bims-mitlys Biomed News
on Mitochondria and Lysosomes
Issue of 2021‒03‒07
nine papers selected by
Nicoletta Plotegher
University of Padua

  1. Cells. 2021 Feb 17. pii: 420. [Epub ahead of print]10(2):
      Lysosomal storage disease (LSD) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by enzyme deficiency in lysosomes. Some treatments for LSD can slow progression, but there are no effective treatments to restore the pathological phenotype to normal levels. Lysosomes and mitochondria interact with each other, and this crosstalk plays a role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Deficiency of lysosome enzymes in LSD impairs the turnover of mitochondrial defects, leading to deterioration of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). Cells with MRC impairment are associated with reduced lysosomal calcium homeostasis, resulting in impaired autophagic and endolysosomal function. This malicious feedback loop between lysosomes and mitochondria exacerbates LSD. In this review, we assess the interactions between mitochondria and lysosomes and propose the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis as a research target to treat LSD. The importance of the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis has been systematically characterized in several studies, suggesting that proper regulation of this axis represents an important investigative guide for the development of therapeutics for LSD. Therefore, studying the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis will not only add knowledge of the essential physiological processes of LSD, but also provide new strategies for treatment of LSD.
    Keywords:  lysosomal storage disease; lysosome; mitochondria; mitochondrial–lysosomal axis
  2. Dev Cell. 2021 Feb 24. pii: S1534-5807(21)00120-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria are essential organelles that execute and coordinate various metabolic processes in the cell. Mitochondrial dysfunction severely affects cell fitness and contributes to disease. Proper organellar function depends on the biogenesis and maintenance of mitochondria and its >1,000 proteins. As a result, the cell has evolved mechanisms to coordinate protein and organellar quality control, such as the turnover of proteins via mitochondria-associated degradation, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and mitoproteases, as well as the elimination of mitochondria through mitophagy. Specific quality control mechanisms are engaged depending upon the nature and severity of mitochondrial dysfunction, which can also feed back to elicit transcriptional or proteomic remodeling by the cell. Here, we will discuss the current understanding of how these different quality control mechanisms are integrated and overlap to maintain protein and organellar quality and how they may be relevant for cellular and organismal health.
    Keywords:  ISR; MDVs; UPRmt; UPS; mitochondria; mitochondrial dynamics; mitophagy; mitoproteases
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Feb 11. pii: 1798. [Epub ahead of print]22(4):
      Investigating the molecular mechanisms governing developmental axon growth has been a useful approach for identifying new strategies for boosting axon regeneration after injury, with the goal of treating debilitating conditions such as spinal cord injury and vision loss. The picture emerging is that various axonal organelles are important centers for organizing the molecular mechanisms and machinery required for growth cone development and axon extension, and these have recently been targeted to stimulate robust regeneration in the injured adult central nervous system (CNS). This review summarizes recent literature highlighting a central role for organelles such as recycling endosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes, autophagosomes and the proteasome in developmental axon growth, and describes how these organelles can be targeted to promote axon regeneration after injury to the adult CNS. This review also examines the connections between these organelles in developing and regenerating axons, and finally discusses the molecular mechanisms within the axon that are required for successful axon growth.
    Keywords:  axon growth; axon regeneration; inter-organelle membrane contact sites; organelles
  4. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 612554
      Aim: Previous research recognizes that NADPH can produce reduced glutathione (GSH) as a coenzyme and produce ROS as a substrate of NADPH oxidase (NOX). Besides, excessive activation of glutamate receptors results in mitochondrial impairment. The study aims at spelling out the effects of NADPH and Mito-apocynin, a NOX inhibitor which specifically targets the mitochondria, on the excitotoxicity induced by Kainic acid (KA) and its mechanism.Methods: The in vivo neuronal excitotoxicity model was constructed by stereotypically injecting KA into the unilateral striatum of mice. Administrated NADPH (i.v, intravenous) 30 min prior and Mito-apocynin (i.g, intragastric) 1 day prior, respectively, then kept administrating daily until mice were sacrificed 14 days later. Nissl staining measured the lesion of striatum and survival status of neurons. Cylinder test of forelimb asymmetry and the adhesive removal test reflected the behavioral deficit caused by neural dysfunction. Determined Total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and GSH indicated oxidative stress. Western blot presented the expression levels of LC3-II/LC3-I, SQSTM1/p62, TIGAR, and NOX4. Assessed oxygen consumption rate using High-Resolution Respirometry. In vitro, the MitoSOX Indicator reflected superoxide released by neuron mitochondria. JC-1 and ATP assay Kit were used to detect mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and energy metabolism, respectively.
