bims-moremu Biomed News
on Molecular regulators of muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒06‒06
fifty-four papers selected by
Anna Vainshtein
Craft Science Inc.

  1. Genes (Basel). 2021 May 05. pii: 691. [Epub ahead of print]12(5):
      SirT1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of some of the caloric restriction (CR) responsive biological pathways. Aging suppresses SirT1 gene expression in skeletal muscle, suggesting that aging may affect the role of CR in muscle. To determine the role of SirT1 in the regulation of CR regulated pathways in skeletal muscle, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing using total RNA isolated from the skeletal muscles of young and aged wild-type (WT), SirT1 knockout (SirT1-KO), and SirT1 overexpression (SirT1-OE) mice fed to 20 wk ad libitum (AL) or 40% CR diet. Our data show that aging repressed the global gene expression profile, which was restored by CR via upregulating transcriptional and translational process-related pathways. CR inhibits pathways linked to the extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal proteins regardless of aging. Mitochondrial function and muscle contraction-related pathways are upregulated in aged SirT1 KO mice following CR. SirT1 OE did not affect whole-body energy expenditure or augment skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity associated pathways, regardless of aging or diet. Overall, our RNA-seq data showed that SirT1 and CR have different functions and activation of SirT1 by its activator or exercise may enhance SirT1 activity that, along with CR, likely have a better functional role in aging muscle.
    Keywords:  RNA-sequencing; SirT1 knockout mice; SirT1 transgenic mice; aging; caloric restriction; sirtuin1; transcriptome
  2. Metabolites. 2021 May 18. pii: 323. [Epub ahead of print]11(5):
      Sarcopenia is an aging-induced syndrome characterized by a progressive reduction of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Increasing evidence has attested that appropriate and scientific exercise could induce autophagy or optimize the functional status of autophagy, which plays a critical role in senescent muscular dystrophy. As a publicly recognized strategy for extending lifespan and improving the health of the elderly, the underlying mechanisms of lifelong regular aerobic exercise for the prevention of sarcopenia have not been fully elucidated. To explore the role of lifelong aerobic exercise in the beneficial regulation of autophagic signaling pathways in senescent skeletal muscle, the natural aging mice were used as the sarcopenia model and subjected to lifelong treadmill running to evaluate corresponding parameters related to skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagic signaling pathways. Compared with the young control mice, the aged mice showed a significant reduction in skeletal muscle mass, gastrocnemius muscle weight/body weight (GMW/BW) ratio, and cross-sectional areas (CSA) of skeletal muscle fibers (p < 0.01). In contrast, lifelong aerobic exercise effectively rescued these reduced biomarkers associated with muscle atrophy. Moreover, as shown in the activated AMPK/PGC-1α signaling pathway, lifelong aerobic exercise successfully prevented the aging-induced impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), excessive apoptosis, defective autophagy, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The exercise-induced autophagy suppressed the key regulatory components of the UPS, inhibited excessive apoptosis, and optimized mitochondrial quality control, thereby preventing and delaying aging-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; autophagy; lifelong aerobic exercise; mitochondrial quality control; sarcopenia; ubiquitin-proteasome system
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 13. pii: 5179. [Epub ahead of print]22(10):
      Periods of muscle disuse promote marked mitochondrial alterations that contribute to the impaired metabolic health and degree of atrophy in the muscle. Thus, understanding the molecular underpinnings of muscle mitochondrial decline with prolonged inactivity is of considerable interest. There are translational applications to patients subjected to limb immobilization following injury, illness-induced bed rest, neuropathies, and even microgravity. Studies in these patients, as well as on various pre-clinical rodent models have elucidated the pathways involved in mitochondrial quality control, such as mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, fission and fusion, and the corresponding mitochondrial derangements that underlie the muscle atrophy that ensues from inactivity. Defective organelles display altered respiratory function concurrent with increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which exacerbate myofiber atrophy via degradative pathways. The preservation of muscle quality and function is critical for maintaining mobility throughout the lifespan, and for the prevention of inactivity-related diseases. Exercise training is effective in preserving muscle mass by promoting favourable mitochondrial adaptations that offset the mitochondrial dysfunction, which contributes to the declines in muscle and whole-body metabolic health. This highlights the need for further investigation of the mechanisms in which mitochondria contribute to disuse-induced atrophy, as well as the specific molecular targets that can be exploited therapeutically.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; autophagy; mitochondrial biogenesis; mitochondrial quality control; mitophagy; muscle disuse; reactive oxygen species; skeletal muscle atrophy
  4. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 656909
      Skeletal muscle (SM) tissue has been repetitively shown to play a major role in whole-body glucose homeostasis and overall metabolic health. Hence, SM hypertrophy through resistance training (RT) has been suggested to be favorable to glucose homeostasis in different populations, from young healthy to type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals. While RT has been shown to contribute to improved metabolic health, including insulin sensitivity surrogates, in multiple studies, a universal understanding of a mechanistic explanation is currently lacking. Furthermore, exercised-improved glucose homeostasis and quantitative changes of SM mass have been hypothesized to be concurrent but not necessarily causally associated. With a straightforward focus on exercise interventions, this narrative review aims to highlight the current level of evidence of the impact of SM hypertrophy on glucose homeostasis, as well various mechanisms that are likely to explain those effects. These mechanistic insights could provide a strengthened rationale for future research assessing alternative RT strategies to the current classical modalities, such as low-load, high repetition RT or high-volume circuit-style RT, in metabolically impaired populations.
    Keywords:  insulin sensitivity; muscle capillarization; muscle hypertrophy; muscle mass; muscle mitochondrial activity; muscle mitochondrial biogenesis; muscle quality; resistance training
  5. Biophys J. 2021 Jun 01. pii: S0006-3495(21)00450-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Muscle stem cells (MuSCs) are requisite for skeletal muscle regeneration and homeostasis. Proper functioning of MuSCs, including activation, proliferation, and fate decision, is determined by an orchestrated series of events and communication between MuSCs and their niche. A multitude of biochemical stimuli are known to regulate MuSCs fate and function. However, in addition to biochemical factors, it is conceivable that MuSCs are subjected to mechanical forces during muscle stretch-shortening cycles due to myofascial connections between MuSCs and myofibers. MuSCs respond to mechanical forces in vitro but it remains to be proven whether physical forces are also exerted on MuSCs in their native niche and whether they contribute to the functioning and fate of MuSCs. MuSCs deformation in their native niche resulting from mechanical loading of ex vivo myofiber bundles were visualized utilizing mT/mG double-fluorescent Cre-reporter mouse and multiphoton microscopy. MuSCs were subjected to 1 h pulsating fluid shear stress (PFSS) with a peak shear stress rate of 6.5 Pa/s. After treatment, nitric oxide, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in regulation of MuSC proliferation and differentiation, ERK 1/2, p38, and AKT activation were determined. Ex vivo stretching of extensor digitorum longus and soleus myofiber bundles caused compression as well as tensile and shear deformation of MuSCs in their niche. MuSCs responded to PFSS in vitro with increased nitric oxide production and an upward trend in iNOS mRNA levels. PFSS enhanced gene expression of c-Fos, Cdk4, and IL-6, while expression of Wnt1, MyoD, Myog, Wnt5a, COX2, Rspo1, Vangl2, Wnt10b, and MGF remained unchanged. ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling were also upregulated after PFSS treatment. We conclude that MuSCs in their native niche are subjected to force-induced deformations due to myofiber stretch-shortening. Moreover, MuSCs are mechanoresponsive as evident by PFSS-mediated expression of factors by MuSCs known to promote proliferation.
  6. Genes (Basel). 2021 May 03. pii: 688. [Epub ahead of print]12(5):
      Skeletal muscle atrophy in an inevitable occurrence with advancing age, and a consequence of disease including cancer. Muscle atrophy in the elderly is managed by a regimen of resistance exercise and increased protein intake. Understanding the signaling that regulates muscle mass may identify potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and reversal of muscle atrophy in metabolic and neuromuscular diseases. This review covers the major anabolic and catabolic pathways that regulate skeletal muscle mass, with a focus on recent progress and potential new players.
