bims-moremu Biomed News
on Molecular regulators of muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒05‒16
forty-four papers selected by
Anna Vainshtein
Craft Science Inc.

  1. Cell Signal. 2021 May 07. pii: S0898-6568(21)00125-X. [Epub ahead of print] 110036
      Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) regulate embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and wound healing through their binding to PDGF receptors, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ. However, the role of PDGF signaling in regulating muscle development and regeneration remains elusive, and the cellular and molecular responses of myogenic cells are understudied. Here, we explore the PDGF-PDGFR gene expression changes and their involvement in skeletal muscle myogenesis and myogenic fate. By surveying bulk RNA sequencing and single-cell profiling data of skeletal muscle stem cells, we show that myogenic progenitors and muscle stem cells differentially express PDGF ligands and PDGF receptors during myogenesis. Quiescent adult muscle stem cells and myoblasts preferentially express PDGFRβ over PDGFRα. Remarkably, cell culture- and injury-induced muscle stem cell activation altered PDGF family gene expression. In myoblasts, PDGF-AB and PDGF-BB treatments activate two pro-chemotactic and pro-mitogenic downstream transducers, RAS-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT. PDGFRs inhibitor AG1296 inhibited ERK1/2 and AKT activation, myoblast migration, proliferation, and cell cycle progression induced by PDGF-AB and PDGF-BB. We also found that AG1296 causes myoblast G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Remarkably, PDGF-AA did not promote a noticeable ERK1/2 or AKT activation, myoblast migration, or expansion. Also, myogenic differentiation reduced the expression of both PDGFRα and PDGFRβ, whereas forced PDGFRα expression impaired myogenesis. Thus, our data highlight PDGF signaling pathway to stimulate satellite cell proliferation aiming to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration and provide a deeper understanding of the role of PDGF signaling in non-fibroblastic cells.
    Keywords:  Myogenesis; Myogenic progenitors; PDGF signaling; PDGFRα; PDGFRβ; Regeneration; Skeletal muscle; Stem cells
  2. Hum Mol Genet. 2021 May 13. pii: ddab135. [Epub ahead of print]
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive wasting of skeletal muscles. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, critical for the control of muscle contraction. The NMJ decline is observed in DMD patients, but the mechanism is unclear. LRP4 serves as a receptor for agrin, a proteoglycan secreted by motor neurons to induce NMJ, and plays a critical role in NMJ formation and maintenance. Interestingly, we found that protein levels of LRP4 were reduced both in muscles of the DMD patients and DMD model mdx mice. We explored whether increasing LRP4 is beneficial for DMD and crossed muscle specific LRP4 transgenic mice with mdx mice (mdx; HSA-LRP4). The LRP4 transgene increased muscle strength, together with improved neuromuscular transmission in mdx mice. Futhermore, we found the LRP4 expression mitigated NMJ fragments and denervation in mdx mice. Mechanically, we showed that overexpression of LRP4 increased the activity of MuSK and expression of dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex proteins in the mdx mice. Overall, our findings suggest that increasing LRP4 improves both function and structure of NMJ in the mdx mice and Agrin signaling might serve as a new therapeutic strategy in DMD.
  3. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 May 13.
      BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle mass and function are partly maintained by the supply of amino acids, altered amino acid transport is an important cause of frailty that can lead to decreased independence with increasing age and slow trauma recovery. The system-A sodium coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT)-2 coded by gene family SLC38A2 generates a 506 amino acid 56 kDa protein that is an important transporter of amino acids in skeletal muscle. Ageing is associated with a decrease in expression of SNAT2 transporters.METHODS: In this study, we used the C2C12 cell line, using myoblast cells and cells differentiated into myotubes. We investigated if the expression of SNAT2 DNA would enhance intracellular amino acid levels and increase their availability for protein synthesis.
    RESULTS: In control myoblasts and myotubes, we found significantly decreased expression of SNAT2 (6.5× decrease, n = 4 per group, P < 0.05) in myotubes than found in myoblasts. After transfection with a SNAT2-eGFP cDNA plasmid, C2C12 myoblasts significantly increased perinuclear punctate SNAT2-eGFP expression that persisted and was more cytoplasmic after differentiation into myotubes. Interestingly, transfected cells were significantly more responsive to the hormone 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 4.5 nM, by 1.6×, n = 3 per group, P < 0.04). Starvation significantly enhanced the amino acid C14 -MeAIB transport (1.7×, n = 3 per group, P < 0.05) indicating increased function of SNAT2. Inhibiting SNAT2 with high concentrations of MeAIB (3.3 or 5 mM) significantly reduced C14 -Isoleucine transport by L-type amino acid transporter (LAT2, 52.8% and 77%, respectively, n = 3 per group, P < 0.05). However, there was no increase in the LAT2 transport of C14 -isoleucine detectable in SNAT2-eGFP transfected cells after DHT (4.5 nM) exposure. This indicated that small amino acid availability was not rate limiting to LAT2 function in myoblasts.
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these data show that transfection of SNAT2-eGFP expression enhanced its function following starvation and treatment with physiological levels of DHT. Enhanced SNAT2 expression in muscle cells offers a viable epigenetic target in pathological conditions associated with altered amino acid transport.
    Keywords:  Ageing; Amino acid transport; LAT2; Muscle; SNAT2
  4. J Hazard Mater. 2021 Apr 27. pii: S0304-3894(21)00926-2. [Epub ahead of print]417 125962
      The environmental problem of Microplastics (MPs) pollution poses a great threat to human and animal health, which has attracted global attention. The physiological integrity of skeletal muscle is extremely important for the survival of animals. Here, we investigated the effect of two size polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs, 1-10 µm and 50-100 µm) on the growth of anterior tibial (TA) muscle and repair after injury in mice. Results showed that the regeneration of skeletal muscle was delayed by PS-MPs exposure and was negatively correlated with particle size. H&E staining and Oil red O staining showed that PS-MPs exposure reduced the average cross-sectional area (CSA) and diameter of the muscle fibers, increased lipid deposition. Further mechanistic research displayed that though PS-MPs treatment did not affect cell viability of myoblast, it aggravated intracellular ROS generation and oxidative stress, inhibited myogenic differentiation by decreasing the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and promote adipogenic differentiation by increasing the expression of NF-κB, which could be alleviated by NAC. In brief, our data demonstrated that the ROS overproduction caused by PS-MPs disturbed the regeneration of skeletal muscle and directed the fate of satellite cells in mice.
    Keywords:  Adipocytes; Microplastic; Myogenic differentiation; Oxidative stress; Skeletal muscle
  5. Hum Mol Genet. 2021 May 13. pii: ddab136. [Epub ahead of print]
      Aberrant expression of the double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene in skeletal muscle causes muscle deterioration and weakness in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD). Since the presence of a permissive pLAM1 polyadenylation signal is essential for stabilization of DUX4 mRNA and translation of DUX4 protein, disrupting the function of this structure can prevent expression of DUX4. We and others have shown promising results using antisense approaches to reduce DUX4 expression in vitro and in vivo following local intramuscular administration. Here we demonstrate that further development of the antisense chemistries enhances in vitro antisense efficacy. The optimal chemistry was conjugated to a cell-penetrating moiety and was systemically administered into the tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver FLExDUX4 double-transgenic mouse model of FSHD. After four weekly treatments, mRNA quantities of DUX4 and target genes were reduced by 50% that led to 12% amelioration in muscle atrophy, 52% improvement in in situ muscle strength, 17% reduction in muscle fibrosis, and prevention of shift in the myofiber type profile. Systemic DUX4 inhibition also significantly improved the locomotor activity and reduced the fatigue level by 22%. Our data demonstrate that the optimized antisense approach has potential of being further developed as a therapeutic strategy for FSHD.
