletal muscle mitochondria of diabetic animals were sensitized to the MPT pore opening. Alisporivir normalized the expression level of Ant2 and mitochondrial susceptibility to the MPT pore opening. In parallel, the levels of Mfn2 and Drp1 also returned to control values, suggesting a normalization of mitochondrial dynamics. These findings suggest that the targeting of the MPT pore opening by alisporivir is a therapeutic approach to prevent the development of mitochondrial dysfunction and associated oxidative stress in the skeletal muscles in diabetes.
    Keywords:  alisporivir; diabetes mellitus; lipid peroxidation; mitochondria; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondrial permeability transition pore
  24. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Sep 07. 13(undefined):
      Due to global aging, frailty and sarcopenia are increasing. Sarcopenia is defined as loss of volume and strength of skeletal muscle in elderlies, while frailty involves multiple domains of aging-related dysfunction, impaired cognition, hypomobility, and decreased social activity. However, little is known about the metabolic basis of sarcopenia, either shared with or discrete from frailty. Here we analyzed comprehensive metabolomic data of human blood in relation to sarcopenia, previously collected from 19 elderly participants in our frailty study. Among 131 metabolites, we identified 22 sarcopenia markers, distinct from 15 frailty markers, mainly including antioxidants, although sarcopenia overlaps clinically with physical frailty. Notably, 21 metabolites that decline in sarcopenia or low SMI are uremic compounds that increase in kidney dysfunction. These comprise TCA cycle, urea cycle, nitrogen, and methylated metabolites. Sarcopenia markers imply a close link between muscle and kidney function, while frailty markers define a state vulnerable to oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  frailty; metabolomics; muscle mass; sarcopenia; uremic metabolites
  25. NPJ Sci Food. 2021 Sep 09. 5(1): 25
      We previously reported that intramuscular injections of ubiquitin ligase CBLB inhibitory pentapeptide (Cblin; Asp-Gly-pTyr-Met-Pro) restored lost muscle mass caused by sciatic denervation. Here, we detected Cblin on the basolateral side of Caco-2 cells after being placed on the apical side, and found that cytochalasin D, a tight junction opener, enhanced Cblin transport. Orally administered Cblin was found in rat plasma, indicating that intact Cblin was absorbed in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, transgenic Cblin peptide-enriched rice (CbR) prevented the denervation-induced loss of muscle mass and the upregulation of muscle atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases in mice. These findings indicated that CbR could serve as an alternative treatment for muscle atrophy.
  26. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2021 Sep 09.
      The aim was to investigate if acute recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) injection had an effect on mitochondrial function and if exercise would have an additive effect. Furthermore to investigate if in-vitro incubation with rHuEPO had an effect on muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Eight healthy young men were recruited for this double blinded randomized placebo controlled crossover study. rHuEPO (400 IU/kg body weight) or saline injection was given intravenously, before an acute bout of exercise. Resting metabolic rate and fat oxidation were measured. Biopsies were obtained at baseline, 120 min after injection and right after the acute exercise bout. Mitochondrial function (mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 emission) was measured in permeabilized skeletal muscle using high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry. Specifik gene expression and enzyme activity were measured. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity was measured with and without incubation with rHuEPO. Fat oxidation at rest increased after rHuEPO injection, but no difference was found in fat oxidation during exercise. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity was increased after rHuEPO injection when pyruvate was in the assay, which was not the case when saline was injected. No changes were seen in H2O2 emission after rHuEPO injection or acute exercise. Incubation of skeletal muscle fibers in-vitro with rHuEPO increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Acute rHuEPO injection increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity when pyruvate was used in the assay. No statistical difference was found in H2O2 emission capacity, although a numerical increase was seen after rHuEPO injection. In-vitro incubation of the skeletal muscle sample with rHuEPO increases mitochondrial respiratory capacity.