    Keywords:  Akt signaling; IGF-1/PI3K signaling; RNA-binding proteins; aging muscle; muscle atrophy; muscle hypertrophy
  7. Int J Mol Med. 2021 Jul;pii: 143. [Epub ahead of print]48(1):
      Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common feature of patients suffering with chronic infection and other systemic diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, chronic kidney disease and cancer. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of muscle loss is of importance. The majority of members of the forkhead box O (FoxO) family can induce skeletal muscle atrophy; however, the effect of FoxO6 on skeletal muscle is not completely understood. The present study investigated the role of FoxO6 in vitro and in vivo. Compared with the small interfering RNA (si)‑negative control (NC) group, C2C12 cell proliferation (Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay), myotube differentiation and myotube production were significantly decreased by FoxO6 knockdown, which was different from the known functions of other FoxO members. The immunofluorescence assay results demonstrated that si‑FoxO6 clearly downregulated the expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in C2C12 myotubes compared with si‑NC. The western blotting results indicated that compared with the si‑NC group, FoxO6 knockdown induced C2C12 myotube atrophy by notably downregulating myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD), mTOR and MyHC expression levels, and by markedly upregulating ubiquitin ligase (atrogin1) and muscle RING‑finger protein‑1 (MURF1) expression levels. Similarly, in an in vitro model of TNF‑α‑induced myotube atrophy, the western blotting results indicated that FoxO6 expression levels were decreased, whereas atrogin1, MURF1, FoxO1 and FoxO3a expression levels were increased compared with the control group. Therefore, the results indicated that, unlike FoxO1 or FoxO3a, FoxO6 maintained C2C12 myotubes and protected against atrophy. Consistent with the in vitro data, similar results were observed in vivo. Collectively, the results of the present study suggested that FoxO6 served a critical role in muscle cell metabolism in vitro and in vivo, and might serve as a promising therapeutic target for ameliorating skeletal muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  C2C12; atrogin1; forkhead box O6; muscle RING‑finger protein‑1; skeletal muscle atrophy
  8. Appl Phys Rev. 2021 Jun;8(2): 021405
      To achieve rapid skeletal muscle function restoration, many attempts have been made to bioengineer functional muscle constructs by employing physical, biochemical, or biological cues. Here, we develop a self-aligned skeletal muscle construct by printing a photo-crosslinkable skeletal muscle extracellular matrix-derived bioink together with poly(vinyl alcohol) that contains human muscle progenitor cells. To induce the self-alignment of human muscle progenitor cells, in situ uniaxially aligned micro-topographical structure in the printed constructs is created by a fibrillation/leaching of poly(vinyl alcohol) after the printing process. The in vitro results demonstrate that the synergistic effect of tissue-specific biochemical signals (obtained from the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix-derived bioink) and topographical cues [obtained from the poly(vinyl alcohol) fibrillation] improves the myogenic differentiation of the printed human muscle progenitor cells with cellular alignment. Moreover, this self-aligned muscle construct shows the accelerated integration with neural networks and vascular ingrowth in vivo, resulting in rapid restoration of muscle function. We demonstrate that combined biochemical and topographic cues on the 3D bioprinted skeletal muscle constructs can effectively reconstruct the extensive muscle defect injuries.
  9. Aging Cell. 2021 Jun 02. e13393
      Specialized pro-resolving mediators actively limit inflammation and support tissue regeneration, but their role in age-related muscle dysfunction has not been explored. We profiled the mediator lipidome of aging muscle via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and tested whether treatment with the pro-resolving mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) could rejuvenate the regenerative ability of aged muscle. Aged mice displayed chronic muscle inflammation and this was associated with a basal deficiency of pro-resolving mediators 8-oxo-RvD1, resolvin E3, and maresin 1, as well as many anti-inflammatory cytochrome P450-derived lipid epoxides. Following muscle injury, young and aged mice produced similar amounts of most pro-inflammatory eicosanoid metabolites of cyclooxygenase (e.g., prostaglandin E2 ) and 12-lipoxygenase (e.g., 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid), but aged mice produced fewer markers of pro-resolving mediators including the lipoxins (15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid), D-resolvins/protectins (17-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid), E-resolvins (18-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid), and maresins (14-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid). Similar absences of downstream pro-resolving mediators including lipoxin A4 , resolvin D6, protectin D1/DX, and maresin 1 in aged muscle were associated with greater inflammation, impaired myofiber regeneration, and delayed recovery of strength. Daily intraperitoneal injection of RvD1 had minimal impact on intramuscular leukocyte infiltration and myofiber regeneration but suppressed inflammatory cytokine expression, limited fibrosis, and improved recovery of muscle function. We conclude that aging results in deficient local biosynthesis of specialized pro-resolving mediators in muscle and that immunoresolvents may be attractive novel therapeutics for the treatment of muscular injuries and associated pain in the elderly, due to positive effects on recovery of muscle function without the negative side effects on tissue regeneration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
    Keywords:  aging; cellular immunology; inflammation; injury; mass spectrometry; sarcopenia; satellite stem cell; skeletal muscle
  10. Biomolecules. 2021 May 21. pii: 769. [Epub ahead of print]11(6):
      Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are often combined and pathologically affect many tissues due to changes in circulating bioactive molecules. In this work, we evaluated the effect of blood plasma from obese (OB) patients or from obese patients comorbid with diabetes (OBD) on skeletal muscle function and metabolic state. We employed the mouse myoblasts C2C12 differentiation model to test the regulatory effect of plasma exposure at several levels: (1) cell morphology; (2) functional activity of mitochondria; (3) expression levels of several mitochondria regulators, i.e., Atgl, Pgc1b, and miR-378a-3p. Existing databases were used to computationally predict and analyze mir-378a-3p potential targets. We show that short-term exposure to OB or OBD patients' plasma is sufficient to affect C2C12 properties. In fact, the expression of genes that regulate skeletal muscle differentiation and growth was downregulated in both OB- and OBD-treated cells, maximal mitochondrial respiration rate was downregulated in the OBD group, while in the OB group, a metabolic switch to glycolysis was detected. These alterations correlated with a decrease in ATGL and Pgc1b expression in the OB group and with an increase of miR-378a-3p levels in the OBD group.
    Keywords:  diabetes; miR-378a-3p; mitochondria; murine myoblast cell line; obesity; plasma; skeletal muscle bioenergetics; skeletal muscle differentiation
  11. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 May 17. pii: 478. [Epub ahead of print]14(5):
      Skeletal myopathy encompasses both atrophy and dysfunction and is a prominent event in cancer and chemotherapy-induced cachexia. Here, we investigate the effects of a chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), on skeletal muscle mass and function, and whether small-molecule therapeutic candidate, BGP-15, could be protective against the chemotoxic challenge exerted by 5FU. Additionally, we explore the molecular signature of 5FU treatment. Male Balb/c mice received metronomic tri-weekly intraperitoneal delivery of 5FU (23 mg/kg), with and without BGP-15 (15 mg/kg), 6 times in total over a 15 day treatment period. We demonstrated that neither 5FU, nor 5FU combined with BGP-15, affected body composition indices, skeletal muscle mass or function. Adjuvant BGP-15 treatment did, however, prevent the 5FU-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p65 NF-B subunit, signalling pathways involved in cell stress and inflammatory signalling, respectively. This as associated with mitoprotection. 5FU reduced the expression of the key cytoskeletal proteins, desmin and dystrophin, which was not prevented by BGP-15. Combined, these data show that metronomic delivery of 5FU does not elicit physiological consequences to skeletal muscle mass and function but is implicit in priming skeletal muscle with a molecular signature for myopathy. BGP-15 has modest protective efficacy against the molecular changes induced by 5FU.
    Keywords:  5-fluorouracil; NF-B; cachexia; chemotherapy; desmin; dystrophin; p38; skeletal muscle
  12. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 11. pii: 5081. [Epub ahead of print]22(10):
      Skeletal muscles, being one of the most abundant tissues in the body, are involved in many vital processes, such as locomotion, posture maintenance, respiration, glucose homeostasis, etc. Hence, the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is crucial for overall health, prevention of various diseases, and contributes to an individual's quality of life. Prolonged muscle inactivity/disuse (due to limb immobilization, mechanical ventilation, bedrest, spaceflight) represents one of the typical causes, leading to the loss of muscle mass and function. This disuse-induced muscle loss primarily results from repressed protein synthesis and increased proteolysis. Further, prolonged disuse results in slow-to-fast fiber-type transition, mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced oxidative capacity. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is a key enzyme standing at the crossroads of various signaling pathways regulating a wide range of cellular processes. This review discusses various important roles of GSK-3β in the regulation of protein turnover, myosin phenotype, and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscles under disuse/unloading conditions and subsequent recovery. According to its vital functions, GSK-3β may represent a perspective therapeutic target in the treatment of muscle wasting induced by chronic disuse, aging, and a number of diseases.
    Keywords:  GSK-3beta; disuse; muscle recovery; myosin phenotype; oxidative capacity; protein breakdown; protein synthesis; skeletal muscle; unloading
  13. J Clin Invest. 2021 Jun 01. pii: 135821. [Epub ahead of print]131(11):
      Skeletal muscle wasting is commonly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, the link between kidney and muscle function remains poorly understood. Here, we took a complementary interorgan approach to investigate skeletal muscle wasting in CKD. We identified increased production and elevated blood levels of soluble pro-cachectic factors, including activin A, directly linking experimental and human CKD to skeletal muscle wasting programs. Single-cell sequencing data identified the expression of activin A in specific kidney cell populations of fibroblasts and cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. We propose that persistent and increased kidney production of pro-cachectic factors, combined with a lack of kidney clearance, facilitates a vicious kidney/muscle signaling cycle, leading to exacerbated blood accumulation and, thereby, skeletal muscle wasting. Systemic pharmacological blockade of activin A using soluble activin receptor type IIB ligand trap as well as muscle-specific adeno-associated virus-mediated downregulation of its receptor ACVR2A/B prevented muscle wasting in different mouse models of experimental CKD, suggesting that activin A is a key factor in CKD-induced cachexia. In summary, we uncovered a crosstalk between kidney and muscle and propose modulation of activin signaling as a potential therapeutic strategy for skeletal muscle wasting in CKD.