  6. Neurobiol Aging. 2021 Mar 12. pii: S0197-4580(21)00095-6. [Epub ahead of print]104 32-41
      Sarcopenia, or age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is an important contributor to loss of physical function in older adults. The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is likely multifactorial, but recently the role of neurological degeneration, such as motor unit loss, has received increased attention. Here, we investigated the longitudinal effects of muscle hypertrophy (via overexpression of human follistatin, a myostatin antagonist) on neuromuscular integrity in C57BL/6J mice between the ages of 24 and 27 months. Following follistatin overexpression (delivered via self-complementary adeno-associated virus subtype 9 injection), muscle weight and torque production were significantly improved. Follistatin treatment resulted in improvements of neuromuscular junction innervation and transmission but had no impact on age-related losses of motor units. These studies demonstrate that follistatin overexpression-induced muscle hypertrophy not only increased muscle weight and torque production but also countered age-related degeneration at the neuromuscular junction in mice.
    Keywords:  Adeno-associated; Contractility; Follistatin; Motor unit number estimate; Myostatin; Neuromuscular junction; Sarcopenia; Single fiber electromyography; Tetanic; Twitch
  7. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2021 May 08. pii: S1084-9521(21)00088-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Skeletal muscle cells are noteworthy for their syncytial nature, with each myofiber accumulating hundreds or thousands of nuclei derived from resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). These nuclei are accrued through cell fusion, which is controlled by the two essential fusogens Myomaker and Myomerger that are transiently expressed within the myogenic lineage. While the absolute requirement of fusion for muscle development has been known for decades, the underlying need for the magnitude of multinucleation in muscle remains mysterious. Possible advantages of multinucleation include the potential it affords for transcriptional diversity within these massive cells, and as a means of increasing DNA content to support optimal cell size and function. In this article, we review recent advances that elucidate the relationship between myonuclear numbers and establishment of myofiber size, and discuss how this new information refines our understanding of the concept of myonuclear domains (MND), the cytoplasmic volumes that each resident myonucleus can support. Finally, we explore the potential consequences and costs of multinucleation and its impacts on myonuclear transcriptional reserve capacity, growth potential, myofiber size regulation, and muscle adaptability. We anticipate this report will not only serve to highlight the latest advances in the basic biology of syncytial muscle cells but also provide information to help design the next generation of therapeutic strategies to maintain muscle mass and function.
    Keywords:  Cell fusion; Multinucleation; Myonuclear domain; Skeletal muscle size; Transcriptional output
  8. Hum Mol Genet. 2021 May 13. pii: ddab120. [Epub ahead of print]
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked inherited muscular disorder characterized by the loss of dystrophin. We have previously shown that monogene therapy using the mini-dystrophin gene improves muscle function in DMD. However, chronic inflammation plays an important role in progressive muscle degeneration in DMD as well. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been used to enhance muscle vasculature, reduce local inflammation and improve DMD muscle function. Temporalis muscles are the key skeletal muscles for mastication and loss of their function negatively affects DMD patient quality of life by reducing nutritional intake, but little is known about the pathology and treatment of the temporalis muscle in DMD. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the combined delivery of the human mini-dystrophin and human VEGF genes to the temporalis muscles using separate recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors will synergistically improve muscle function and pathology in adult male dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout (mdx/utrn+/-) mice. The experimental mice were divided into four groups including: dystrophin + VEGF combined, dystrophin only, VEGF only, and PBS control. After 2 months, gene expression and histological analysis of the temporalis muscles showed a synergistic improvement in temporalis muscle pathology and function coincident with increased restoration of dystrophin-associated protein complexes and nNOS in the dystrophin + VEGF combined group. We also observed significantly reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, central nucleation and fibrosis in the dystrophin + VEGF combined group. We have demonstrated the efficacy of combined rAAV-mediated dystrophin and VEGF treatment of temporalis muscles in a DMD mouse model.
  9. Cell Rep. 2021 May 11. pii: S2211-1247(21)00432-0. [Epub ahead of print]35(6): 109098
      During the repeated cycles of damage and repair in many muscle disorders, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the muscle stem cell (MuSC) pool becomes less efficient at responding to and repairing damage. The underlying mechanism of such stem cell dysfunction is not fully known. Here, we demonstrate that the distinct early telomere shortening of diseased MuSCs in both mice and young DMD patients is associated with aberrant NF-κB activation. We find that prolonged NF-κB activation in MuSCs in chronic injuries leads to shortened telomeres and Ku80 dysregulation and results in severe skeletal muscle defects. Our studies provide evidence of a role for NF-κB in regulating stem-cell-specific telomere length, independently of cell replication, and could be a congruent mechanism that is applicable to additional tissues and/or diseases characterized by systemic chronic inflammation.
    Keywords:  MuSCs; NF-κΒ; chronic injury; muscle disease; muscle stem cells; muscular dystrophy; telomere biology
  10. Ann Transl Med. 2021 Apr;9(8): 697
      Background: The molecular mechanism of denervated muscle atrophy is very complex and has not been elucidated to date. In this study, we aimed to use transcriptome sequencing technology to systematically analyze the molecular mechanism of denervated muscle atrophy in order to eventually develop effective strategies or drugs to prevent muscle atrophy.Methods: Transcriptome sequencing technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in denervated skeletal muscles. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of DEGs was performed. Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was used to analyze the DEGs.
    Results: Results showed that 2,749 transcripts were up-regulated, and 2,941 transcripts were down-regulated in denervated tibialis anterior (TA) muscles after 14 days of denervation. The up-regulated expressed genes were analyzed through GO and the results demonstrated that biological processes of the up-regulated expressed genes included apoptotic process, cellular response to DNA damage stimulus, aging, and protein ubiquitination; the cellular component of the up-regulated expressed genes included cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, and nucleus; and the molecular function of the up-regulated expressed genes included ubiquitin-protein transferase activity and hydrolase activity. The KEGG pathway of the up-regulated expressed genes included ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway. The biological processes of the down-regulated expressed genes included angiogenesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) biosynthetic process, muscle contraction, gluconeogenesis; the cellular component of the down-regulated expressed genes included mitochondrion, cytoskeleton, and myofibril; and the molecular function of the down-regulated expressed genes included nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide plus hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity, proton-transporting ATP synthase activity, ATP binding, electron carrier activity, cytochrome-c oxidase activity, and oxidoreductase activity. The KEGG pathway of the down-regulated expressed genes included oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.