    Keywords:  EPO; H2O2 emission; exercise; human; mitochondrial biogenesis
  27. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2021 Sep 03. 25 342-354
      Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by chromatin relaxation of the D4Z4 repeat resulting in misexpression of the D4Z4-encoded DUX4 gene in skeletal muscle. One of the key genetic requirements for the stable production of full-length DUX4 mRNA in skeletal muscle is a functional polyadenylation signal (ATTAAA) in exon three of DUX4 that is used in somatic cells. Base editors hold great promise to treat DNA lesions underlying genetic diseases through their ability to carry out specific and rapid nucleotide mutagenesis even in postmitotic cells such as skeletal muscle. In this study, we present a simple and straightforward strategy for mutagenesis of the somatic DUX4 polyadenylation signal by adenine base editing in immortalized myoblasts derived from independent FSHD-affected individuals. We show that mutating this critical cis-regulatory element results in downregulation of DUX4 mRNA and its direct transcriptional target genes. Our findings identify the somatic DUX4 polyadenylation signal as a therapeutic target and represent the first step toward clinical application of the CRISPR-Cas9 base editing platform for FSHD gene therapy.
    Keywords:  CRISPR-Cas9; DUX4; base editing; facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy; gene therapy; polyadenylation signal
  28. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 31. pii: 9469. [Epub ahead of print]22(17):
      Inflammation induces a wide response of the neuroendocrine system, which leads to modifications in all the endocrine axes. The hypothalamic-growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis is deeply affected by inflammation, its response being characterized by GH resistance and a decrease in circulating levels of IGF-1. The endocrine and metabolic responses to inflammation allow the organism to survive. However, in chronic inflammatory conditions, the inhibition of the hypothalamic-GH-IGF-1 axis contributes to the catabolic process, with skeletal muscle atrophy and cachexia. Here, we review the changes in pituitary GH secretion, IGF-1, and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), as well as the mechanism that mediated those responses. The contribution of GH and IGF-1 to muscle wasting during inflammation has also been analyzed.
    Keywords:  GH; IGF-1; IGFBP-3; cachexia; cytokines; glucocorticoids; inflammation; muscle wasting; nitric oxide; sepsis
  29. Skelet Muscle. 2021 Sep 04. 11(1): 22
      BACKGROUND: Although muscle regenerative capacity declines with age, the extent to which this is due to satellite cell-intrinsic changes vs. environmental changes has been controversial. The majority of aging studies have investigated hindlimb locomotory muscles, principally the tibialis anterior, in caged sedentary mice, where those muscles are abnormally under-exercised.METHODS: We analyze satellite cell numbers in 8 muscle groups representing locomotory and non-locomotory muscles in young and 2-year-old mice and perform transplantation assays of low numbers of hind limb satellite cells from young and old mice.
    RESULTS: We find that satellite cell density does not decline significantly by 2 years of age in most muscles, and one muscle, the masseter, shows a modest but statistically significant increase in satellite cell density with age. The tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus were clear exceptions, showing significant declines. We quantify self-renewal using a transplantation assay. Dose dilution revealed significant non-linearity in self-renewal above a very low threshold, suggestive of competition between satellite cells for space within the pool. Assaying within the linear range, i.e., transplanting fewer than 1000 cells, revealed no evidence of decline in cell-autonomous self-renewal or regenerative potential of 2-year-old murine satellite cells.
    CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the value of comparative muscle analysis as opposed to overreliance on locomotory muscles, which are not used physiologically in aging sedentary mice, and suggest that self-renewal impairment with age is precipitously acquired at the geriatric stage, rather than being gradual over time, as previously thought.
