bims-mitdyn Biomed News
on Mitochondrial dynamics: mechanisms
Issue of 2021‒05‒23
fifteen papers selected by
Edmond Chan
Queen’s University, School of Medicine

  1. Cell Metab. 2021 May 17. pii: S1550-4131(21)00183-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria control eukaryotic cell fate by producing the energy needed to support life and the signals required to execute programed cell death. The biochemical milieu is known to affect mitochondrial function and contribute to the dysfunctional mitochondrial phenotypes implicated in cancer and the morbidities of aging. However, the physical characteristics of the extracellular matrix are also altered in cancerous and aging tissues. Here, we demonstrate that cells sense the physical properties of the extracellular matrix and activate a mitochondrial stress response that adaptively tunes mitochondrial function via solute carrier family 9 member A1-dependent ion exchange and heat shock factor 1-dependent transcription. Overall, our data indicate that adhesion-mediated mechanosignaling may play an unappreciated role in the altered mitochondrial functions observed in aging and cancer.
    Keywords:  UPRmt; adhesion; aging; cancer; extracellular matrix; mechanical stress; mechanotabolism; metabolism; oxidative stress; tension
  2. Cell Syst. 2021 May 19. pii: S2405-4712(21)00133-2. [Epub ahead of print]12(5): 419-431.e4
      Mitochondria in plant cells exist largely as individual organelles which move, colocalize, and interact, but the cellular priorities addressed by these dynamics remain incompletely understood. Here, we elucidate these principles by studying the dynamic "social networks" of mitochondria in Arabidopsis thaliana wildtype and mutants, describing the colocalization of individuals over time. We combine single-cell live imaging of hypocotyl mitochondrial dynamics with individual-based modeling and network analysis. We identify an inevitable tradeoff between mitochondrial physical priorities (an even cellular distribution of mitochondria) and "social" priorities (individuals interacting, to facilitate the exchange of chemicals and information). This tradeoff results in a tension between maintaining mitochondrial spacing and facilitating colocalization. We find that plant cells resolve this tension to favor efficient networks with high potential for exchanging contents. We suggest that this combination of physical modeling coupled to experimental data through network analysis can shed light on the fundamental principles underlying these complex organelle dynamics. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the supplemental information.
    Keywords:  complex systems; mathematical modeling; mitochondrial dynamics; plant cell biology; single-cell microscopy
  3. Nat Commun. 2021 05 19. 12(1): 2947
      The type 2 secretion system (T2SS) is present in some Gram-negative eubacteria and used to secrete proteins across the outer membrane. Here we report that certain representative heteroloboseans, jakobids, malawimonads and hemimastigotes unexpectedly possess homologues of core T2SS components. We show that at least some of them are present in mitochondria, and their behaviour in biochemical assays is consistent with the presence of a mitochondrial T2SS-derived system (miT2SS). We additionally identified 23 protein families co-occurring with miT2SS in eukaryotes. Seven of these proteins could be directly linked to the core miT2SS by functional data and/or sequence features, whereas others may represent different parts of a broader functional pathway, possibly also involving the peroxisome. Its distribution in eukaryotes and phylogenetic evidence together indicate that the miT2SS-centred pathway is an ancestral eukaryotic trait. Our findings thus have direct implications for the functional properties of the early mitochondrion.
  4. Cell Rep. 2021 May 18. pii: S2211-1247(21)00468-X. [Epub ahead of print]35(7): 109129
      Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles subjected to fission and fusion events. During mitosis, mitochondrial fission ensures equal distribution of mitochondria to daughter cells. If and how this process can actively drive mitotic progression remains largely unknown. Here, we discover a pathway linking mitochondrial fission to mitotic progression in mammalian cells. The mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), the main mitochondrial receptor for the Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), is directly phosphorylated by Protein Kinase D (PKD) specifically during mitosis. PKD-dependent MFF phosphorylation is required and sufficient for mitochondrial fission in mitotic but not in interphasic cells. Phosphorylation of MFF is crucial for chromosome segregation and promotes cell survival by inhibiting adaptation of the mitotic checkpoint. Thus, PKD/MFF-dependent mitochondrial fission is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity during cell division.
    Keywords:  MFF; PKD; cell survival; fission; mitochondria; mitosis; mitotic checkpoint
  5. J Cell Sci. 2021 May 15. pii: jcs255844. [Epub ahead of print]134(10):
      Myosin XIX (Myo19) is an actin-based motor that competes with adaptors of microtubule-based motors for binding to the outer mitochondrial transmembrane proteins Miro1 and Miro2 (collectively Miro, also known as RhoT1 and RhoT2, respectively). Here, we investigate which mitochondrial and cellular processes depend on the coordination of Myo19 and microtubule-based motor activities. To this end, we created Myo19-deficient HEK293T cells. Mitochondria in these cells were not properly fragmented at mitosis and were partitioned asymmetrically to daughter cells. Respiratory functions of mitochondria were impaired and ROS generation was enhanced. On a cellular level, cell proliferation, cytokinesis and cell-matrix adhesion were negatively affected. On a molecular level, Myo19 regulates focal adhesions in interphase, and mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrially associated levels of fission protein Drp1 and adaptor proteins dynactin and TRAK1 at prometaphase. These alterations were due to a disturbed coordination of Myo19 and microtubule-based motor activities by Miro.