    Conclusions: A huge number of DEGs were identified in TA muscles after denervation. The up-regulated expressed genes mainly involve in proteolysis, apoptosis, and ageing. The down-regulated expressed genes mainly involve in energy metabolism, angiogenesis, and protein synthesis. This study further enriched the molecular mechanism of denervation-induced muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  Peripheral nerve injury; energy metabolism; muscle atrophy; proteolysis; transcriptome sequencing
  11. FASEB J. 2021 Jun;35(6): e21628
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal genetic muscle disorder caused by recessive mutations in dystrophin gene, affecting 1/3000 males. Gene therapy has been proven to ameliorate dystrophic pathology. To investigate therapeutic benefits from long-term effect of human mini-dystrophin and functional outcomes, transgenic mdx mice (Tg-mdx) containing a single copy of human mini-dystrophin (∆hDys3849) gene, five rods (Rods1-2, Rods22-24), and two hinges (H1 and H4) driven by a truncated creatine-kinase promoter (dMCK) in a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) backbone, were generated and used to determine gene expression and improvement of muscle function. Human mini-dystrophin gene expression was found in a majority of the skeletal muscles, but no expression in cardiac muscle. Dystrophin-associated glycoproteins (DAGs) such as sarcoglycans and nNOS were restored at the sarcolemma and coincided with human mini-dystrophin gene expression at the ages of 6, 10, and 20 months; Morphology of dystrophic muscle expressing the human mini-dystrophin gene was improved and central nuclei were reduced. Myofiber membrane integrity was improved by Evans blue dye test. Improvement in treadmill running and grip force was observed in transgenic mice at 6 months. Tetanic force and specific force of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were significantly increased at the ages of 6, 10, and 20 months. Pseudohypertrophy was not found in TA muscle at 10 and 20 months when compared with wild-type C57 (WT) group. This study demonstrated that the long-term effects of human mini-dystrophin effectively ameliorated pathology and improved the functions of the dystrophic muscles in the transgenic DMD mouse model.
    Keywords:  Duchenne muscular dystrophy; functional outcomes; gene therapy; human mini-dystrophin gene (∆hDys3849); transgenic mdx mice
  12. PeerJ. 2021 ;9 e11065
      Background: Irisin (a glycosylated protein) is cleaved from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), which is expressed mainly in animal muscle tissues and has multiple metabolic regulatory activities. However, their roles in controlling myofiber types in skeletal muscle remain unclear.Methodology: Two different commercial hybridized pigs, LJH (a crossed pig containing Chinese native pig genotypes) and DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected to analyze FNDC5 mRNA expression and the mRNA composition of four adult myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms (IIIaIIxIIb) in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to investigate the effects of FNDC5 on the four MyHCs mRNA expressive levels, using small interfering RNA for depletion and a eukaryotic expression vector carrying FNDC5 for overexpression. ZLN005 (a small molecule activator of FNDC5's upstream control gene PGC1α) or recombinant human irisin protein were also used.
    Results: In LD muscle, LJH pigs had the higher FNDC5 mRNA level, and MyHC I or IIa proportion than DLY pigs (P <  0.05). For C2C12 cells in vitro, small interfering RNA (si-592) silencing of FNDC5 expression markedly reduced MyHC IIa mRNA levels (P <  0.05), while FNDC5 overexpression significantly increased MyHC IIa mRNA levels (P <  0.05). Exogenous irisin increased the mRNA levels of PGC1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha), FNDC5, MyHCI, MyHCIIa, NRF1 (nuclear respiratory factor 1), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), and TFAM (mitochondrial transcription factor A,) (P <  0.05), and the enzyme activities of SDH (succinate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase), and MDH (malate dehydrogenase) in C2C12 myotubes (P <  0.05). These results showed that FNDC5 mRNA expression had a significant association with the characteristics of myofiber types in porcine muscle, and participated in regulating MyHCs mRNA expression of C2C12 myogenic differentiation cells in vitro. FNDC5 could be an important factor to control muscle fiber types, which provides a new direction to investigate pork quality via muscle fiber characteristics.
    Keywords:   C2C12; Irisin; MyHC; Pig; FNDC5
  13. Cell Rep. 2021 May 11. pii: S2211-1247(21)00464-2. [Epub ahead of print]35(6): 109125
      Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a debilitating neurological disorder marked by degeneration of spinal motor neurons and muscle atrophy. SMA results from mutations in survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), leading to deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Current therapies increase SMN protein and improve patient survival but have variable improvements in motor function, making it necessary to identify complementary strategies to further improve disease outcomes. Here, we perform a genome-wide RNAi screen using a luciferase-based activity reporter and identify genes involved in regulating SMN gene expression, RNA processing, and protein stability. We show that reduced expression of Transcription Export complex components increases SMN levels through the regulation of nuclear/cytoplasmic RNA transport. We also show that the E3 ligase, Neurl2, works cooperatively with Mib1 to ubiquitinate and promote SMN degradation. Together, our screen uncovers pathways through which SMN expression is regulated, potentially revealing additional strategies to treat SMA.
    Keywords:  E3 ligase; RNAi screen; THOC; spinal muscular atrophy; survival motor neuron; ubiquitin proteasome
  14. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021 May 11. pii: S0006-291X(21)00755-5. [Epub ahead of print]560 139-145
      Drug screening and disease modelling for skeletal muscle related pathologies would strongly benefit from the integration of myogenic cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells within miniaturized cell culture devices, such as microfluidic platform. Here, we identified the optimal culture conditions that allow direct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells in myogenic cells within microfluidic devices. Myogenic cells are efficiently derived from both human embryonic (hESC) or induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) in eleven days by combining small molecules and non-integrating modified mRNA (mmRNA) encoding for the master myogenic transcription factor MYOD. Our work opens new perspective for the development of patient-specific platforms in which a one-step myogenic differentiation could be used to generate skeletal muscle on-a-chip.
    Keywords:  Microfludic; Myoblasts; Pluripotent stem cell
  15. Sci Adv. 2021 May;pii: eabg4123. [Epub ahead of print]7(20):
      While skeletal muscle has a high capacity for endogenous repair in acute injuries, volumetric muscle loss can leave long-lasting or permanent structural and functional deficits to the injured muscle and surrounding tissues. With clinical treatments failing to repair lost tissue, there is a great need for a tissue-engineered therapy to promote skeletal muscle regeneration. In this study, we aim to assess the potential for electrospun decellularized skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (dECM) with tunable physicochemical properties to control mouse myoblast growth and myotube formation. The material properties as well as cell behavior - growth and differentiation - were assessed in response to modulation of crosslinking and scaffold architecture. The fabrication of a bioactive dECM-based system with tunable physicochemical properties that can control myotube formation has several applications in skeletal muscle engineering and may bring the field one step closer to developing a therapy to address these unmet clinical needs.
  16. Ann Transl Med. 2021 Apr;9(8): 643
      Background: Long-term exposure to microgravity will cause skeletal muscle atrophy, which can cause serious harm to astronauts in space travel. Therefore, it is important to explore skeletal muscle atrophy's molecular mechanism for its prevention and treatment. However, as an important regulatory approach of skeletal muscle physiology, the role of alternative splicing in skeletal muscle atrophy, especially skeletal muscle atrophy caused by disuse, is unclear.Methods: We established a rat hindlimb unloading model and performed RNA sequencing on soleus muscle, which was seriously atrophied during unloading. Several bioinformatics methods were used to identify alternative splicing events and determine their gene functions.
    Results: Many alternative splicing events were found to occur at different time points (12 h, 24 h, 36 h, 3 days, and 7 days) after hindlimb unloading. These differential alternative splicing events mainly occurred in the gene's coding domain sequence region, and 59% of the alternative splicing events caused open reading frameshift. Bioinformatics analysis results showed that genes with different alternative splicing events were enriched in multiple pathways related to muscle atrophy, including the insulin signaling pathway, endocytosis, mitophagy, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Moreover, alternative splicing of several deubiquitinase genes persisted during skeletal muscle atrophy induced by unloading. Additionally, we identified 10 differentially expressed RNA binding proteins during skeletal muscle atrophy induced by unloading, mainly containing Xpo4, Eif4e2, P4ha1, Lrrfip1, Zc3h14, Emg1, Hnrnp h1, Mbnl2, RBfox1, and Mbnl1. Hnrnp h1 and Mbnl2 were significantly downregulated, and RBfox1 and Mbnl1 were significantly upregulated during skeletal muscle atrophy caused by unloading.
    Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to propose alternative splicing alterations related to disuse-induced muscle atrophy, emphasizing that alternative splicing is a new focus of attention in the occurrence of muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  Hindlimb unloading; alternative splicing; muscle atrophy; skeletal muscle atrophy
  17. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2021 May 14.
      PURPOSE: To investigate within the one study potential molecular and cellular changes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis following 15 days of exposure to moderate hypoxia.METHODS: Eight males underwent a muscle biopsy before and after 15 days of hypoxia exposure (FiO2 = 0.140-0.154; ~ 2500-3200 m) in a hypoxic hotel. Mitochondrial respiration, citrate synthase (CS) activity, and the content of genes and proteins associated with mitochondrial biogenesis were investigated.
    RESULTS: Our main findings were the absence of significant changes in the mean values of CS activity, mitochondrial respiration in permeabilised fibers, or the content of genes and proteins associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, after 15 days of moderate normobaric hypoxia.
    CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence that 15 days of moderate normobaric hypoxia have negligible influence on skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function, or genes and proteins content associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, in young recreationally active males. However, the increase in mitochondrial protease LON content after hypoxia exposure suggests the possibility of adaptations to optimise respiratory chain function under conditions of reduced O2 availability.
    Keywords:  LONP; Mitochondrial respiration; P53; PGC-1α
  18. PLoS Comput Biol. 2021 May;17(5): e1008937
      Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable capacity for repair and regeneration following a variety of injuries. When successful, this highly orchestrated regenerative process requires the contribution of several muscle resident cell populations including satellite stem cells (SSCs), fibroblasts, macrophages and vascular cells. However, volumetric muscle loss injuries (VML) involve simultaneous destruction of multiple tissue components (e.g., as a result of battlefield injuries or vehicular accidents) and are so extensive that they exceed the intrinsic capability for scarless wound healing and result in permanent cosmetic and functional deficits. In this scenario, the regenerative process fails and is dominated by an unproductive inflammatory response and accompanying fibrosis. The failure of current regenerative therapeutics to completely restore functional muscle tissue is not surprising considering the incomplete understanding of the cellular mechanisms that drive the regeneration response in the setting of VML injury. To begin to address this profound knowledge gap, we developed an agent-based model to predict the tissue remodeling response following surgical creation of a VML injury. Once the model was able to recapitulate key aspects of the tissue remodeling response in the absence of repair, we validated the model by simulating the tissue remodeling response to VML injury following implantation of either a decellularized extracellular matrix scaffold or a minced muscle graft. The model suggested that the SSC microenvironment and absence of pro-differentiation SSC signals were the most important aspects of failed muscle regeneration in VML injuries. The major implication of this work is that agent-based models may provide a much-needed predictive tool to optimize the design of new therapies, and thereby, accelerate the clinical translation of regenerative therapeutics for VML injuries.
  19. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2021 May 12.
      Cellular senescence is the irreversible arrest of normally dividing cells and is driven by cell cycle inhibitory proteins such as p16, p21 and p53. When cells enter senescence, they secrete a host of proinflammatory factors known as the senescence associated secretory phenotype which has deleterious effects on surrounding cells and tissues. Little is known of the role of senescence in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), the fatal X-linked neuromuscular disorder typified by chronic inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling and a progressive loss in muscle mass and function. Here, we demonstrate using C57-mdx (8-week-old) and D2-mdx mice (4-week and 8-week-old), two mouse models of DMD, that cells displaying canonical markers of senescence are found within skeletal muscle. 8-week-old D2-mdx mice, which display severe muscle pathology, had greater numbers of senescent cells associated with areas of inflammation which were mostly Cdkn1a-positive macrophages while in C57-mdx muscle, senescent populations were endothelial cells and macrophages localized to newly regenerated myofibers. Interestingly, this pattern was similar to cardiotoxin (CTX)-injured wildtype (WT) muscle which experienced a transient senescent response. Dystrophic muscle demonstrated significant upregulations in senescence pathway genes (Cdkn1a (p21), Cdkn2a (p16INK4A), Trp53 (p53)) which correlated with the quantity of SA-b-Gal-positive cells. These results highlight an underexplored role for cellular senescence in murine dystrophic muscle.
    Keywords:  Muscle; Muscular Dystrophy; Regeneration; SASP; Senescence
  20. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2021 May 10.
      AIMS: Variable degrees of inflammation, necrosis, regeneration and fibrofatty replacement are part of the pathological spectrum of the dystrophic process in alpha dystroglycanopathy LGMDR9 (FKRP-related, OMIM #607155), one of the most prevailing types of LGMDs worldwide. Inflammatory processes and their complex interplay with vascular, myogenic and mesenchymal cells may have a major impact on disease development. The purpose of our study is to describe the specific immune morphological features in muscle tissue of patients with LGMDR9 in order to enable a better understanding of the phenotype of muscle damage leading to disease progression.METHODS: We have analysed skeletal muscle biopsies of 17 patients genetically confirmed as having LGMDR9 by histopathological and molecular techniques.
    RESULTS: We identified CD206+ MHC class II+ and STAT6+ immune-repressed macrophages dominating the endomysial infiltrate in areas of myofibre regeneration and fibrosis. Additionally, PDGFRβ+ pericytes were located around MHC class II+ activated capillaries residing in close proximity to areas of fibrosis and regenerating fibres. Expression of VEGF was found on many regenerating neonatal myosin+ fibres myofibres and CD206+ macrophages also co-expressed VEGF.
    CONCLUSION: Our results show characteristic immune inflammatory features in LGMDR9 and more specifically shed light on the predominant role of macrophages and their function in vascular organization, fibrosis and myogenesis. Understanding disease-specific immune phenomena potentially inform about possibilities for anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies, which may complement Ribitol replacement and gene therapies for LGMDR9 that may be available in the future.
    Keywords:  CD206; LGMDR9; VEGF; alpha dystroglycan; fibrosis; inflammation; macrophages; regeneration
  21. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2021 May 13.
      Non-invasive techniques to quantify metabolites in skeletal muscle provide unique insight into human physiology and enable the translation of research into practice. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) permits the assessment of several abundant muscle metabolites in vivo, including carnosine, a dipeptide composed of the amino acids histidine and beta-alanine. Muscle carnosine loading - accomplished by chronic oral beta-alanine supplementation - improves muscle function, exercise capacity and has pathophysiological relevance in multiple diseases. Moreover, the marked difference in carnosine content between fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers has rendered carnosine an attractive candidate to estimate human muscle fiber type composition. However, the quantification of carnosine using 1H-MRS requires technical expertise in order to obtain accurate and reproducible data. In this review, we describe the technical and physiological factors that impact the detection, analysis and quantification of carnosine in muscle using 1H-MRS. We discuss potential sources of error during the acquisition and pre-processing of the 1H-MRS spectra, and present best practices to enable the accurate, reliable and reproducible application of this technique.