    Keywords:  Regeneration; Satellite cells; Transplantation
  30. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 2021 Sep 10. 22 122-132
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by mutations in the X-linked dystrophin gene, is a lethal neuromuscular disease. Correction of DMD mutations in animal models has been achieved by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing using Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) delivered by adeno-associated virus (AAV). However, due to the limited viral packaging capacity of AAV, two AAV vectors are required to deliver the SpCas9 nuclease and its single guide RNA (sgRNA), impeding its therapeutic application. We devised an efficient single-cut gene-editing method using a compact Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9) to restore the open reading frame of exon 51, the most commonly affected out-of-frame exon in DMD. Editing of exon 51 in cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells revealed a strong preference for exon reframing via a two-nucleotide deletion. We adapted this system to express SaCas9 and sgRNA from a single AAV9 vector. Systemic delivery of this All-In-One AAV9 system restored dystrophin expression and improved muscle contractility in a mouse model of DMD with exon 50 deletion. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of CRISPR/SaCas9 delivered by a consolidated AAV delivery system in the correction of DMD in vivo, representing a promising therapeutic approach to correct the genetic causes of DMD.
    Keywords:  AAV; CRISPR/Cas; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; SaCas9; exon reframing; exon skipping; gene editing; induced pluripotent stem cells; sgRNA
  31. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 28. pii: 9327. [Epub ahead of print]22(17):
      Skeletal muscle is essential to maintain vital functions such as movement, breathing, and thermogenesis, and it is now recognized as an endocrine organ. Muscles release factors named myokines, which can regulate several physiological processes. Moreover, skeletal muscle is particularly important in maintaining body homeostasis, since it is responsible for more than 75% of all insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Alterations of skeletal muscle differentiation and function, with subsequent dysfunctional expression and secretion of myokines, play a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic diseases, finally leading to cardiometabolic complications. Hence, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle function related to energy metabolism is critical for novel strategies to treat and prevent insulin resistance and its cardiometabolic complications. This review will be focused on both cellular and animal models currently available for exploring skeletal muscle metabolism and endocrine function.
    Keywords:  adipose tissue; free fatty acids; glucose metabolism; glycemia; myofibers
  32. Physiol Res. 2021 Sep 10.
      Our aim was to investigate whether hyperthermia before exercise protects against exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. Two hyperthermia protocols were evaluated. In the first, male ICR mice were exposed to 30 min of whole-body heat in an environmental chamber at an ambient temperature of 42 °C. Heat-exposed and non-heat-exposed mice subsequently completed 60 min of downhill running on a treadmill, 24 h after exposure. Heat exposure significantly increased HSP70 and HSP25 content in the soleus muscle compared to controls. Plasma creatine kinase, muscle beta-glucuronidase, and histochemical (hematoxylin and eosin stain) analysis demonstrated that muscle damage was lower in the heat-exposed mice than in the non-heat-exposed mice. In the second, the effect of regional heating of the legs, by microwave diathermy, on the prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage was evaluated in male Wistar rats. Microwave-treated and non-microwave-treated rats again completed the running protocol 24 h after exposure. Microwave diathermy increased the muscle temperature to 40 °C, significantly increased HSP70 and HSP25 content in the soleus muscle, and significantly attenuated exercise-induced muscle damage. Therefore, hyperthermia before exercise increases skeletal muscle HSPs and attenuates the risk of exercise-induced muscle injury.
  33. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 31. pii: 9482. [Epub ahead of print]22(17):
      Strenuous and unaccustomed exercise frequently lead to what has been coined "delayed onset muscle soreness" (DOMS). As implied by this term, it has been proposed that the associated pain and stiffness stem from micro-lesions, inflammation, or metabolite accumulation within the skeletal muscle. However, recent research points towards a strong involvement of the connective tissue. First, according to anatomical studies, the deep fascia displays an intimate structural relationship with the underlying skeletal muscle and may therefore be damaged during excessive loading. Second, histological and experimental studies suggest a rich supply of algogenic nociceptors whose stimulation evokes stronger pain responses than muscle irritation. Taken together, the findings support the hypothesis that DOMS originates in the muscle-associated connective tissue rather than in the muscle itself. Sports and fitness professionals designing exercise programs should hence consider fascia-oriented methods and techniques (e.g., foam rolling, collagen supplementation) when aiming to treat or prevent DOMS.