    Keywords:  Cell adhesion; Mitochondria; Mitosis; Myosin
  6. EMBO Mol Med. 2021 May 20. e13579
      Mutations in OPA1 cause autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA) as well as DOA+, a phenotype characterized by more severe neurological deficits. OPA1 deficiency causes mitochondrial fragmentation and also disrupts cristae, respiration, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, and cell viability. It has not yet been established whether phenotypic severity can be modulated by genetic modifiers of OPA1. We screened the entire known mitochondrial proteome (1,531 genes) to identify genes that control mitochondrial morphology using a first-in-kind imaging pipeline. We identified 145 known and novel candidate genes whose depletion promoted elongation or fragmentation of the mitochondrial network in control fibroblasts and 91 in DOA+ patient fibroblasts that prevented mitochondrial fragmentation, including phosphatidyl glycerophosphate synthase (PGS1). PGS1 depletion reduces CL content in mitochondria and rebalances mitochondrial dynamics in OPA1-deficient fibroblasts by inhibiting mitochondrial fission, which improves defective respiration, but does not rescue mtDNA depletion, cristae dysmorphology, or apoptotic sensitivity. Our data reveal that the multifaceted roles of OPA1 in mitochondria can be functionally uncoupled by modulating mitochondrial lipid metabolism, providing novel insights into the cellular relevance of mitochondrial fragmentation.
    Keywords:  OPA1; genetic modifiers; high-throughput screening; mitochondrial dynamics; phospholipid metabolism
  7. EMBO Mol Med. 2021 May 16. e13074
      The phospholamban (PLN) p.Arg14del mutation causes dilated cardiomyopathy, with the molecular disease mechanisms incompletely understood. Patient dermal fibroblasts were reprogrammed to hiPSC, isogenic controls were established by CRISPR/Cas9, and cardiomyocytes were differentiated. Mutant cardiomyocytes revealed significantly prolonged Ca2+ transient decay time, Ca2+ -load dependent irregular beating pattern, and lower force. Proteomic analysis revealed less endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ribosomal and mitochondrial proteins. Electron microscopy showed dilation of the ER and large lipid droplets in close association with mitochondria. Follow-up experiments confirmed impairment of the ER/mitochondria compartment. PLN p.Arg14del end-stage heart failure samples revealed perinuclear aggregates positive for ER marker proteins and oxidative stress in comparison with ischemic heart failure and non-failing donor heart samples. Transduction of PLN p.Arg14del EHTs with the Ca2+ -binding proteins GCaMP6f or parvalbumin improved the disease phenotype. This study identified impairment of the ER/mitochondria compartment without SR dysfunction as a novel disease mechanism underlying PLN p.Arg14del cardiomyopathy. The pathology was improved by Ca2+ -scavenging, suggesting impaired local Ca2+ cycling as an important disease culprit.