    Keywords:  Carnosine; muscle; non-invasive; proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  22. FASEB J. 2021 Jun;35(6): e21611
      Circadian misalignment, as seen in shift work, is associated with an increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes. In an experimental setting, we recently showed that a rapid day-night shift for 3 consecutive nights leads to misalignment of the core molecular clock, induction of the PPAR pathway, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of young, healthy men. Here, we investigated if circadian misalignment affects the skeletal muscle lipidome and intramyocellular lipid droplet characteristics, explaining the misalignment-induced insulin resistance. Fourteen healthy men underwent one aligned and one circadian misalignment period, both consisting of ~3.5 days. In the misaligned condition, day and night were rapidly shifted by 12 hours leading to opposite eating, sleep, and activity times compared with the aligned condition. For each condition, two muscle biopsies were taken from the m. vastus lateralis in the morning and evening and subjected to semi-targeted lipidomics and confocal microscopy analysis. We found that only 2% of detected lipids were different between morning and evening in the aligned condition, whereas 12% displayed a morning-evening difference upon misalignment. Triacylglycerols, in particular species of a carbon length ≥55, were the most abundant lipid species changed upon misalignment. Cardiolipins were decreased upon misalignment, whereas phosphatidylcholines consistently followed the same morning-evening pattern, suggesting regulation by the circadian clock. Cholesteryl esters adjusted to the shifted behavior. Lipid droplet characteristics remained unaltered upon misalignment. Together, these findings show that simulated shift work disturbs the skeletal muscle lipidome, which may contribute to misalignment-induced insulin resistance.
    Keywords:  circadian clock; human skeletal muscle; insulin resistance; lipid droplet; lipidomics; shift work
  23. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2021 May 10.
      Myoglobin (Mb) is a regulator of O2 bioavailability in type I muscle and heart, at least when tissue O2 levels drop. Mb also plays a role in regulating cellular NO pools. Robust binding of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain acylcarnitines to Mb, and enhanced glucose metabolism in hearts of Mb knockout (KO) mice, suggests additional roles in muscle intermediary metabolism and fuel selection. To evaluate this hypothesis, we measured energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), body weight gain and adiposity, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Mb knockout (Mb-/-) and wildtype (WT) mice challenged with a high fat diet (HFD, 45% of calories). In males (n=10/genotype) and females (n=9/genotype) aged 5-6, 11-12, and 17-18 wk, there were no genotype effects on RER, EE, or food intake. RER and EE during cold (10˚C, 72 h), and glucose and insulin tolerance, were not different compared to within-sex WT controls. At ~18 and ~19 wk of age, female Mb-/- adiposity was ~42-48% higher vs. WT females (p=0.1). Transcriptomics analyses (whole gastrocnemius, soleus) revealed few consistent changes, with the notable exception of a 20% drop in soleus transferrin receptor (Tfrc) mRNA. Capillarity indices were significantly increased in Mb-/-, specifically in Mb-rich soleus and deep gastrocnemius. The results indicate that Mb loss does not have a major impact on whole-body glucose homeostasis, EE, RER, or response to a cold challenge in mice. However, the greater adiposity in female Mb-/- mice indicates a sex-specific effect of Mb KO on fat storage and feed efficiency.
    Keywords:  globin; heme; hypoxia; neovascularization; nitric oxide
  24. G3 (Bethesda). 2021 May 11. pii: jkab165. [Epub ahead of print]
      Recent evidence indicates that the composition of the ribosome is heterogeneous and that multiple types of specialized ribosomes regulate the synthesis of specific protein subsets. In Drosophila, we find that expression of the ribosomal RpS28 protein variants RpS28a and RpS28-like preferentially occurs in the germline, a tissue resistant to aging, and that it significantly declines in skeletal muscle during aging. Muscle-specific overexpression of RpS28a at levels similar to those seen in the germline decreases early mortality and promotes the synthesis of a subset of proteins with known anti-aging roles, some of which have preferential expression in the germline. These findings indicate a contribution of specialized ribosomal proteins to the regulation of the muscle proteome during aging.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; aging; germline; protein translation; ribosome; skeletal muscle
  25. Genes Cells. 2021 May 13.
      Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis is one of the most effective tools for understanding specific cellular states. The use of single cells or pooled cells in RNA-seq analysis requires the isolation of cells from a tissue or culture. Although trypsin or more recently cold-active protease (CAP) has been used for cell dissociation, the extent to which the gene expression changes are suppressed has not been clarified. To this end, we conducted detailed profiling of the enzyme-dependent gene expression changes in mouse skeletal muscle progenitor cells, focusing on the enzyme treatment time, amount, and temperature. We found that the genes whose expression was changed by the enzyme treatment could be classified in a time-dependent manner, and that there were genes whose expression was changed independently of the enzyme treatment time, amount, and temperature. This study will be useful as reference data for genes that should be excluded or considered for RNA-seq analysis using enzyme isolation methods.
    Keywords:  Enzymatic dissociation; Gene expression; Myoblast; RNA-seq; Transcriptome
  26. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2021 ;27 7-23
      The hypothalamus plays a critical role in the control of food consumption and energy expenditure. Fatty diets can elicit an inflammatory response in specific hypothalamic cells, including astrocytes, tanycytes, and microglia, disrupting anorexigenic signals in region-specific hypothalamic neurons, contributing to overeating and body weight gain. In this study, we present an update regarding the knowledge of the effects of physical exercise on inflammatory signaling and circuits to control hunger in the hypothalamus in obesity conditions. To try to understand changes in the hypothalamus, we review the use of magnetic resonance/anorexigenic hormone analysis in humans, as well as in animal models to explore the physiological and molecular mechanism by which exercise modulates satiety signals, such as the central anti-inflammatory response, myokine delivery from skeletal muscle, and others. The accumulation of scientific evidence in recent years allows us to understand that exercise contributes to weight control, and it is managed by mechanisms that go far beyond "burning calories."
  27. Cell Death Dis. 2021 May 10. 12(5): 466
      Mutations in RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and in genes regulating autophagy are frequent causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). The P56S mutation in vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB) leads to fALS (ALS8) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). While VAPB is primarily involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR), vesicular trafficking and in initial steps of the autophagy pathway, the effect of mutant P56S-VAPB on autophagy regulation in connection with RBP homeostasis has not been explored yet. Examining the muscle biopsy of our index ALS8 patient of European origin revealed globular accumulations of VAPB aggregates co-localised with autophagy markers LC3 and p62 in partially atrophic and atrophic muscle fibres. In line with this skin fibroblasts obtained from the same patient showed accumulation of P56S-VAPB aggregates together with LC3 and p62. Detailed investigations of autophagic flux in cell culture models revealed that P56S-VAPB alters both initial and late steps of the autophagy pathway. Accordingly, electron microscopy complemented with live cell imaging highlighted the impaired fusion of accumulated autophagosomes with lysosomes in cells expressing P56S-VAPB. Consistent with these observations, neuropathological studies of brain and spinal cord of P56S-VAPB transgenic mice revealed signs of neurodegeneration associated with altered protein quality control and defective autophagy. Autophagy and RBP homeostasis are interdependent, as demonstrated by the cytoplasmic mis-localisation of several RBPs including pTDP-43, FUS, Matrin 3 which often sequestered with P56S-VAPB aggregates both in cell culture and in the muscle biopsy of the ALS8 patient. Further confirming the notion that aggregation of the RBPs proceeds through the stress granule (SG) pathway, we found persistent G3BP- and TIAR1-positive SGs in P56S-VAPB expressing cells as well as in the ALS8 patient muscle biopsy. We conclude that P56S-VAPB-ALS8 involves a cohesive pathomechanism of aberrant RBP homeostasis together with dysfunctional autophagy.