    Keywords:  Chronic kidney disease; Muscle; Muscle Biology; Nephrology
  14. Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 03. 11(1): 11695
      Investigations of the human neuromuscular junction (NMJ) have predominately utilised experimental animals, model organisms, or monolayer cell cultures that fail to represent the physiological complexity of the synapse. Consequently, there remains a paucity of data regarding the development of the human NMJ and a lack of systems that enable investigation of the motor unit. This work addresses this need, providing the methodologies to bioengineer 3D models of the human motor unit. Spheroid culture of iPSC derived motor neuron progenitors augmented the transcription of OLIG2, ISLET1 and SMI32 motor neuron mRNAs ~ 400, ~ 150 and ~ 200-fold respectively compared to monolayer equivalents. Axon projections of adhered spheroids exceeded 1000 μm in monolayer, with transcription of SMI32 and VACHT mRNAs further enhanced by addition to 3D extracellular matrices in a type I collagen concentration dependent manner. Bioengineered skeletal muscles produced functional tetanic and twitch profiles, demonstrated increased acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering and transcription of MUSK and LRP4 mRNAs, indicating enhanced organisation of the post-synaptic membrane. The number of motor neuron spheroids, or motor pool, required to functionally innervate 3D muscle tissues was then determined, generating functional human NMJs that evidence pre- and post-synaptic membrane and motor nerve axon co-localisation. Spontaneous firing was significantly elevated in 3D motor units, confirmed to be driven by the motor nerve via antagonistic inhibition of the AChR. Functional analysis outlined decreased time to peak twitch and half relaxation times, indicating enhanced physiology of excitation contraction coupling in innervated motor units. Our findings provide the methods to maximise the maturity of both iPSC motor neurons and primary human skeletal muscle, utilising cell type specific extracellular matrices and developmental timelines to bioengineer the human motor unit for the study of neuromuscular junction physiology.
  15. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 May 11. pii: 758. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      Obesity and insulin resistance accelerate aging-related sarcopenia, which is associated with iron load and oxidative stress. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is an iron-binding protein that has been associated with skeletal muscle regeneration, but details regarding its role in obese sarcopenia remain unclear. Here, we report that elevated LCN2 levels in skeletal muscle are linked to muscle atrophy-related inflammation and oxidative stress in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. RNA sequencing analyses indicated the LCN2 gene expression is enhanced in skeletal muscle of ob/ob mice with sarcopenia. In addition to muscular iron accumulation in ob/ob mice, expressions of iron homeostasis-related divalent metal transporter 1, ferritin, and hepcidin proteins were increased in ob/ob mice compared to lean littermates, whereas expressions of transferrin receptor and ferroportin were reduced. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that LCN2 functions as a potent proinflammatory factor in skeletal muscle in response to obesity-related sarcopenia and is thus a therapeutic candidate target for sarcopenia treatment.
    Keywords:  inflammation; iron; lipocalin-2; ob/ob mouse; oxidative stress; sarcopenia
  16. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2021 Jun 02.
      Ribosomal protein L3-like (RPL3L) is a poorly characterized ribosomal protein that is exclusively expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. RPL3L is also downregulated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), suggesting that it may play an important role in muscle biology. In this study, we investigated the role of RPL3L in skeletal muscle of healthy C57 and dystrophic mdx mice. We show that RPL3L is developmentally regulated and that intramuscular adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated RPL3L knockdown in the tibialis anterior of C57 and mdx mice results in increased specific force with improved resistance to eccentric contraction induced muscle damage in dystrophic muscles. The mechanism by which RPL3L knockdown improves muscle function remains unclear. Histological observations showed a significant increase in muscle length and decrease in muscle cross-sectional area after RPL3L inhibition suggesting that this ribosomal protein may play a role in myofiber morphology. The endogenous downregulation of RPL3L in DMD may be a protective mechanism that attempts to improve skeletal muscle function and counteract the dystrophic phenotype.
    Keywords:  Duchenne muscular dystrophy; gene therapy; in vivo muscle electrophysiology; muscle function; ribosomal protein
  17. Genes (Basel). 2021 May 25. pii: 808. [Epub ahead of print]12(6):
      Myosins are important eukaryotic motor proteins that bind actin and utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to perform a broad range of functions such as muscle contraction, cell migration, cytokinesis, and intracellular trafficking. However, the characterization and function of myosin is poorly studied in teleost fish. In this study, we identified 60 myosin family genes in a marine teleost, black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii), and further characterized their expression patterns. myosin showed divergent expression patterns in adult tissues, indicating they are involved in different types and compositions of muscle fibers. Among 12 subfamilies, S. schlegelii myo2 subfamily was significantly expanded, which was driven by tandem duplication events. The up-regulation of five representative genes of myo2 in the skeletal muscle during fast-growth stages of juvenile and adult S. schlegelii revealed their active role in skeletal muscle fiber synthesis. Moreover, the expression regulation of myosin during the process of myoblast differentiation in vitro suggested that they contribute to skeletal muscle growth by involvement of both myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Taken together, our work characterized myosin genes systemically and demonstrated their diverse functions in a marine teleost species. This lays foundation for the further studies of muscle growth regulation and molecular mechanisms of indeterminate skeletal muscle growth of large teleost fishes.
    Keywords:  Sebastes schlegelii; myo2; myoblast differentiation; myosin gene family; skeletal muscle growth
  18. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 23. pii: 5491. [Epub ahead of print]22(11):
      Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a major antioxidant enzyme for superoxide removal, and cytoplasmic SOD (SOD1) is expressed as a predominant isoform in all cells. We previously reported that renal SOD1 deficiency accelerates the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) via increasing renal oxidative stress. To evaluate whether the degree of SOD1 expression determines regeneration capacity and sarcopenic phenotypes of skeletal muscles under incipient and advanced DN conditions, we investigated the alterations of SOD1 expression, oxidative stress marker, inflammation, fibrosis, and regeneration capacity in cardiotoxin (CTX)-injured tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of two Akita diabetic mouse models with different susceptibility to DN, DN-resistant C57BL/6-Ins2Akita and DN-prone KK/Ta-Ins2Akita mice. Here, we report that KK/Ta-Ins2Akita mice, but not C57BL/6-Ins2Akita mice, exhibit delayed muscle regeneration after CTX injection, as demonstrated by the finding indicating significantly smaller average cross-sectional areas of regenerating TA muscle myofibers relative to KK/Ta-wild-type mice. Furthermore, we observed markedly reduced SOD1 expression in CTX-injected TA muscles of KK/Ta-Ins2Akita mice, but not C57BL/6-Ins2Akita mice, along with increased inflammatory cell infiltration, prominent fibrosis and superoxide overproduction. Our study provides the first evidence that SOD1 reduction and the following superoxide overproduction delay skeletal muscle regeneration through induction of overt inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of progressive DN.
    Keywords:  akita mouse; cardiotoxin injury; diabetic nephropathy; muscle regeneration; oxidative stress; superoxide dismutase 1
  19. Life Sci. 2021 Jun 01. pii: S0024-3205(21)00651-2. [Epub ahead of print] 119665
      AIMS: Although it is well established that skeletal muscle contains oxytocin (OT) receptors and OT-knockout mice show premature development of sarcopenia, the role of OT in controlling skeletal muscle mass is still unknown. Therefore, the present work aimed to determine OT's effects on skeletal muscle protein metabolism.MAIN METHODS: Total proteolysis, proteolytic system activities and protein synthesis were assessed in isolated soleus muscle from prepubertal female rats. Through in vivo experiments, rats received 3-day OT treatment (, i.p.) or saline, and muscles were harvested for mass-gain assessment.
    KEY FINDINGS: In vitro OT receptor stimulation reduced total proteolysis, specifically through attenuation of the lysosomal and proteasomal proteolytic systems, and in parallel activated the Akt/FoxO1 signaling and suppressed atrogenes (e.g., MuRF-1 and atrogin-1) expression induced by motor denervation. On the other hand, the protein synthesis was not altered by in vitro treatment with the OT receptor-selective agonist. Although short-term OT treatment did not change the atrogene mRNA levels, the protein synthesis was stimulated, resulting in soleus mass gain, probably through an indirect effect.
    SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data show for the first time that OT directly inhibits the proteolytic activities of the lysosomal and proteasomal systems in rat oxidative skeletal muscle by suppressing atrogene expression via stimulation of Akt/FoxO signaling. Moreover, the data obtained from in vivo experiments suggest OT's ability to control rat oxidative skeletal muscle mass.
    Keywords:  Oxytocin; Protein breakdown; Protein synthesis; Skeletal muscle
  20. Aging Cell. 2021 Jun 01. e13379
      Increased levels of dysfunctional mitochondria within skeletal muscle are correlated with numerous age-related physiopathological conditions. Improving our understanding of the links between mitochondrial function and muscle proteostasis, and the role played by individual genes and regulatory networks, is essential to develop treatments for these conditions. One potential player is the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Fis1, a crucial fission factor heavily involved in mitochondrial dynamics in yeast but with an unknown role in higher-order organisms. By using Drosophila melanogaster as a model, we explored the effect of Fis1 mutations generated by transposon Minos-mediated integration. Mutants exhibited a higher ratio of damaged mitochondria with age as well as elevated reactive oxygen species levels compared with controls. This caused an increase in oxidative stress, resulting in large accumulations of ubiquitinated proteins, accelerated muscle function decline, and mitochondrial myopathies in young mutant flies. Ectopic expression of Fis1 isoforms was sufficient to suppress this phenotype. Loss of Fis1 led to unbalanced mitochondrial proteostasis within fly muscle, decreasing both flight capabilities and lifespan. Fis1 thus clearly plays a role in fly mitochondrial dynamics. Further investigations into the detailed function of Fis1 are necessary for exploring how mitochondrial function correlates with muscle health during aging.