    Results: In this study, we have successfully established excitotoxic model by KA in vivo and in vitro. KA induced decreased SOD activity and increased MDA concentration. KA cause the change of LC3-II/LC3-I, SQSTM1/p62, and TIGAR expression, indicating the autophagy activation. NADPH plays a protective role in vivo and in vitro. It reversed the KA-mediated changes in LC3, SQSTM1/p62, TIGAR, and NOX4 protein expression. Mito-apocynin inhibited KA-induced increases in mitochondrial NOX4 expression and activity. Compared with NADPH, the combination showed more significant neuroprotective effects, presenting more neurons survive and better motor function recovery. The combination also better inhibited the over-activated autophagy. In vitro, combination of NADPH and Mito-apocynin performed better in restoring mitochondria membrane potential.
    Conclusion: In summary, combined administration of NADPH and NOX inhibitors offers better neuroprotection by reducing NADPH as a NOX substrate to generate ROS. The combined use of NADPH and Mito-apocynin can better restore neurons and mitochondrial function through autophagy pathway.
    Keywords:  Mito-apocynin; NADPH; NOX; ROS; autophagy; excitotoxicity; mitochondria
  5. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2021 Mar 04.
      Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder. Deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase (GLA) leads to accumulation of potentially toxic globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) on a multisystem level. Cardiac and cerebrovascular abnormalities as well as progressive renal failure are severe, life-threatening long-term complications. The complete pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in FD and the role of tubular involvement for its progression are unclear. We established human renal tubular epithelial cell lines from the urine of male FD patients and male controls. The renal tubular system is rich in mitochondria and involved in transport processes at high energy costs. Our studies revealed fragmented mitochondria with disrupted cristae structure in FD patient cells. Oxidative stress levels were elevated and oxidative phosphorylation was up-regulated in FD pointing at enhanced energetic needs. Mitochondrial homeostasis and energy metabolism revealed major changes as evidenced by differences in mitochondrial number, energy production and fuel consumption. The changes were accompanied by activation of the autophagy machinery in FD. Sirtuin1, an important sensor of (renal) metabolic stress and modifier of different defense pathways, was highly expressed in FD. Our data show that lysosomal FD impairs mitochondrial function and results in severe disturbance of mitochondrial energy metabolism in renal cells. This insight on a tissue-specific level points to new therapeutic targets which might enhance treatment efficacy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  6. Curr Protoc. 2021 Mar;1(3): e71
      Intracellular signaling processes are frequently based on direct interactions between proteins and organelles. A fundamental strategy to elucidate the physiological significance of such interactions is to utilize optical dimerization tools. These tools are based on the use of small proteins or domains that interact with each other upon light illumination. Optical dimerizers are particularly suitable for reproducing and interrogating a given protein-protein interaction and for investigating a protein's intracellular role in a spatially and temporally precise manner. Described in this article are genetic engineering strategies for the generation of modular light-activatable protein dimerization units and instructions for the preparation of optogenetic applications in mammalian cells. Detailed protocols are provided for the use of light-tunable switches to regulate protein recruitment to intracellular compartments, induce intracellular organellar membrane tethering, and reconstitute protein function using enhanced Magnets (eMags), a recently engineered optical dimerization system. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Genetic engineering strategy for the generation of modular light-activated protein dimerization units Support Protocol 1: Molecular cloning Basic Protocol 2: Cell culture and transfection Support Protocol 2: Production of dark containers for optogenetic samples Basic Protocol 3: Confocal microscopy and light-dependent activation of the dimerization system Alternate Protocol 1: Protein recruitment to intracellular compartments Alternate Protocol 2: Induction of organelles' membrane tethering Alternate Protocol 3: Optogenetic reconstitution of protein function Basic Protocol 4: Image analysis Support Protocol 3: Analysis of apparent on- and off-kinetics Support Protocol 4: Analysis of changes in organelle overlap over time.