  28. Front Neurosci. 2021 ;15 649688
      Parkinson's disease (PD), caused by destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the brain, leads to motor symptoms like bradykinesia, tremor, and walking impairments. While most research effort focuses on changes in neuronal pathology we examined how muscle proteins were altered in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. A Ca2+ release channel complex, consisting of ryanodine receptors (RYR), triadin (TRDN), and calsequestrin (CSQ1), is important for excitation-contraction coupling in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane in muscles. Thus, we investigated changes in the RYR Ca2+ release channel components in PD mice model. Based on a report that TRDN deletion impairs skeletal muscle function, we also investigated how the knock-down of TRDN affects other components of the RYR channel in the PD model. In this study, the expression levels of the components of RYR channels decreased in the quadriceps femoris muscle of MPTP-induced PD mice and in C2C12 cells treated with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. We show that decreased TRDN levels decrease RYR and CSQ1 levels. These results suggest that the levels of proteins related to Ca2+ channel function decreased in this model, which could impair muscle function. We conclude that muscle function alterations could add to the bradykinesia and tremor in this model of PD.
    Keywords:  C2C12; Ca2+ channel; MPP+; MPTP; Parkinson’s disease; TRDN; skeletal muscle
  29. BMC Genomics. 2021 May 10. 22(1): 336
      BACKGROUND: Our understanding of genome regulation is ever-evolving with the continuous discovery of new modes of gene regulation, and transcriptomic studies of mammalian genomes have revealed the presence of a considerable population of non-coding RNA molecules among the transcripts expressed. One such non-coding RNA molecule is long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). However, the function of lncRNAs in gene regulation is not well understood; moreover, finding conserved lncRNA across species is a challenging task. Therefore, we propose a novel approach to identify conserved lncRNAs and functionally annotate these molecules.RESULTS: In this study, we exploited existing myogenic transcriptome data and identified conserved lncRNAs in mice and humans. We identified the lncRNAs expressing differentially between the early and later stages of muscle development. Differential expression of these lncRNAs was confirmed experimentally in cultured mouse muscle C2C12 cells. We utilized the three-dimensional architecture of the genome and identified topologically associated domains for these lncRNAs. Additionally, we correlated the expression of genes in domains for functional annotation of these trans-lncRNAs in myogenesis. Using this approach, we identified conserved lncRNAs in myogenesis and functionally annotated them.
    CONCLUSIONS: With this novel approach, we identified the conserved lncRNAs in myogenesis in humans and mice and functionally annotated them. The method identified a large number of lncRNAs are involved in myogenesis. Further studies are required to investigate the reason for the conservation of the lncRNAs in human and mouse while their sequences are dissimilar. Our approach can be used to identify novel lncRNAs conserved in different species and functionally annotated them.
  30. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(5): e0244120
      PURPOSE: Macrophage accumulation in response to decreasing myonuclei may be the major mechanism underlying immobilization-induced muscle fibrosis in muscle contracture, an intervention strategy suppressing these lesions is necessary. Therefore, this research investigated the effect of belt electrode-skeletal muscle electrical stimulation (B-SES), a new electrical stimulation device, to the macrophage accumulation via myonuclei decrease in immobilization-induced muscle fibrosis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 Wistar male rats were divided into the control group, immobilization group (with plaster cast fixation to immobilize the soleus muscles in a shortened position for 2 weeks), and B-SES group (with muscle contractile exercise through B-SES during the immobilization period). B-SES stimulation was performed at a frequency of 50 Hz and an intensity of 4.7 mA, muscle contractile exercise by B-SES was applied to the lower limb muscles for 20 minutes/session (twice a day) for 2 weeks (6 times/week). The bilateral soleus muscles were used for histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and molecular biological analyses.
    RESULTS: The number of myonuclei was significantly higher in the B-SES group than in the immobilization group, and there was no significant difference between the B-SES and control groups. The cross-sectional area of type I and II myofibers in the immobilization and B-SES groups was significantly lower than that in the control group, and the cross-sectional area of type I myofibers in the B-SES group was higher than that in the immobilization group. However, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 mRNA expression in the immobilization and B-SES groups was significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, the number of macrophages, IL-1β, TGF-β1, and α-SMA mRNA expression, and hydroxyproline expression was significantly lower in the control and B-SES groups than those in the immobilization group.
    CONCLUSION: This research surmised that muscle contractile exercise through B-SES prevented immobilization-induced muscle fibrosis, and this alteration suppressed the development of muscle contracture.
  31. Nat Commun. 2021 May 11. 12(1): 2665
      With age, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) undergo changes in function, including reduced regenerative potential and loss of quiescence, which is accompanied by a significant expansion of the stem cell pool that can lead to haematological disorders. Elevated metabolic activity has been implicated in driving the HSC ageing phenotype. Here we show that nicotinamide riboside (NR), a form of vitamin B3, restores youthful metabolic capacity by modifying mitochondrial function in multiple ways including reduced expression of nuclear encoded metabolic pathway genes, damping of mitochondrial stress and a decrease in mitochondrial mass and network-size. Metabolic restoration is dependent on continuous NR supplementation and accompanied by a shift of the aged transcriptome towards the young HSC state, more youthful bone marrow cellular composition and an improved regenerative capacity in a transplant setting. Consequently, NR administration could support healthy ageing by re-establishing a more youthful hematopoietic system.
  32. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2021 May 12.
      The MDX mouse is an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a human disease marked by an absence of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. We hypothesized that (1) dystrophin serves a complex mechanical role in skeletal muscles by contributing to passive compliance, viscoelastic properties, and contractile force production and (2) age is a modulator of passive mechanics of skeletal muscles of the MDX mouse. Using an in vitro biaxial mechanical testing apparatus, we measured passive length-tension relationships in the muscle fiber direction as well as transverse to the fibers, viscoelastic stress-relaxation curves, and isometric contractile properties. To avoid confounding secondary effects of muscle necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, we used very young 3-week-old mice whose muscles reflected the pre-fibrotic and pre-necrotic state. Compared to controls, 1) muscle extensibility and compliance were greater in both along fiber direction and transverse to fiber direction in MDX mice and 2) the relaxed elastic modulus was greater in dystrophin-deficient diaphragms. Furthermore, isometric contractile muscle stress was reduced in the presence and absence of transverse fiber passive stress. We also examined the effect of age on the diaphragm length-tension relationships and found that diaphragm muscles from 9-months old MDX mice were significantly less compliant and less extensible than those of muscles from very young MDX mice. Our data suggest that the age of the MDX mouse is a determinant of the passive mechanics of the diaphragm; in the pre-fibrotic/pre-necrotic stage, muscle extensibility and compliance, as well as viscoelasticity, and muscle contractility are altered by loss of dystrophin.