    Keywords:  DOMS; athletes; eccentric exercise; fascia; pain
  34. Molecules. 2021 Sep 06. pii: 5407. [Epub ahead of print]26(17):
      The skeletal muscle (SM) is the largest organ in the body and has tremendous regenerative power due to its myogenic stem cell population. Myostatin (MSTN), a protein produced by SM, is released into the bloodstream and is responsible for age-related reduced muscle fiber development. The objective of this study was to identify the natural compounds that inhibit MSTN with therapeutic potential for the management of age-related disorders, specifically muscle atrophy and sarcopenia. Sequential screening of 2000 natural compounds was performed, and dithymoquinone (DTQ) was found to inhibit MSTN with a binding free energy of -7.40 kcal/mol. Furthermore, the docking results showed that DTQ reduced the binding interaction between MSTN and its receptor, activin receptor type-2B (ActR2B). The global energy of MSTN-ActR2B was found to be reduced from -47.75 to -40.45 by DTQ. The stability of the DTQ-MSTN complex was subjected to a molecular dynamics analysis for up to 100 ns to check the stability of the complex using RMSD, RMSF, Rg, SASA, and H-bond number. The complex was found to be stable after 10 ns to the end of the simulation. These results suggest that DTQ blocks MSTN signaling through ActR2B and that it has potential use as a muscle growth-promoting agent during the aging process.
    Keywords:  ActR2B; dithymoquinone; molecular dynamics; myostatin; natural compounds; protein–protein interaction
  35. Cell. 2021 Sep 04. pii: S0092-8674(21)01002-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Replacing or editing disease-causing mutations holds great promise for treating many human diseases. Yet, delivering therapeutic genetic modifiers to specific cells in vivo has been challenging, particularly in large, anatomically distributed tissues such as skeletal muscle. Here, we establish an in vivo strategy to evolve and stringently select capsid variants of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) that enable potent delivery to desired tissues. Using this method, we identify a class of RGD motif-containing capsids that transduces muscle with superior efficiency and selectivity after intravenous injection in mice and non-human primates. We demonstrate substantially enhanced potency and therapeutic efficacy of these engineered vectors compared to naturally occurring AAV capsids in two mouse models of genetic muscle disease. The top capsid variants from our selection approach show conserved potency for delivery across a variety of inbred mouse strains, and in cynomolgus macaques and human primary myotubes, with transduction dependent on target cell expressed integrin heterodimers.
    Keywords:  AAV capsid engineering; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; MyoAAV; X-linked myotubular myopathy; directed evolution; integrin heterodimers; muscle gene therapy; non-human primates
  36. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Sep 14. pii: e2025932118. [Epub ahead of print]118(37):
      Mitochondria form a complex, interconnected reticulum that is maintained through coordination among biogenesis, dynamic fission, and fusion and mitophagy, which are initiated in response to various cues to maintain energetic homeostasis. These cellular events, which make up mitochondrial quality control, act with remarkable spatial precision, but what governs such spatial specificity is poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrate that specific isoforms of the cellular bioenergetic sensor, 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα1/α2/β2/γ1), are localized on the outer mitochondrial membrane, referred to as mitoAMPK, in various tissues in mice and humans. Activation of mitoAMPK varies across the reticulum in response to energetic stress, and inhibition of mitoAMPK activity attenuates exercise-induced mitophagy in skeletal muscle in vivo. Discovery of a mitochondrial pool of AMPK and its local importance for mitochondrial quality control underscores the complexity of sensing cellular energetics in vivo that has implications for targeting mitochondrial energetics for disease treatment.
    Keywords:  AMPK; exercise; mitochondria; mitophagy; skeletal muscle
  37. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2021 Sep 07. e13730
      AIM: Subcellular fractionation is often used to determine the subcellular localisation of proteins, including whether a protein translocates to the nucleus in response to a given stimulus. Examining nuclear proteins in skeletal muscle is difficult because myonuclear proteins are challenging to isolate unless harsh treatments are used. This study aimed to determine the most effective method for isolating and preserving proteins in their native state in skeletal muscle.METHODS: We compared the ability of detergents, commercially-available kit-based and K+ -based physiological methodologies for isolating myonuclear proteins from resting samples of human muscle by determining the presence of marker proteins for each fraction by Western blot analyses.