    Keywords:  light-dependent dimerization; optogenetics; organelle contacts; protein reconstitution; protein-protein interaction
  7. Mol Psychiatry. 2021 Mar 04.
      Dysfunctional mitochondria characterise Parkinson's Disease (PD). Uncovering etiological molecules, which harm the homeostasis of mitochondria in response to pathological cues, is therefore pivotal to inform early diagnosis and therapy in the condition, especially in its idiopathic forms. This study proposes the 18 kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) to be one of those. Both in vitro and in vivo data show that neurotoxins, which phenotypically mimic PD, increase TSPO to enhance cellular redox-stress, susceptibility to dopamine-induced cell death, and repression of ubiquitin-dependent mitophagy. TSPO amplifies the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signalling, forming positive feedback, which represses the transcription factor EB (TFEB) and the controlled production of lysosomes. Finally, genetic variances in the transcriptome confirm that TSPO is required to alter the autophagy-lysosomal pathway during neurotoxicity.
  8. Cells. 2021 Feb 19. pii: 443. [Epub ahead of print]10(2):
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the greatest health problems affecting people worldwide. Atherosclerosis, in turn, is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular disease. Due to the high mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, prevention and treatment at the earliest stages become especially important. This requires developing a deep understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of atherosclerosis. It is well-known that atherogenesis is a complex multi-component process that includes lipid metabolism disorders, inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy disorders and mitochondrial dysfunction. Autophagy is a cellular control mechanism that is critical to maintaining health and survival. One of the specific forms of autophagy is mitophagy, which aims to control and remove defective mitochondria from the cell. Particularly defective mitophagy has been shown to be associated with atherogenesis. In this review, we consider the role of autophagy, focusing on a special type of it-mitophagy-in the context of its role in the development of atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  atherosclerosis; autophagy; cardiovascular disease; mitochondria; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitophagy
  9. IUBMB Life. 2021 Mar 05.
      The IUBMB Focused Meeting/FEBS Workshop titled 'Crosstalk between Nucleus and Mitochondria in Human Disease'(CrossMitoNus) will take place on September 7-10, 2021 in Seville (Spain), with the support of both the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) and the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS). Mitochondria are key organelles that act as a hub for vital metabolic processes, for example, energy transduction by oxidative phosphorylation, intermediary metabolism, redox signaling, calcium and iron homeostasis, heme and steroid biosynthesis, metal homeostasis, programmed cell death, and innate immunity. Consequently, a wide assortment of diseases-including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, cancer, rare syndromes, and many others-relate to mitochondrial dysfunction. The high relevance of mitochondria in metabolism centers on the core of cell signaling pathways, including those involved in cell-fate decisions. Critical metabolites synthesized in mitochondria are, for instance, key modulators of the sirtuin, AMPK, mTOR, and Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1A pathways. Mitochondria are indeed the major source of reactive oxygen species, which in turn mediate several regulatory routes. Interestingly, multiple nuclear-encoded factors control essential processes in mitochondrial dynamics, namely fusion (for instance, OPA1), fission (DNM1L), transport (RHOT1), and mitophagy (PINK1). The release of mitochondrial factors like cytochrome c to the cytoplasm is indeed key for the rapid onset of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The CrossMitoNus meeting aims to join efforts from diverse disciplines to unveil the mitochondrial and nuclear factors that are emerging as essential elements in mitochondria-nucleus communication. Needless to say, the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial protein trafficking into and out of the nucleus and the role of these proteins in the nucleus remain to be elucidated.
    Keywords:  FEBS workshop; IUBMB focused meeting; cell network; crosstalk; mitochondria; nucleus