    Keywords:  MDX muscle pathology; Muscle weakness; respiratory muscle mechanics
  33. Brain Behav Immun. 2021 May 06. pii: S0889-1591(21)00183-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Physically active individuals are less likely to develop chronic pain, and physical exercise is an established strategy to control inflammatory diseases. Here, we hypothesized that 1) peripheral pro-inflammatory macrophages phenotype contribute to predisposition of the musculoskeletal to chronic pain, and that 2) activation of PPARγ receptors, modulation of macrophage phenotypes and cytokines through physical exercise would prevent persistent muscle pain. We tested these hypotheses using swimming exercise, pharmacological and immunochemical techniques in a rodent model of persistent muscle hyperalgesia. Swimming prevented the persistent mechanical muscle hyperalgesia most likely through activation of PPARγ receptors, as well as activation of PPARγ receptors by 15d-PGJ2 and depletion of muscle macrophages in sedentary animals. Acute and persistent muscle hyperalgesia were characterized by an increase in pro-inflammatory macrophages phenotype, and swimming and the 15d-PGJ2 prevented this increase and increased anti-inflammatory macrophages phenotype. Finally, IL-1β concentration in muscle increased in the acute phase, which was also prevented by PPARγ receptors activation through swimming. Besides, swimming increased muscle concentration of IL-10 in both acute and chronic phases, but only in the persistent phase through PPARγ receptors. Our findings suggest physical exercise activates PPARγ receptors and increases anti-inflammatory responses in the muscle tissue by modulating macrophages phenotypes and cytokines, thereby preventing the establishment of persistent muscle hyperalgesia. These results further highlight the potential of physical exercise to prevent chronic muscle pain.
    Keywords:  15d-PGJ(2); Antiinflammatory; Carrageenan; Chronic pain; Cytokine expression; Macrophage polarization; Muscle hyperalgesia; PGE(2); Regular physical exercise; Swimming
  34. Cereb Cortex. 2021 May 13. pii: bhab093. [Epub ahead of print]
      High-intensity intermittent (or interval) training (HIIT) has started to gain popularity as a time-effective approach to providing beneficial effects to the brain and to peripheral organs. However, it still remains uncertain whether HIIT enhances hippocampal functions in terms of neurogenesis and spatial memory due to unconsidered HIIT protocol for rodents. Here, we established the HIIT regimen for rats with reference to human study. Adult male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to Control, moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 20 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 times/week), and HIIT (60 m/min, 10 30-s bouts of exercise, interspaced with 2.5 min of recovery, 5 times/week) groups. The ratios of exercise time and volume between MICT and HIIT were set as 6:1 and 2:1-4:1, respectively. After 4 weeks of training, all-out time in the incremental exercise test was prolonged for exercise training. In skeletal muscle, the plantaris citrate synthase activity significantly increased only in the HIIT group. Simultaneously, both HIIT and MICT led to enhanced spatial memory and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) as well as enhanced protein levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Collectively, we suggest that HIIT could be a time-efficient exercise protocol that enhances hippocampal memory and neurogenesis in rats and is associated with hippocampal BDNF signaling.
    Keywords:  adult hippocampal neurogenesis; high-intensity intermittent training; spatial memory
  35. Sci Rep. 2021 May 14. 11(1): 10351
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration accompanied by dilated cardiomyopathy. Recently, abnormality of yes-associated protein (YAP) has been reported as the pathogenesis of muscle degeneration of DMD; however YAP activity remains unclear in dystrophic heart of DMD. Herein, we investigated YAP activity using disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) in DMD. DMD-iPSCs were generated from DMD patient with exon 48-54 deletion in DMD, and genome-edited (Ed)-DMD-iPSCs with in-frame (Ed-DMD-iPSCs) were created using CRISPR/Cas9. Nuclear translocation of YAP [nuclear (N)/cytoplasmic (C) ratio] was significantly lower in DMD-iPSC-CMs than in Ed-DMD-iPSC-CMs. In addition, Ki67 expression, indicating proliferative ability, was significantly lower in DMD-iPSC-CMs than Ed-DMD-iPSC-CMs. Therefore, immunofluorescent staining showed that actin stress fibers associated with YAP activity by mechanotransduction were disorganized in DMD-iPSC-CMs. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a known lipid mediator on induction of actin polymerization, significantly increased YAP activity and actin dynamics in DMD-iPSC-CMs using live cell imaging. These results suggested that altered YAP activity due to impaired actin dynamics reduced proliferative ability in DMD-iPSC-CMs. Hence, decreased YAP activity in dystrophic heart may contribute to DMD-cardiomyopathy pathogenesis.
  36. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 649793
      The mdx mouse phenotype aggravated by chronic exercise on a treadmill makes this murine model more reliable for the study of muscular dystrophy. Thus, to better assess the Tempol effect on dystrophic pathways, the analyses in this study were performed in the blood samples and diaphragm muscle from treadmill trained adult (7-11-weeks old) mdx animals. The mdx mice were divided into three groups: mdxSed, sedentary controls (n = 28); mdxEx, exercise-trained animals (n = 28); and mdxEx+T, exercise-trained animals with the Tempol treatment (n = 28). The results demonstrated that the Tempol treatment promoted muscle strength gain, prevented muscle damage, reduced the inflammatory process, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis regulator, and up regulated the activators of mitochondrial biogenesis. The main new findings of this study are that Tempol reduced the NF-κB and increased the PGC1-α and PPARδ levels in the exercise-trained-mdx mice, which are probably related to the ability of this antioxidant to scavenge excessive ROS. These results reinforce the use of Tempol as a potential therapeutic strategy in DMD.
    Keywords:  dystrophic muscles; exercise; inflammatory process; oxidative stress; tempol
  37. JIMD Rep. 2021 May;59(1): 81-89
      Pompe disease, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). On cellular level, there is lysosomal-bound and free accumulation of glycogen and subsequent damage of organelles and organs. The most severe affected tissues are skeletal muscles and heart. The only available treatment to date is an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa, a recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) modified with mannose-6-phosphate (M6P), which is internalized via M6P-mediated endocytosis. There is an unmet need to improve this type of therapy, especially in regard to skeletal muscle. Using different tissue culture models, we recently provided evidence that a moss-derived nonphosphorylated rhGAA (moss-GAA), carrying a glycosylation with terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues (GnGn), might have the potential to improve targeting of skeletal muscle. Now, we present a pilot treatment of Gaa -/- mice with moss-GAA. We investigated general effects as well as the uptake into different organs following short-term treatment. Our results do confirm that moss-GAA reaches the target disease organs and thus might have the potential to be an alternative or complementary ERT to the existing one.
    Keywords:  Pompe disease; enzyme replacement therapy; glycogen storage disease type II; moss‐GAA
  38. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2021 May 02.
      Mitochondrial myopathies (MM) are caused by mutations that typically affect genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Main symptoms are exercise intolerance and fatigue. Currently, there is no specific treatment for MM. Resveratrol (RSV) is a nutritional supplement that in preclinical studies has been shown to stimulate mitochondrial function. We hypothesized that RSV could improve exercise capacity in patients with MM. The study design was randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled. Eleven patients with genetically verified MM were randomized to receive either 1000 mg/day RSV or placebo (P) for 8 weeks followed by a 4-week washout and then the opposite treatment. Primary outcomes were changes in heart rate (HR) during submaximal cycling exercise and peak oxygen utilization (VO2 max) during maximal exercise. Secondary outcomes included reduction in perceived exertion, changes in lactate concentrations, self-rated function (SF-36) and fatigue scores (FSS), activities of electron transport chain complexes I and IV in mononuclear cells and mitochondrial biomarkers in muscle tissue among others. There were no significant differences in primary and secondary outcomes between treatments. Mean HR changes were -0.3 ± 4.3 (RSV) vs 1.8 ± 5.0 bpm (P), P = .241. Mean VO2 max changes were 0.7 ± 1.4 (RSV) vs -0.2 ± 2.3 mL/min/kg (P), P = .203. The study provides evidence that 1000 mg RSV daily is ineffective in improving exercise capacity in adults with MM. These findings indicate that previous in vitro studies suggesting a therapeutic potential for RSV in MM, do not translate into clinically meaningful effects in vivo.