    Keywords:   Drosophila melanogaster ; Fis1; aging; mitochondria
  21. Sci Transl Med. 2021 Jun 02. pii: eaay8416. [Epub ahead of print]13(596):
      Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive muscle wasting associated to oxidative stress and persistent inflammation. It is essential to deepen our knowledge on the mechanism connecting these two processes because current treatments for MDs have limited efficacy and/or are associated with side effects. Here, we identified the alarmin high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a functional link between oxidative stress and inflammation in MDs. The oxidation of HMGB1 cysteines switches its extracellular activities from the orchestration of tissue regeneration to the exacerbation of inflammation. Extracellular HMGB1 is present at high amount and undergoes oxidation in patients with MDs and in mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 3 (LGMDR3) compared to controls. Genetic ablation of HMGB1 in muscles of DMD mice leads to an amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype as evidenced by the reduced inflammation and muscle degeneration, indicating that HMGB1 oxidation is a detrimental process in MDs. Pharmacological treatment with an engineered nonoxidizable variant of HMGB1, called 3S, improves functional performance, muscle regeneration, and satellite cell engraftment in dystrophic mice while reducing inflammation and fibrosis. Overall, our data demonstrate that the balance between HMGB1 redox isoforms dictates whether skeletal muscle is in an inflamed or regenerating state, and that the nonoxidizable form of HMGB1 is a possible therapeutic approach to counteract the progression of the dystrophic phenotype. Rebalancing the HMGB1 redox isoforms may also be a therapeutic strategy for other disorders characterized by chronic oxidative stress and inflammation.
  22. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 17. pii: 5276. [Epub ahead of print]22(10):
      Muscular dystrophies constitute a group of genetic disorders that cause weakness and progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass. Among them, Miyoshi muscular dystrophy 1 (MMD1), limb girdle muscular dystrophy type R2 (LGMDR2/2B), and LGMDR12 (2L) are characterized by mutation in gene encoding key membrane-repair protein, which leads to severe dysfunctions in sarcolemma repair. Cell membrane disruption is a physiological event induced by mechanical stress, such as muscle contraction and stretching. Like many eukaryotic cells, muscle fibers possess a protein machinery ensuring fast resealing of damaged plasma membrane. Members of the annexins A (ANXA) family belong to this protein machinery. ANXA are small soluble proteins, twelve in number in humans, which share the property of binding to membranes exposing negatively-charged phospholipids in the presence of calcium (Ca2+). Many ANXA have been reported to participate in membrane repair of varied cell types and species, including human skeletal muscle cells in which they may play a collective role in protection and repair of the sarcolemma. Here, we discuss the participation of ANXA in membrane repair of healthy skeletal muscle cells and how dysregulation of ANXA expression may impact the clinical severity of muscular dystrophies.
    Keywords:  DMD; FSHD; LGMD; annexins; genetic modifiers; membrane repair; muscular dystrophy; skeletal muscle
  23. Cytometry A. 2021 Jun 05.
      Skeletal muscle function is inferred from the spatial arrangement of muscle fiber architecture, which corresponds to myofiber molecular and metabolic features. Myofiber features are often determined using immunofluorescence on a local sampling, typically obtained from a median region. This median region is assumed to represent the entire muscle. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent this local sampling represents the entire muscle. We present a pipeline to study the architecture of muscle fiber features over the entire muscle, including sectioning, staining, imaging to image quantification and data-driven analysis with Myofiber type were identified by the expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, representing contraction properties. We reconstructed muscle architecture from consecutive cross-sections stained for laminin and MyHC isoforms. Examining the entire muscle using consecutive cross-sections is extremely laborious, we provide consideration to reduce the dataset without loosing spatial information. Data-driven analysis with over 150,000 myofibers showed spatial variations in myofiber geometric features, myofiber type, and the distribution of neuromuscular junctions over the entire muscle. We present a workflow to study histological changes over the entire muscle using high-throughput imaging, image quantification, and data-driven analysis. Our results suggest that asymmetric spatial distribution of these features over the entire muscle could impact muscle function. Therefore, instead of a single sampling from a median region, representative regions covering the entire muscle should be investigated in future studies.
    Keywords:  data-driven analysis; muscle architecture; myofiber type; quantitative image analysis
  24. Int Neurourol J. 2021 May;25(Suppl 1): S27-34
      PURPOSE: In this study, the protective effect of voluntary wheel running exercise on muscle loss and muscle weakness in gastrocnemius of old rats was investigated. The association of voluntary wheel exercise with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)/fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/adenosine monophosphate- activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was also evaluated.METHODS: Six-month-old and 22-month-old male rats were used for this experiment. The rats in voluntary wheel running exercise groups were performed wheel running for 2 months. Weight bearing test for walking strength, rotarod test for motor coordination and balance, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining for histological changes in the muscle tissues, Western blot analysis for PGC-1α, FNDC5, AMPK, immunofluorescence for VEGF were conducted.
    RESULTS: Decreased muscle mass, strength, and coordination due to aging were associated with a decrease in the PGC-1α/ FNDC5/AMPK signaling pathway in the gastrocnemius. Voluntary wheel running exercise enhanced VEGF expression by activating the PGC-1α/FNDC5/AMPK signaling pathway, then increased muscle mass, strength, and coordination.
    CONCLUSION: It has been suggested that voluntary wheel running exercise alleviates symptoms of urological diseases that are difficult to treat. Wheel running exercise is a good therapeutic strategy to prevent or treat aging-related sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  Aging; Muscle mass; Sarcopenia; Strength; Voluntary wheel running exercise
  25. Nat Commun. 2021 05 31. 12(1): 3253
      Muscle stem cell function has been suggested to be regulated by Acetyl-CoA and NAD+ availability, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report the identification of two acetylation sites on PAX7 that positively regulate its transcriptional activity. Lack of PAX7 acetylation reduces DNA binding, specifically to the homeobox motif. The acetyltransferase MYST1 stimulated by Acetyl-CoA, and the deacetylase SIRT2 stimulated by NAD +, are identified as direct regulators of PAX7 acetylation and asymmetric division in muscle stem cells. Abolishing PAX7 acetylation in mice using CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis leads to an expansion of the satellite stem cell pool, reduced numbers of asymmetric stem cell divisions, and increased numbers of oxidative IIA myofibers. Gene expression analysis confirms that lack of PAX7 acetylation preferentially affects the expression of target genes regulated by homeodomain binding motifs. Therefore, PAX7 acetylation status regulates muscle stem cell function and differentiation potential to facilitate metabolic adaptation of muscle tissue.
  26. Nutrients. 2021 May 19. pii: 1717. [Epub ahead of print]13(5):
      Time-restricted feeding (TRF) is becoming a popular way of eating in physically active populations, despite a lack of research on metabolic and performance outcomes as they relate to the timing of food consumption in relation to the time of exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding/fasting after exercise training differently affects muscle metabolic flexibility and response to an acute bout of exercise. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to one of three groups for 8 weeks. The control had ad libitum access to food before and after exercise training. TRF-immediate had immediate access to food for 6 h following exercise training and the TRF-delayed group had access to food 5-h post exercise for 6 h. The timing of fasting did not impact performance in a run to fatigue despite TRF groups having lower hindlimb muscle mass. TRF-delayed had lower levels of muscle HSL mRNA expression and lower levels of PGC-1α expression but displayed no changes in electron transport chain enzymes. These results suggest that in young populations consuming a healthy diet and exercising, the timing of fasting may not substantially impact metabolic flexibility and running performance.
    Keywords:  aerobic training; skeletal muscle metabolism; time-restricted feeding
  27. Cells. 2021 May 24. pii: 1307. [Epub ahead of print]10(6):
      With advancing aging, a decline in physical abilities occurs, leading to reduced mobility and loss of independence. Although many factors contribute to the physio-pathological effects of aging, an important event seems to be related to the compromised integrity of the neuromuscular system, which connects the brain and skeletal muscles via motoneurons and the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). NMJs undergo severe functional, morphological, and molecular alterations during aging and ultimately degenerate. The effect of this decline is an inexorable decrease in skeletal muscle mass and strength, a condition generally known as sarcopenia. Moreover, several studies have highlighted how the age-related alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis can contribute to changes in the neuromuscular junction morphology and stability, leading to the reduction in fiber number and innervation. Increasing evidence supports the involvement of epigenetic modifications in age-dependent alterations of the NMJ. In particular, DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA-dependent gene expression represent the major epigenetic mechanisms that play a crucial role in NMJ remodeling. It is established that environmental and lifestyle factors, such as physical exercise and nutrition that are susceptible to change during aging, can modulate epigenetic phenomena and attenuate the age-related NMJs changes. This review aims to highlight the recent epigenetic findings related to the NMJ dysregulation during aging and the role of physical activity and nutrition as possible interventions to attenuate or delay the age-related decline in the neuromuscular system.