    RESULTS: We found that following the initial pelleting of nuclei, treatment with 1% Triton-X 100, 1% CHAPS or 0.5% Na-deoxycholate under various ionic conditions resulted in the nuclear proteins being either resistant to isolation or the proteins present behaving aberrantly. The nuclear proteins in brain tissue were also resistant to 1% Triton-X 100 isolation. Here, we demonstrate aberrant behaviour and erroneous localisation of proteins using the kit-based method. The aberrant behaviour was the activation of Ca2+ -dependent protease calpain-3, and the erroneous localisation was the presence of calpain-3 and troponin I in the nuclear fraction.
    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that it may not be possible to reliably determine the translocation of proteins between subcellular locations and the nucleus using subcellular fractionation techniques. This study highlights the importance of validating subcellular fractionation methodologies using several subcellular-specific markers and solutions that are physiologically relevant to the intracellular milieu.
    Keywords:  artefactual calpain-3 activation; commercially-available kit; detergent-resistant; erroneous protein localisation; potassium-based physiological method
  38. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2021 Sep 09. pii: ijsnem.2021-0086. [Epub ahead of print] 1-8
      Whole egg may have potential benefits for enhancing muscle mass, independent of its protein content. The yolk comprises ∼40% of the total protein in an egg, as well as containing several nonprotein nutrients that could possess anabolic properties (e.g., microRNAs, vitamins, minerals, lipids, phosphatidic acid and other phospholipids). Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is to discuss the current evidence as to the possible effects of egg yolk compounds on skeletal muscle accretion beyond those of egg whites alone. The intake of whole egg seems to promote greater myofibrillar protein synthesis than egg white intake in young men. However, limited evidence shows no difference in muscle hypertrophy when comparing the consumption of whole egg versus an isonitrogenous quantity of egg white in young men performing resistance training. Although egg yolk intake seems to promote additional acute increases on myofibrillar protein synthesis, it does not seem to further enhance muscle mass when compared to egg whites when consumed as part of a high-protein dietary patterns, at least in young men. This conclusion is based on very limited evidence and more studies are needed to evaluate the effects of egg yolk (or whole eggs) intake on muscle mass not only in young men, but also in other populations such as women, older adults, and individuals with muscle wasting diseases.
    Keywords:  albumin; cholesterol; egg yolk; lean mass; muscle hypertrophy; myofibrillar protein synthesis
  39. Autophagy. 2021 Sep 10. 1-12
      Glycophagy is the autophagic degradation of glycogen via the lysosomal enzyme GAA/alpha-acid glucosidase. Glycophagy is considered a housekeeping process to degrade poorly branched glycogen particles, but the regulation and role of glycophagy in skeletal muscle metabolism remains enigmatic. Herein, prior muscle contraction promoted glycogen supercompensation 24 and 48 h post contraction, an effect associated with reduced glycophagy. Moreover, NOTCH or cAMP signaling promoted glycophagy, whereas acute glycophagy deficiency rewired cell metabolism by reducing glycolysis and enhancing AMPK and PPAR signaling and fatty acid and glutamine metabolism. These metabolic adaptations were associated with reduced inflammation and triglyceride content but enhanced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT/protein kinase B signaling and insulin action, the latter of which was abolished by exogenous oxidative stress. Collectively, these data suggest glycophagy is dynamically regulated, while the function of glycophagy can be extended beyond a housekeeping process to having an additional role in regulating energy metabolism and insulin action.Abbreviations: AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; ASM, acid soluble metabolites; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; EPS, electrical pulse stimulation; FCCP, carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone; GAA, glucosidase, alpha, acid; mTOR, mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NAD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; PARP, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ; PYGM, muscle glycogen phosphorylase; STBD1, starch binding domain 1; TFEB, transcription factor EB.