    Keywords:  RCT; exercise capacity; mitochondrial metabolism; mitochondrial myopathy; resveratrol
  39. J Sports Sci. 2021 May 12. 1-10
      This meta-analysis investigated the role of resistance training (RT) moderators on strength and muscle mass gains in untrained young (YG) and older (OG) adults. Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials simultaneously assessing muscle strength and mass. Effect sizes (ES) reflecting improvements in strength and muscle mass were found for all moderators in YG and OG (ES 0.25- to 1.72;p < 0.05), excepting muscle mass in YG after RT was performed with <3 sets/exercise. Strength gains (p < 0.001) were greater in non-periodised vs. periodised RT in YG (ES 1.72 vs. 1.05) and OG (1.40 vs. 0.74). ES in OG was greater (p < 0.04) when RT included non-failure vs. failure repetitions (1.35 vs. 0.96), 3 vs. >3 sets/exercise (1.30 vs. 0.90), ≥3 vs. <3 days/week (1.70 vs. 0.78), and ≥12 vs. <12 weeks (1.48 vs. 0.92). Amoderating effect of RT factors on muscle mass was not detected in YG, while greater ES was found in OG for RT with ≥3 vs. <3 days/week (0.50 vs. 0.25). Concluding, different combinations of RT factors improved strength and muscle mass in YG and OG. In OG, this was favoured by greater frequency and duration, although hampered by excessive volume.
    Keywords:  Hypertrophy; meta-analysis; muscle strength; resistance exercise; training
  40. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2021 May 10.
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarized evidence on the role of carbohydrates in recovery from exercise within the context of acute and chronic effects on metabolism and performance.RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies demonstrate that, in contrast to recovery of muscle glycogen stores, the recovery of liver glycogen stores can be accelerated by the co-ingestion of fructose with glucose-based carbohydrates. Three recent studies suggest this can extend time-to-exhaustion during endurance exercise tests. However, periodically restricting carbohydrate intakes during recovery from some training sessions to slow the recovery of liver and muscle glycogen stores may, over time, result in a modest increase in the ability to oxidize fat during exercise in a fasted state. Whether this periodized strategy translates into a performance advantage in the fed state remains to be clearly demonstrated.
    SUMMARY: To maximize recovery of glycogen stores and the capacity to perform in subsequent endurance exercise, athletes should consider ingesting at least 1.2 g carbohydrate per kilogram body mass per hour - for the first few hours of recovery - as a mixture of fructose and glucose-based carbohydrates. However, if a goal is increased capacity for fat oxidation, athletes should consider restricting carbohydrate intakes during recovery from some key training sessions.
  41. Biochem J. 2021 May 14. 478(9): 1663-1688
      Cancer cachexia often occurs in malignant tumors and is a multifactorial and complex symptom characterized by wasting of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, resulting in weight loss, poor life quality and shorter survival. The pathogenic mechanism of cancer cachexia is complex, involving a variety of molecular substrates and signal pathways. Advancements in understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia have provided a platform for the development of new targeted therapies. Although recent outcomes of early-phase trials have showed that several drugs presented an ideal curative effect, monotherapy cannot be entirely satisfactory in the treatment of cachexia-associated symptoms due to its complex and multifactorial pathogenesis. Therefore, the lack of definitive therapeutic strategies for cancer cachexia emphasizes the need to develop a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Increasing evidences show that the progression of cachexia is associated with metabolic alternations, which mainly include excessive energy expenditure, increased proteolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, we provided an overview of the key mechanisms of cancer cachexia, with a major focus on muscle atrophy, adipose tissue wasting, anorexia and fatigue and updated the latest progress of pharmacological management of cancer cachexia, thereby further advancing the interventions that can counteract cancer cachexia.
    Keywords:  anorexia; cancer cachexia; fatigue; muscle atrophy; pharmacotherapy
  42. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2021 May 07. pii: S0958-1669(21)00057-4. [Epub ahead of print]70 131-135
      Worldwide, the number of persons over the age of 65 years and those at risk of malnutrition (over and under) is growing, and the prevalence of diet-related chronic disease is at a record high. Pathologies that are linked to poor nutrition underlie the leading causes of death. Safe and effective strategies to improve human health outcomes are urgently required. Identification of nutrient needs for health outcomes has led to the development of food products, supplements, and dietary pattern recommendations. Application of these nutrient-based therapies have the potential to optimize clinical outcomes, such as tissue regeneration post-skeletal muscle trauma. However, despite progress in identifying nutrient needs there is often a delay in the utilization of products in clinical practice.
  43. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 624303
      The Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi-Xiao-Yu-Xie-Zhuo (YQJPXYXZ) formula has been used for treating chronic kidney disease (CKD) for many years with good efficiency based on the cumulative empirical experience of previous practitioners. Impairment of the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating muscle wasting. This study aimed to observe effects of the YQJPXYXZ formula on muscle atrophy in CKD rats and investigate its possible mechanism on regulation of the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The 5/6 nephrectomized rats were randomly allocated into 3 groups: the CKD group, the KT (compound α-ketoacid tablets) group, and the YQJPXYXZ group. Besides, sham-operated rats were included as the sham group. All rats were treated for 12 weeks. Results showed that administration of the YQJPXYXZ formula prevented body weight loss and muscle fiber size decrease. Moreover, the YQJPXYXZ formula increased the IGF-1 level of serum and skeletal muscle in CKD rats and enhanced the phosphorylation level of Akt. Furthermore, the YQJPXYXZ formula decreased the Atrogin1 and MuRF1 mRNA and MuRF1 proteins. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that the YQJPXYXZ formula improves muscle wasting in CKD rats, which might be associated with the modulation of the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS).
    Keywords:  Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi-Xiao-Yu-Xie-Zhuo formula; akt; insulin-like growth factor l; muscle atrophy; phosphoinositide 3-kinase
  44. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2021 May 08.
      Abdominal massage (AM), a traditional Chinese medicine-based treatment method, has received considerable attention in the recent years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AM on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance (IR) in comparison with resveratrol (RSV) treatment. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: standard chow diet (control group), high-fat diet (model group), HFD + abdominal massage (AM group), and HFD + resveratrol (RSV group). A rat model of IR was established by feeding HFD to rats for 8 weeks followed by treatment with AM or RSV for 4 weeks. The underlying HFD-induced IR molecular mechanisms were studied in rat serum and skeletal muscles. RSV and AM significantly improved glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, obesity, and significantly reduced lipid accumulation [triglyceride (TC), total cholesterol (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], adipocytokine [free fatty acids (FFA), adiponectin (ADPN)] and serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) secretion. In addition, AM activated the AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway in rat skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our results showed that AM could improve IR by regulating the secretion of adipocytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as related signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle of rats, which might provide insights into development of new treatment methods for the clinical treatment of IR.
    Keywords:  AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α; Abdominal massage; Adipocytokine; Inflammatory cytokines; Insulin resistance