    Keywords:  ALS; ROS; aging; exercise; nutrition; oxidative stress; skeletal muscle
  28. Skelet Muscle. 2021 May 29. 11(1): 14
      BACKGROUND: The signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) transcription factor plays a vitally important role in immune cells, where it is activated mainly by interleukin-4 (IL-4). Because IL-4 is an essential cytokine for myotube formation, STAT6 might also be involved in myogenesis as part of IL-4 signaling. This study was conducted to elucidate the role of STAT6 in adult myogenesis in vitro and in vivo.METHODS: Myoblasts were isolated from male mice and were differentiated on a culture dish to evaluate the change in STAT6 during myotube formation. Then, the effects of STAT6 overexpression and inhibition on proliferation, differentiation, and fusion in those cells were studied. Additionally, to elucidate the myogenic role of STAT6 in vivo, muscle regeneration after injury was evaluated in STAT6 knockout mice.
    RESULTS: IL-4 can increase STAT6 phosphorylation, but STAT6 phosphorylation decreased during myotube formation in culture. STAT6 overexpression decreased, but STAT6 knockdown increased the differentiation index and the fusion index. Results indicate that STAT6 inhibited myogenin protein expression. Results of in vivo experiments show that STAT6 knockout mice exhibited better regeneration than wild-type mice 5 days after cardiotoxin-induced injury. It is particularly interesting that results obtained using cells from STAT6 knockout mice suggest that this STAT6 inhibitory action for myogenesis was not mediated by IL-4 but might instead be associated with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. However, STAT6 was not involved in the proliferation of myogenic cells in vitro and in vivo.
    CONCLUSION: Results suggest that STAT6 functions as an inhibitor of adult myogenesis. Moreover, results suggest that the IL-4-STAT6 signaling axis is unlikely to be responsible for myotube formation.
    Keywords:  Differentiation; Interleukin-4; Myoblast fusion; Myotube; Primary myoblast
  29. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 26. pii: 5673. [Epub ahead of print]22(11):
      Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by upper and/or lower MN loss. MNDs include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Despite variability in onset, progression, and genetics, they share a common skeletal muscle involvement, suggesting that it could be a primary site for MND pathogenesis. Due to the key role of muscle-specific microRNAs (myomiRs) in skeletal muscle development, by real-time PCR we investigated the expression of miR-206, miR-133a, miR-133b, and miR-1, and their target genes, in G93A-SOD1 ALS, Δ7SMA, and KI-SBMA mouse muscle during disease progression. Further, we analyzed their expression in serum of SOD1-mutated ALS, SMA, and SBMA patients, to demonstrate myomiR role as noninvasive biomarkers. Our data showed a dysregulation of myomiRs and their targets, in ALS, SMA, and SBMA mice, revealing a common pathogenic feature associated with muscle impairment. A similar myomiR signature was observed in patients' sera. In particular, an up-regulation of miR-206 was identified in both mouse muscle and serum of human patients. Our overall findings highlight the role of myomiRs as promising biomarkers in ALS, SMA, and SBMA. Further investigations are needed to explore the potential of myomiRs as therapeutic targets for MND treatment.
    Keywords:  amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; motor neuron diseases; mouse models; muscle-specific microRNAs; spinal bulbar muscular atrophy; spinal muscular atrophy
  30. J Vis Exp. 2021 May 16.
      Skeletal muscle is an insulin-responsive tissue and typically takes up most of the glucose that enters the blood after a meal. Moreover, it has been reported that skeletal muscle may increase the extraction of glucose from the blood by up to 50-fold during exercise compared to resting conditions. The increase in muscle glucose uptake during exercise and insulin stimulation is dependent on the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) from intracellular compartments to the muscle cell surface membrane, as well as phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate by hexokinase II. Isolation and incubation of mouse muscles such as m. soleus and m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL) is an appropriate ex vivo model to study the effects of insulin and electrically-induced contraction (a model for exercise) on glucose uptake in mature skeletal muscle. Thus, the ex vivo model permits evaluation of muscle insulin sensitivity and makes it possible to match muscle force production during contraction ensuring uniform recruitment of muscle fibers during measurements of muscle glucose uptake. Moreover, the described model is suitable for pharmacological compound testing that may have an impact on muscle insulin sensitivity or may be of help when trying to delineate the regulatory complexity of skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Here we describe and provide a detailed protocol on how to measure insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated and incubated soleus and EDL muscle preparations from mice using radiolabeled [3H]2-deoxy-D-glucose and [14C]mannitol as an extracellular marker. This allows accurate assessment of glucose uptake in mature skeletal muscle in the absence of confounding factors that may interfere in the intact animal model. In addition, we provide information on metabolic viability of incubated mouse skeletal muscle suggesting that the method applied possesses some caveats under certain conditions when studying muscle energy metabolism.
  31. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2021 06 03.
      Vitamin D deficiency, which is highly prevalent in the general population, exerts similar deleterious effects on skeletal muscles to those induced by cigarette smoking. We examined whether cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and/or vitamin D deficiency impairs the skeletal muscle hypertrophic response to overload. Male C57Bl/6JolaH mice on a normal or vitamin D-deficient diet were exposed to CS or room air for 18 weeks. Six weeks after initiation of CS or air exposure, sham surgery or denervation of the agonists of the left plantaris muscle was performed. The right leg served as internal control. Twelve weeks later, the hypertrophic response was assessed. CS exposure instigated loss of body and muscle mass, and increased lung inflammatory cell infiltration (p<0.05), independently of diet. Maximal exercise capacity, whole body strength, in situ plantaris muscle force and key markers of hypertrophic signaling (Akt, 4EBP1, FoxO1) were not significantly affected by smoking or diet. The increase in plantaris muscle fiber cross-sectional area in response to overload was attenuated in vitamin D-deficient CS-exposed mice (smoking x diet interaction for hypertrophy, p=0.03). In situ fatigue resistance was elevated in hypertrophied plantaris, irrespective of vitamin D deficiency and/or CS exposure. In conclusion, our data show that CS exposure or vitamin D deficiency alone did not attenuate the hypertrophic response of overloaded plantaris muscles, but this hypertrophic response was weakened when both conditions were combined. These data suggest that current smokers who also present with vitamin D deficiency may be less likely to respond to a training program.
    Keywords:  hypertrophy; muscle fatigue resistance; muscle fiber size; muscle force; overload
  32. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 15. pii: 5234. [Epub ahead of print]22(10):
      The Cellular Communication Network (CCN) family of matricellular proteins comprises six proteins that share conserved structural features and play numerous biological roles. These proteins can interact with several receptors or soluble proteins, regulating cell signaling pathways in various tissues under physiological and pathological conditions. In the skeletal muscle of mammals, most of the six CCN family members are expressed during embryonic development or in adulthood. Their roles during the adult stage are related to the regulation of muscle mass and regeneration, maintaining vascularization, and the modulation of skeletal muscle fibrosis. This work reviews the CCNs proteins' role in skeletal muscle physiology and disease, focusing on skeletal muscle fibrosis and its regulation by Connective Tissue Growth factor (CCN2/CTGF). Furthermore, we review evidence on the modulation of fibrosis and CCN2/CTGF by the renin-angiotensin system and the kallikrein-kinin system of vasoactive peptides.
    Keywords:  CCN; CCN2/CTGF; KKS; cellular communication network; fibrosis; skeletal muscle; vasoactive peptides
  33. Genes (Basel). 2021 May 08. pii: 696. [Epub ahead of print]12(5):
      Circular RNAs (circRNAs) represent a class of covalently closed single-stranded RNA molecules that are emerging as essential regulators of various biological processes. The circRNA circHipk2 originates from exon 2 of the Hipk2 gene in mice and was reported to be involved in acute promyelocytic leukemia and myocardial injury. However, the functions and mechanisms of circHipk2 in myogenesis are largely unknown. Here, to deepen our knowledge about the role of circHipk2, we studied the expression and function of circHipk2 during skeletal myogenesis. We found that circHipk2 was mostly distributed in the cytoplasm, and dynamically and differentially expressed in various myogenesis systems in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, overexpression of circHipk2 inhibited myoblast proliferation and promoted myotube formation in C2C12 cells, whereas the opposite effects were observed after circHipk2 knockdown. Mechanistically, circHipk2 could directly bind to ribosomal protein Rpl7, an essential 60S preribosomal assembly factor, to inhibit ribosome translation. In addition, we verified that transcription factor Sp1 directly bound to the promoter of circHipk2 and affected the expression of Hipk2 and circHipk2 in C2C12 myoblasts. Collectively, these findings identify circHipk2 as a candidate circRNA regulating ribosome biogenesis and myogenesis proliferation and differentiation.
    Keywords:  Rpl7; Sp1; circHipk2; circRNA; myogenesis; skeletal muscle
  34. Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 03. 11(1): 11793
      Skeletal muscle has the remarkable ability to regenerate. However, with age and disease muscle strength and function decline. Myofiber size, which is affected by injury and disease, is a critical measurement to assess muscle health. Here, we test and apply Cellpose, a recently developed deep learning algorithm, to automatically segment myofibers within murine skeletal muscle. We first show that tissue fixation is necessary to preserve cellular structures such as primary cilia, small cellular antennae, and adipocyte lipid droplets. However, fixation generates heterogeneous myofiber labeling, which impedes intensity-based segmentation. We demonstrate that Cellpose efficiently delineates thousands of individual myofibers outlined by a variety of markers, even within fixed tissue with highly uneven myofiber staining. We created a novel ImageJ plugin (LabelsToRois) that allows processing of multiple Cellpose segmentation images in batch. The plugin also contains a semi-automatic erosion function to correct for the area bias introduced by the different stainings, thereby identifying myofibers as accurately as human experts. We successfully applied our segmentation pipeline to uncover myofiber regeneration differences between two different muscle injury models, cardiotoxin and glycerol. Thus, Cellpose combined with LabelsToRois allows for fast, unbiased, and reproducible myofiber quantification for a variety of staining and fixation conditions.