    Keywords:  Alpha acid glucosidase; fatty acid oxidation; glutamine; glycogen supercompensation; glycolysis; insulin action
  40. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 715044
      Background: Sarcopenia is defined as a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle quantity and function associated predominantly with aging. Physical activity appears the most promising intervention to attenuate sarcopenia, yet physical activity guidelines are rarely met. In recent years high intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered interested in athletic populations, clinical populations, and general population alike. There is emerging evidence of the efficacy of HIIT in the young old (i.e. seventh decade of life), yet data concerning the oldest old (i.e., ninth decade of life onwards), and those diagnosed with sarcopenic are sparse. Objectives: In this scoping review of the literature, we aggregated information regarding HIIT as a potential intervention to attenuate phenotypic characteristics of sarcopenia. Eligibility Criteria: Original investigations concerning the impact of HIIT on muscle function, muscle quantity or quality, and physical performance in older individuals (mean age ≥60 years of age) were considered. Sources of Evidence: Five electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [CENTRAL]) were searched. Methods: A scoping review was conducted using the Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework (2005). Review selection and characterization were performed by two independent reviewers using pretested forms. Results: Authors reviewed 1,063 titles and abstracts for inclusion with 74 selected for full text review. Thirty-two studies were analyzed. Twenty-seven studies had a mean participant age in the 60s, two in the 70s, and three in the 80s. There were 20 studies which examined the effect of HIIT on muscle function, 22 which examined muscle quantity, and 12 which examined physical performance. HIIT was generally effective in Improving muscle function and physical performance compared to non-exercised controls, moderate intensity continuous training, or pre-HIIT (study design-dependent), with more ambiguity concerning muscle quantity. Conclusions: Most studies presented herein utilized outcome measures defined by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). However, there are too few studies investigating any form of HIIT in the oldest old (i.e., ≥80 years of age), or those already sarcopenic. Therefore, more intervention studies are needed in this population.
    Keywords:  HIIT; aging; exercise; high intensity; power; sarcopenia; sprint; strength
  41. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2021 Sep 07. e13728
      Mechanical signals are critical for the growth, maintenance and repair of skeletal muscle. However, it remained elusive whether the mechanically activated ion channels, notably the novel Piezo1 channel, mediate these functions in the muscle. Although an earlier report1 suggested that Piezo1 channel could be important for myoblast cell fusion and myotube elongation in the C2C12 cell line, the current study by Bosutti et al2 made significant progress in determining the physiological roles of Piezo1 channel in myogenesis and adult myofibre activity.
  42. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 05. pii: 9616. [Epub ahead of print]22(17):
      The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of cellular energy balance and metabolism, binds glycogen via its β subunit. However, the physiological effects of disrupting AMPK-glycogen interactions remain incompletely understood. To chronically disrupt AMPK-glycogen binding, AMPK β double knock-in (DKI) mice were generated with mutations in residues critical for glycogen binding in both the β1 (W100A) and β2 (W98A) subunit isoforms. We examined the effects of this DKI mutation on whole-body substrate utilization, glucose homeostasis, and tissue glycogen dynamics. Body composition, metabolic caging, glucose and insulin tolerance, serum hormone and lipid profiles, and tissue glycogen and protein content were analyzed in chow-fed male DKI and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. DKI mice displayed increased whole-body fat mass and glucose intolerance associated with reduced fat oxidation relative to WT. DKI mice had reduced liver glycogen content in the fed state concomitant with increased utilization and no repletion of skeletal muscle glycogen in response to fasting and refeeding, respectively, despite similar glycogen-associated protein content relative to WT. DKI liver and skeletal muscle displayed reductions in AMPK protein content versus WT. These findings identify phenotypic effects of the AMPK DKI mutation on whole-body metabolism and tissue AMPK content and glycogen dynamics.
    Keywords:  AMP-activated protein kinase; carbohydrate-binding module; glucose homeostasis; liver; metabolism; skeletal muscle