    Keywords:  endoplasmic reticulum; engineered heart tissue; human-induced pluripotent stem cells; mitochondria; phospholamban p.Arg14del
  8. Curr Biol. 2021 May 14. pii: S0960-9822(21)00609-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mutations in Vps13D cause defects in autophagy, clearance of mitochondria, and human movement disorders. Here, we discover that Vps13D functions in a pathway downstream of Vmp1 and upstream of Marf/Mfn2. Like vps13d, vmp1 mutant cells exhibit defects in autophagy, mitochondrial size, and clearance. Through the relationship between vmp1 and vps13d, we reveal a novel role for Vps13D in the regulation of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact. Significantly, the function of Vps13D in mitochondria and ER contact is conserved between fly and human cells, including fibroblasts derived from patients suffering from VPS13D mutation-associated neurological symptoms. vps13d mutants have increased levels of Marf/MFN2, a regulator of mitochondrial fusion. Importantly, loss of marf/MFN2 suppresses vps13d mutant phenotypes, including mitochondria and ER contact. These findings indicate that Vps13d functions at a regulatory point between mitochondria and ER contact, mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, and help to explain how Vps13D contributes to disease.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; Vmp1; Vps13D; autophagy; membrane contact; mitochondria
  9. Sci Transl Med. 2021 May 19. pii: eabd1869. [Epub ahead of print]13(594):
      Although the role of hydrophilic antioxidants in the development of hepatic insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been well studied, the role of lipophilic antioxidants remains poorly characterized. A known lipophilic hydrogen peroxide scavenger is bilirubin, which can be oxidized to biliverdin and then reduced back to bilirubin by cytosolic biliverdin reductase. Oxidation of bilirubin to biliverdin inside mitochondria must be followed by the export of biliverdin to the cytosol, where biliverdin is reduced back to bilirubin. Thus, the putative mitochondrial exporter of biliverdin is expected to be a major determinant of bilirubin regeneration and intracellular hydrogen peroxide scavenging. Here, we identified ABCB10 as a mitochondrial biliverdin exporter. ABCB10 reconstituted into liposomes transported biliverdin, and ABCB10 deletion caused accumulation of biliverdin inside mitochondria. Obesity with insulin resistance up-regulated hepatic ABCB10 expression in mice and elevated cytosolic and mitochondrial bilirubin content in an ABCB10-dependent manner. Revealing a maladaptive role of ABCB10-driven bilirubin synthesis, hepatic ABCB10 deletion protected diet-induced obese mice from steatosis and hyperglycemia, improving insulin-mediated suppression of glucose production and decreasing lipogenic SREBP-1c expression. Protection was concurrent with enhanced mitochondrial function and increased inactivation of PTP1B, a phosphatase disrupting insulin signaling and elevating SREBP-1c expression. Restoration of cellular bilirubin content in ABCB10 KO hepatocytes reversed the improvements in mitochondrial function and PTP1B inactivation, demonstrating that bilirubin was the maladaptive effector linked to ABCB10 function. Thus, we identified a fundamental transport process that amplifies intracellular bilirubin redox actions, which can exacerbate insulin resistance and steatosis in obesity.
  10. Oncogene. 2021 May 20.
      ING2 (Inhibitor of Growth 2) is a tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in critical biological functions (cell-cycle regulation, replicative senescence, DNA repair and DNA replication), most of which are recognized hallmarks of tumorigenesis occurring in the cell nucleus. As its close homolog ING1 has been recently observed in the mitochondrial compartment, we hypothesized that ING2 could also translocate into the mitochondria and be involved in new biological functions. In the present study, we demonstrate that ING2 is imported in the inner mitochondrial fraction in a redox-sensitive manner in human cells and that this mechanism is modulated by 14-3-3η protein expression. Remarkably, ING2 is necessary to maintain mitochondrial ultrastructure integrity without interfering with mitochondrial networks or polarization. We observed an interaction between ING2 and mtDNA under basal conditions. This interaction appears to be mediated by TFAM, a critical regulator of mtDNA integrity. The loss of mitochondrial ING2 does not impair mtDNA repair, replication or transcription but leads to a decrease in mitochondrial ROS production, suggesting a detrimental impact on OXPHOS activity. We finally show using multiple models that ING2 is involved in mitochondrial respiration and that its loss confers a protection against mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibition in vitro. Consequently, we propose a new tumor suppressor role for ING2 protein in the mitochondria as a metabolic shift gatekeeper during tumorigenesis.
  11. Commun Biol. 2021 May 21. 4(1): 615
      Mitochondria are typically essential for the viability of eukaryotic cells, and utilize oxygen and nutrients (e.g. glucose) to perform key metabolic functions that maintain energetic homeostasis and support proliferation. Here we provide a comprehensive functional annotation of mitochondrial genes that are essential for the viability of a large panel (625) of tumour cell lines. We perform genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 deletion screening in normoxia-glucose, hypoxia-glucose and normoxia-galactose conditions, and identify both unique and overlapping genes whose loss influences tumour cell viability under these different metabolic conditions. We discover that loss of certain oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes (e.g. SDHC) improves tumour cell growth in hypoxia-glucose, but reduces growth in normoxia, indicating a metabolic switch in OXPHOS gene function. Moreover, compared to normoxia-glucose, loss of genes involved in energy-consuming processes that are energetically demanding, such as translation and actin polymerization, improve cell viability under both hypoxia-glucose and normoxia-galactose. Collectively, our study defines mitochondrial gene essentiality in tumour cells, highlighting that essentiality is dependent on the metabolic environment, and identifies routes for regulating tumour cell viability in hypoxia.
  12. Cell Metab. 2021 May 17. pii: S1550-4131(21)00223-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      How amphipathic phospholipids are shuttled between the membrane bilayer remains an essential but elusive process, particularly at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). One prominent phospholipid shuttling process concerns the biogenesis of APOB-containing lipoproteins within the ER lumen, which may require bulk trans-bilayer movement of phospholipids from the cytoplasmic leaflet of the ER bilayer. Here, we show that TMEM41B, present in the lipoprotein export machinery, encodes a previously conceptualized ER lipid scramblase mediating trans-bilayer shuttling of bulk phospholipids. Loss of hepatic TMEM41B eliminates plasma lipids, due to complete absence of mature lipoproteins within the ER, but paradoxically also activates lipid production. Mechanistically, scramblase deficiency triggers unique ER morphological changes and unsuppressed activation of SREBPs, which potently promotes lipid synthesis despite stalled secretion. Together, this response induces full-blown nonalcoholic hepatosteatosis in the TMEM41B-deficient mice within weeks. Collectively, our data uncovered a fundamental mechanism safe-guarding ER function and integrity, dysfunction of which disrupts lipid homeostasis.