  35. Cells. 2021 May 06. pii: 1116. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      Selenoprotein N (SEPN1) is a type II glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that senses calcium levels to tune the activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA pump) through a redox-mediated mechanism, modulating ER calcium homeostasis. In SEPN1-depleted muscles, altered ER calcium homeostasis triggers ER stress, which induces CHOP-mediated malfunction, altering excitation-contraction coupling. SEPN1 is localized in a region of the ER where the latter is in close contact with mitochondria, i.e., the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), which are important for calcium mobilization from the ER to mitochondria. Accordingly, SEPN1-depleted models have impairment of both ER and mitochondria calcium regulation and ATP production. SEPN1-related myopathy (SEPN1-RM) is an inherited congenital muscle disease due to SEPN1 loss of function, whose main histopathological features are minicores, i.e., areas of mitochondria depletion and sarcomere disorganization in muscle fibers. SEPN1-RM presents with weakness involving predominantly axial and diaphragmatic muscles. Since there is currently no disease-modifying drug to treat this myopathy, analysis of SEPN1 function in parallel with that of the muscle phenotype in SEPN1 loss of function models should help in understanding the pathogenic basis of the disease and possibly point to novel drugs for therapy. The present essay recapitulates the novel biological findings on SEPN1 and how these reconcile with the muscle and bioenergetics phenotype of SEPN1-related myopathy.
    Keywords:  SELENON; SELENON-related myopathy; SEPN1; SEPN1-related myopathy; UPR (unfolded protein response); calcium handling; multi-minicore disease; redox homeostasis; stress of the endoplasmic reticulum
  36. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 06. pii: 4913. [Epub ahead of print]22(9):
      Denervation rapidly induces insulin resistance (i.e., impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and signaling proteins) in skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, whether this metabolic derangement is long-lasting is presently not clear. The main goal of this study was to determine if insulin resistance is sustained in both oxidative soleus and glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles following long-term (28 days) denervation. Mouse hindlimb muscles were denervated via unilateral sciatic nerve resection. Both soleus and EDL muscles atrophied ~40%. Strikingly, while denervation impaired submaximal insulin-stimulated [3H]-2-deoxyglucose uptake ~30% in the soleus, it enhanced submaximal (~120%) and maximal (~160%) insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the EDL. To assess possible mechanism(s), immunoblots were performed. Denervation did not consistently alter insulin signaling (e.g., p-Akt (Thr308):Akt; p-TBC1D1 [phospho-Akt substrate (PAS)]:TBC1D1; or p-TBC1D4 (PAS):TBC1D4) in either muscle. However, denervation decreased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) levels ~65% in the soleus but increased them ~90% in the EDL. To assess the contribution of GLUT4 to the enhanced EDL muscle glucose uptake, muscle-specific GLUT4 knockout mice were examined. Loss of GLUT4 prevented the denervation-induced increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In conclusion, the denervation results sustained insulin resistance in the soleus but enhanced insulin sensitivity in the EDL due to increased GLUT4 protein levels.
    Keywords:  fiber type; glucose transporter; insulin signaling; myosin heavy chain; type 2 diabetes
  37. Cells. 2021 May 21. pii: 1271. [Epub ahead of print]10(6):
      The nuclear pore complex (NPC) has emerged as a hub for the transcriptional regulation of a subset of genes, and this type of regulation plays an important role during differentiation. Nucleoporin TPR forms the nuclear basket of the NPC and is crucial for the enrichment of open chromatin around NPCs. TPR has been implicated in the regulation of transcription; however, the role of TPR in gene expression and cell differentiation has not been described. Here we show that depletion of TPR results in an aberrant morphology of murine proliferating C2C12 myoblasts (MBs) and differentiated C2C12 myotubes (MTs). The ChIP-Seq data revealed that TPR binds to genes linked to muscle formation and function, such as myosin heavy chain (Myh4), myocyte enhancer factor 2C (Mef2C) and a majority of olfactory receptor (Olfr) genes. We further show that TPR, possibly via lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), promotes the expression of Myh4 and Olfr376, but not Mef2C. This provides a novel insight into the mechanism of myogenesis; however, more evidence is needed to fully elucidate the mechanism by which TPR affects specific myogenic genes.
    Keywords:  LSD1; Myh4; Olfr; TPR; gene expression; myogenic differentiation; nucleoporin; translocated promoter region
  38. Eur J Nutr. 2021 May 30.
      PURPOSE: Corticosteroid (CS) therapy for infectious and rheumatological diseases showed to decrease serum magnesium (Mg++) level and induce muscle atrophy in patients. The present study investigated the effects of Mg++ supplementation on preventing CS-induced muscle atrophy in an animal model, which provided experimental data for potential clinical translation.METHODS: Twelve 24-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CS methylprednisolone (MPS) to induce muscle atrophy, with half of the rats also given daily 50 mg/kg Mg++ oral supplementation. Additional six rats without LPS + CS treatments were used as normal controls. After treatment for 6 weeks, serum was collected for Mg++ quantification, animal dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed for tissue composition, and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) was collected for muscle functional test and histology including muscle fiber size, intramuscular fat infiltration and fiber typing. In vitro myotube atrophy model was used to study the in vitro effect associated with in vivo muscle atrophy.
    RESULTS: LPS + CS treatments induced hypomagnesemia while the serum Mg++ level was in normal range after Mg++ supplementation. DXA showed 53.0% lower fat percent and 29.7% higher lean mass in LPS + CS + Mg group when compared to LPS + CS group. Muscle functional test showed 22.2% higher specific twitch force and 40.3% higher specific tetanic force in LPS + CS + Mg group when compared to LPS + CS group. Histological analysis showed 4.1% higher proportion of muscle fibers area to total area and 63.6% lower intramuscular fat infiltration in EDL sections in LPS + CS + Mg group when compared to LPS + CS group. LPS + CS + Mg group had 33.0% higher area proportion and 29.4% higher cross-sectional area (CSA) of type IIb muscle fiber. Myoblast culture results showed that Mg++ supplementation group had larger myotube diameter. The mRNA expressions of the muscle atrophy marker genes MuRF1 and MAFbx were lower in Mg++ supplementation group both in vitro and in vivo.
    CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that Mg++ supplementation successfully alleviated CS-associated muscle atrophy in rats at both functional and morphology levels, indicating a translational potential for patients undergoing CS therapy. This study provided the evidence for the first time that Mg++ supplementation could prevent muscle atrophy-an adverse effect of CS therapy, currently also adopted for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
    Keywords:  Corticosteroid; Magnesium; Muscle atrophy
  39. Biochem Pharmacol. 2021 Jun 01. pii: S0006-2952(21)00253-7. [Epub ahead of print] 114640
      Physical inactivity is a major public health problem that contributes to the development of several pathologies such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Regular exercise mitigates the progression of these metabolic problems and contributes positively to memory and behavior. Therefore, public health agencies have incorporated exercise in the treatment of widespread disorders. The hypothalamus, specifically the ventromedial and the arcuate nuclei, responds to exercise activity and modulates energy metabolism through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and catecholamine secretion into the circulation. In addition, physical performance enhances cognitive functions and memory, mediated mostly by an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in brain. During exercise training, skeletal muscle myofibers remodel their biochemical, morphological and physiological state. Moreover, skeletal muscle interacts with other organs by the release into the circulation of myokines, molecules that exhibit autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functions. Several studies have focused on the role of skeletal muscle and tissues in response to physical activity. However, how the hypothalamus could influence the skeletal muscle task in the context of exercise is less studied. Here, we review recent data about hypothalamus-skeletal muscle crosstalk in response to physical activity and focus on specific aspects such as the neuroendocrinological effects of exercise and the endocrine functions of skeletal muscle, to provide a perspective for future study directions.
    Keywords:  exercise; hypothalamus; myokines; skeletal muscle; sympathetic nervous system
  40. Clin Transl Sci. 2021 Jun 03.
      Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a clinical tool providing adequate alveolar ventilation in patients that require respiratory support. Although a life-saving intervention for critically ill patients, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of inspiratory muscle weakness due to both diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction; collectively known as "ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction" (VIDD). VIDD is a severe clinical problem because diaphragmatic weakness is a risk factor for difficulties in weaning patients from MV. Currently, no standard treatment to prevent VIDD exists. Nonetheless, growing evidence reveals that hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) possesses cytoprotective properties capable of protecting skeletal muscles against several hallmarks of VIDD, including oxidative damage, accelerated proteolysis, and mitochondrial damage. Therefore, we used an established animal model of MV to test the hypothesis that treatment with sodium sulfide (H2 S donor) will defend against VIDD. Our results confirm that sodium sulfide was sufficient to protect the diaphragm against both MV-induced fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. H2 S prevents MV-induced damage to diaphragmatic mitochondria as evidenced by protection against mitochondrial uncoupling. Moreover, treatment with sodium sulfide prevented the MV-induced activation of the proteases, calpain and caspase-3 in the diaphragm. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that treatment with a H2 S donor protects the diaphragm against VIDD. These outcomes provide the first evidence that H2 S has therapeutic potential to protect against MV-induced diaphragm weakness and to reduce difficulties in weaning patients from the ventilator.
    Keywords:  diaphragm weakness; inspiratory muscles; muscle atrophy; muscle wasting
  41. Aging Cell. 2021 Jun 05. e13411
      Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength is widely attributed to limitation in the capacity of muscle resident satellite cells to perform their myogenic function. This idea contains two notions that have not been comprehensively evaluated by experiment. First, it entails the idea that we damage and lose substantial amounts of muscle in the course of our normal daily activities. Second, it suggests that mechanisms of muscle repair are in some way exhausted, thus limiting muscle regeneration. A third potential option is that the aged environment becomes inimical to the conduct of muscle regeneration. In the present study, we used our established model of human muscle xenografting to test whether muscle samples taken from cadavers, of a range of ages, maintained their myogenic potential after being transplanted into immunodeficient mice. We find no measurable difference in regeneration across the range of ages investigated up to 78 years of age. Moreover, we report that satellite cells maintained their myogenic capacity even when muscles were grafted 11 days postmortem in our model. We conclude that the loss of muscle mass with increasing age is not attributable to any intrinsic loss of myogenicity and is most likely a reflection of progressive and detrimental changes in the muscle microenvironment such as to disfavor the myogenic function of these cells.
    Keywords:  aging; human satellite cells; muscle regeneration; myogenic capacity; sarcopenia
  42. Cells. 2021 May 11. pii: 1166. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      Maternal diet during gestation and lactation affects the development of skeletal muscles in offspring and determines muscle health in later life. In this paper, we describe the association between maternal low protein diet-induced changes in offspring skeletal muscle and the differential expression (DE) of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs). We used a mouse model of maternal protein restriction, where dams were fed either a normal (N, 20%) or a low protein (L, 8%) diet during gestation and newborns were cross-fostered to N or L lactating dams, resulting in the generation of NN, NL and LN offspring groups. Total body and tibialis anterior (TA) weights were decreased in weanling NL male offspring but were not different in the LN group, as compared to NN. However, histological evaluation of TA muscle revealed reduced muscle fibre size in both groups at weaning. Small RNA-sequencing demonstrated DE of multiple miRs, snoRNAs and snRNAs. Bioinformatic analyses of miRs-15a, -34a, -122 and -199a, in combination with known myomiRs, confirmed their implication in key muscle-specific biological processes. This is the first comprehensive report for the DE of sncRNAs in nutrition-associated programming of skeletal muscle development, highlighting the need for further research to unravel the detailed molecular mechanisms.
    Keywords:  maternal protein restriction; microRNAs; muscle development; offspring; sncRNAs; snoRNAs
  43. Biomolecules. 2021 May 23. pii: 786. [Epub ahead of print]11(6):
      The notion of mitochondria being involved in the decoding and shaping of intracellular Ca2+ signals has been circulating since the end of the 19th century. Despite that, the molecular identity of the channel that mediates Ca2+ ion transport into mitochondria remained elusive for several years. Only in the last decade, the genes and pathways responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+ began to be cloned and characterized. The gene coding for the pore-forming unit of the mitochondrial channel was discovered exactly 10 years ago, and its product was called mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter or MCU. Before that, only one of its regulators, the mitochondria Ca2+ uptake regulator 1, MICU1, has been described in 2010. However, in the following years, the scientific interest in mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling regulation and physiological role has increased. This shortly led to the identification of many of its components, to the description of their 3D structure, and the characterization of the uniporter contribution to tissue physiology and pathology. In this review, we will summarize the most relevant achievements in the history of mitochondrial Ca2+ studies, presenting a chronological overview of the most relevant and landmarking discoveries. Finally, we will explore the impact of mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling in the context of muscle physiology, highlighting the recent advances in understanding the role of the MCU complex in the control of muscle trophism and metabolism.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ signaling; MCU; mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter; mitochondrial metabolism; skeletal muscle mitochondria
  44. Mar Drugs. 2021 May 10. pii: 266. [Epub ahead of print]19(5):
      Skeletal muscle is an important tissue in energy metabolism and athletic performance. The use of effective synthetic supplements and drugs to promote muscle growth is limited by various side effects. Moreover, their use is prohibited by anti-doping agencies; hence, natural alternatives are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the muscle growth effect of substances that can act like synthetic supplements from edible marine algae. First, we isolated six marine algal polyphenols belonging to the phlorotannin class, namely dieckol (DK), 2,7″-phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol (PHB), phlorofucofuroeckol A (PFFA), 6,6'-bieckol (6,6-BK), pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol (PPB), and phloroglucinol (PG) from an edible brown alga, Ecklonia cava and evaluated their effects on C2C12 myoblasts proliferation and differentiation. Of the six phlorotannin isolates evaluated, DK and PHB induced the highest degree of C2C12 myoblast proliferation. In addition, DK and PHB regulates myogenesis by down-regulating the Smad signaling, a negative regulator, and up-regulating the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling, a positive regulator. Interestingly, DK and PHB bind strongly to myostatin, which is an inhibitor of myoblast proliferation, while also binding to IGF-1 receptors. Moreover, they bind to IGF-1 receptor. These results suggest that DK and PHB are potential natural muscle building supplements and could be a safer alternative to synthetic drugs.
    Keywords:  Ecklnoia cava; marine algae; marine algal polyphenols; muscle growth; myogenesis; phlorotannins
  45. Exp Physiol. 2021 May 31.
      NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? Lactate is considered an important substrate for mitochondria in muscles, heart, and brain during exercise, and is the main gluconeogenetic precursor in the liver and kidneys. In this light, we review the (patho)physiology of lactate metabolism in sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). What advances does it highlight? Elevated blood lactate is strongly associated with mortality in septic patients. Lactate seems unrelated to tissue hypoxia, but likely reflects mitochondrial dysfunction and high adrenergic stimulation. Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit near-normal blood lactate, indicating preserved mitochondrial function, despite a systemic hyperinflammatory similar to sepsis.ABSTRACT: In critically ill patients, elevated plasma lactate is often interpreted as a sign of organ hypoperfusion and/or tissue hypoxia. This view on lactate is likely influenced by the pioneering exercise physiologists around 1920. August Krogh identified an oxygen deficit at the onset of exercise that was later related to an oxygen "debt" and lactate accumulation by AV Hill. Lactate is considered the main gluconeogenetic precursor in the liver and kidneys during submaximal exercise, but the hepatic elimination is attenuated by splanchnic vasoconstriction at high-intensity exercise causing an exponential increase in blood lactate. With the development of stable isotope tracers, lactate has become established as an important energy source for muscle, brain, and heart tissue where it is utilised for mitochondrial respiration. Plasma lactate > 4 mM is strongly associated with mortality in septic shock, with no direct link between lactate release and tissue hypoxia. Herein, we provide evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction and adrenergic stimulation as explanations for the sepsis-induced hyperlactatemia. Despite profound hypoxaemia and intense work of breathing, patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rarely exhibit hyperlactatemia (> 2.5 mM), while presenting a systemic hyperinflammatory state much like sepsis. However, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which controls the formation of lactate, is markedly elevated in plasma, and strongly associated with mortality in severe COVID-19. We briefly review the potential mechanisms of the LDH elevation in COVID-19 and its relationship to lactate metabolism based on mechanisms established in contracting skeletal muscle and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  acute respiratory distress syndrome; cardiovascular system; critical care; exercise; lung injury
  46. Cells. 2021 May 18. pii: 1241. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      foxm1 is a master regulator of the cell cycle, contributing to cell proliferation. Recent data have shown that this transcription factor also modulates gene networks associated with other cellular mechanisms, suggesting non-proliferative functions that remain largely unexplored. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to disrupt foxm1 in the zebrafish terminally differentiated fast-twitching muscle cells. foxm1 genomic disruption increased myofiber death and clearance. Interestingly, this contributed to non-autonomous satellite cell activation and proliferation. Moreover, we observed that Cas9 expression alone was strongly deleterious to muscle cells. Our report shows that foxm1 modulates a muscle non-autonomous response to myofiber death and highlights underreported toxicity to high expression of Cas9 in vivo.
    Keywords:  CRISPR/Cas9; foxm1; satellite cells; skeletal muscle; zebrafish
  47. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2021 Jun 01. e2100157
      SCOPE: The muscle loss during aging results from the blunt of protein synthesis and poses threat to the elderly health. This study aimed to investigate whether betaine affects muscle loss by improving protein synthesis.METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6J mice were raised from aged 12 mon or 15 mon. Mice were fed with AIN-93M diet without or with 2% w/v betaine in distilled water as control group (Con) or betaine intervention group (Bet) respectively. Betaine supplementation to mice demonstrated better body composition, grip strength and motor function. Muscle morphology, upregulated expression of myogenic regulate factors (MRFs), and elevated myosin heavy chain (MyHC) also improved in Bet group. Betaine promoted muscle protein synthesis (MPS) via tethering mTORC1 on the lysosomal membrane thereby activating mTORC1 signaling. All these effects aforementioned were time-dependent (P < 0.05). UPLC results found betaine increased S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) via methionine cycle. SAM sensor - Samtor - overexpression in C2C12 cells could displace mTORC1 from lysosome thereby inhibited the mTORC1 signaling. Addition of betaine attenuated this inhibition by increasing SAM level and then disrupting interaction of Samtor complex.
    CONCLUSIONS: These observations indicated betaine could promisingly promote protein synthesis to delay age-related muscle loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  S-adenosylmethionine (SAM); Samtor; age-related muscle loss; betaine; mTORC1
  48. Endocrinology. 2021 Jun 04. pii: bqab112. [Epub ahead of print]
      Skeletal muscle (SM) weakness occurs in hypothyroidism and resistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTHα) syndrome. However, the cell signaling and molecular mechanism(s) underlying muscle weakness under these conditions is not well understood. We thus examined the role of thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα), the predominant TR isoform in SM, on autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism to demonstrate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying muscle weakness in these two conditions.Two genetic mouse models, TRα1  PV/+ mice which expresses mutant Thra1PV gene ubiquitously, and SM-TRα1  L400R/+ mice, which expresses TRα1  L400R in a muscle-specific manner, were used in this study. Gastrocnemius muscle from TRα1  PV/+, SM-TRα1  L400R/+, and their control mice was harvested for analyses. We demonstrated that loss of TRα1 signaling in gastrocnemius muscle from both the genetic mouse models led to decreased autophagy as evidenced by accumulation of p62 and decreased expression of lysosomal markers (LAMP1, and LAMP2) and lysosomal proteases (cathepsin B and cathepsin D). The expression of PGC1α, TFAM, and ERRα, key factors contributing to mitochondrial biogenesis as well as mitochondrial proteins were decreased, suggesting that there was reduced mitochondrial biogenesis due to the expression of mutant TRα1. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of SM suggested that lipid catabolism was impaired, and was associated with decreased acylcarnitines and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) intermediates in the SM from the mouse line expressing SM-specific mutant TRα1. Our results provide new insight into TRα1-mediated cell signaling, molecular, and metabolic changes that occur in SM when TR action is impaired.
    Keywords:  TRα1 mutation; autophagy; lipid metabolism; mitochondrial function; muscle
  49. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Jun 02. 13
      GRSF1 is a mitochondrial RNA-binding protein important for maintaining mitochondrial function. We found that GRSF1 is highly expressed in cultured skeletal myoblasts differentiating into myotubes. To understand the physiological function of GRSF1 in vivo, we generated mice in which GRSF1 was specifically ablated in skeletal muscle. The conditional knockout mice (Grsf1cKO) appeared normal until 7-9 months of age. Importantly, however, a reduction of muscle endurance compared to wild-type controls was observed in 16- to 18-month old Grsf1cKO mice. Transcriptomic analysis revealed more than 200 mRNAs differentially expressed in Grsf1cKO muscle at this age. Notably, mRNAs encoding proteins involved in mitochondrial function, inflammation, and ion transport, including Mgarp, Cxcl10, Nfkb2, and Sln mRNAs, were significantly elevated in aged Grsf1cKO muscle. Our findings suggest that GRSF1 deficiency exacerbates the functional decline of aged skeletal muscle, likely through multiple downstream effector proteins.
    Keywords:  GRSF1; RNA-binding protein; mouse aging; skeletal muscle aging
  50. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 May 07. pii: 737. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      Aging is associated with increased visceral adiposity and a decrease in the amount of brown adipose tissue and muscle mass, known as sarcopenia, which results in the development of metabolic alterations such as insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to analyze whether 3-week supplementation with a phenolic-rich olive leaf extract (OLE) to 24 months-old male Wistar rats orally (100 mg/kg) attenuated the aging-induced alterations in body composition and insulin resistance. OLE treatment increased brown adipose tissue and attenuated the aging-induced decrease in protein content and gastrocnemius weight. Treatment with OLE prevented the aging-induced increase in the expression of PPAR-γ in visceral and brown adipose tissues, while it significantly increased the expression of PPAR-α in the gastrocnemius of old rats and reduced various markers related to sarcopenia such as myostatin, HDAC-4, myogenin and MyoD. OLE supplementation increased insulin sensitivity in explants of gastrocnemius and epididymal visceral adipose tissue from aged rats through a greater activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, probably through the attenuation of inflammation in both tissues. In conclusion, supplementation with OLE prevents the loss of muscle mass associated with aging and exerts anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  adipose tissue; aging; inflammation; insulin resistance; olive leaf extract; oxidative stress; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle
  51. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Jun 01. 13
      One of the genes which has been linked to the onset of juvenile/early onset Parkinson's disease (PD) is PINK1. There is evidence that supports the therapeutic potential of exercise in the alleviation of PD symptoms. It is possible that exercise may enhance synaptic plasticity, protect against neuro-inflammation and modulate L-Dopa regulated signalling pathways. We explored the effects of exercise on Pink1 deficient Drosophila melanogaster which undergo neurodegeneration and muscle degeneration. We used a 'power-tower' type exercise platform to deliver exercise activity to Pink1- and age matched wild-type Drosophila. Mitochondrial proteomic profiles responding to exercise were obtained. Of the 516 proteins identified, 105 proteins had different levels between Pink1- and wild-type non-exercised Drosophila. Gene ontology enrichment analysis and STRING network analysis highlighted proteins and pathways with altered expression within the mitochondrial proteome. Comparison of the Pink1- exercised proteome to wild-type proteomes showed that exercising the Pink1- Drosophila caused their proteomic profile to return towards wild-type levels.
    Keywords:  PINK1; drosophila; exercise; mitochondria; proteomics
  52. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2021 06 02.
      Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can mediate inflammatory myopathies and insulin signaling pathways. The double stranded RNA (dsRNA) activated protein kinase R (PKR) has been implicated in skeletal muscle dysfunction. However, pathological roles of PKR in ER stress in muscle are not fully understood. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of imoxin (IMX), a selective PKR inhibitor, on tunicamycin (TN)-induced promotion of ER stress and suppression of insulin signaling in C2C12 myotubes. Cells were pre-treated with 5 uM IMX for 1 hr, and exposed to 0.5 µg/ml TN for 23 hr. A subset of cells was stimulated with 100 nM insulin for the last 15 min. mRNA expression and protein levels involved in ER stress were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. TN significantly augmented PKR phosphorylation by 231%, which was prevented by IMX. In addition, IMX reduced mRNA and protein levels of ER stress-related markers including CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP, mRNA: 95% decrease; protein: 98% decrease), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4, mRNA: 69% decrease; protein: 99% decrease), cleavage of ATF6, and spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1s, mRNA: 88% decrease; protein: 79% decrease) which were induced by TN. Furthermore, IMX ameliorated TN-induced suppression of phospho-insulin receptor beta (317% increase) and Akt phosphorylation (by 36% at Ser473 and 30% at Thr308) in myotubes, while augmenting insulin-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation and glucose uptake (by ~30%). These findings suggest that IMX may protect against TN-induced skeletal muscle ER stress and insulin resistance, which are potentially mediated by PKR.
    Keywords:  ER stress; PKR; imoxin; insulin signaling; tunicamycin
  53. Elife. 2021 Jun 01. pii: e63435. [Epub ahead of print]10
      Skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling roots in Ca2+-influx-independent inter-channel signaling between the sarcolemmal dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Although DHPR Ca2+ influx is irrelevant for EC coupling, its putative role in other muscle-physiological and developmental pathways was recently examined using two distinct genetically engineered mouse models carrying Ca2+ non-conducting DHPRs: DHPR(N617D) (Dayal et al., 2017) and DHPR(E1014K) (Lee et al., 2015). Surprisingly, despite complete block of DHPR Ca2+-conductance, histological, biochemical, and physiological results obtained from these two models were contradictory. Here we characterize the permeability and selectivity properties and henceforth the mechanism of Ca2+ non-conductance of DHPR(N617). Our results reveal that only mutant DHPR(N617D) with atypical high-affinity Ca2+ pore-binding is tight for physiologically relevant monovalent cations like Na+ and K+. Consequently, we propose a molecular model of cooperativity between two ion selectivity rings formed by negatively charged residues in the DHPR pore region.
    Keywords:  molecular biophysics; mouse; structural biology
  54. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Jun 01. pii: e2004840117. [Epub ahead of print]118(22):
      Recent advances in gene editing technologies are enabling the potential correction of devastating monogenic disorders through elimination of underlying genetic mutations. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an especially severe genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a membrane-associated protein required for maintenance of muscle structure and function. Patients with DMD succumb to loss of mobility early in life, culminating in premature death from cardiac and respiratory failure. The disease has thus far defied all curative strategies. CRISPR gene editing has provided new opportunities to ameliorate the disease by eliminating DMD mutations and thereby restore dystrophin expression throughout skeletal and cardiac muscle. Proof-of-concept studies in rodents, large mammals, and human cells have validated the potential of this approach, but numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including optimization of gene editing, delivery of gene editing components throughout the musculature, and mitigation of possible immune responses. This paper provides an overview of recent work from our laboratory and others toward the genetic correction of DMD and considers the opportunities and challenges in the path to clinical translation. Lessons learned from these studies will undoubtedly enable further applications of gene editing to numerous other diseases of muscle and other tissues.
    Keywords:  CRISPR; gene editing; myoediting