    Keywords:  SREBP; endoplasmic reticulum; fatty liver disease; lipid scramblase; lipoprotein metabolism
  13. iScience. 2021 May 21. 24(5): 102457
      Translocator protein (TSPO, 18 kDa) levels increase in parallel with the evolution of simple steatosis (SS) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, TSPO function in SS and NASH is unknown. Loss of TSPO in hepatocytes in vitro downregulated acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2 and increased free cholesterol (FC). FC accumulation induced endoplasmic reticulum stress via IRE1A and protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase/ATF4/CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein pathways and autophagy. TSPO deficiency activated cellular adaptive antioxidant protection; this adaptation was lost upon excessive FC accumulation. A TSPO ligand 19-Atriol blocked cholesterol binding and recapitulated many of the alterations seen in TSPO-deficient cells. These data suggest that TSPO deficiency accelerated the progression of SS. In NASH, however, loss of TSPO ameliorated liver fibrosis through downregulation of bile acid synthesis by reducing CYP7A1 and CYP27A1 levels and increasing farnesoid X receptor expression. These studies indicate a dynamic and complex role for TSPO in the evolution of NAFLD.
    Keywords:  Cell biology; Metabolomics; Molecular biology
  14. J Alzheimers Dis. 2021 May 14.
      BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction, bioenergetic deficit, and extensive oxidative stress underlie neuronal perturbation during the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated that decreased PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) expression is associated with AD pathology in AD-affected human brains and AD mice.OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we highlight the essential role of PINK1 in AD-relevant mitochondrial perturbation and neuronal malfunction.
    METHODS: Using trans-mitochondrial "cybrid" (cytoplasmic hybrid) neuronal cells, whose mitochondria are transferred from platelets of patients with sporadic AD, we observed the effect of PINK1 in neuronal-like differentiation and synaptogenesis and mitochondrial functions.
    RESULTS: In AD cybrid cells, the downregulation of PINK1 is correlated to the alterations in mitochondrial morphology and function and deficit in neuronal-like differentiation. Restoring/increasing PINK1 by lentivirus transduction of PINK1 robustly attenuate mitochondrial defects and rescue neurite-like outgrowth. Importantly, defective PINK1 kinase activity fails to reverse these detrimental effects. Mechanistically, AD cybrid cells reveal a significant decrease in PINK1-dependent phosphorylated mitofusin (Mfn) 2, a key mitochondrial membrane protein that participates in mitochondrial fusion, and an insufficient autophagic activity for clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria. Overexpression of PINK1, but not mutant PINK1 elevates phosphorylation of Mfn2 and autophagy signaling LC3-II. Accordingly, PINK1-overexpressed AD cybrids exhibit increases in mitochondrial length and density and suppressed reactive oxygen species. These results imply that activation of PINK1 protects against AD-affected mitochondrial dysfunction and impairment in neuronal maturation and differentiation.
    CONCLUSION: PINK1-mediated mitophagy is important for maintaining mitochondrial health by clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria and therefore, improves energy homeostasis in AD.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; PINK1; cybrid cells; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitophagy
  15. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2021 May 20.
      SIGNIFICANCE: The small, multicopy mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is essential for efficient energy production, as alterations in its coding information or a decrease in its copy number disrupt mitochondrial ATP synthesis. However, the mitochondrial replication machinery encounters numerous challenges that may limit its ability to duplicate this important genome and that jeopardize mtDNA stability, including various lesions in the DNA template, topological stress and an insufficient nucleotide supply. Recent Advances: An ever-growing array of DNA repair or maintenance factors are being reported to localize to the mitochondria. We review current knowledge regarding the mitochondrial factors that may contribute to the tolerance or repair of various types of changes in the mitochondrial genome, such as base damage, incorporated ribonucleotides and strand breaks. We also discuss the newly-discovered link between mtDNA instability and activation of the innate immune response.CRITICAL ISSUES: By which mechanisms do mitochondria respond to challenges that threaten mtDNA maintenance? What types of mtDNA damage are repaired, and when are the affected molecules degraded instead? And, finally, which forms of mtDNA instability trigger an immune response, and how?
    FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Further work is required to understand the contribution of the DNA repair and damage-tolerance factors present in the mitochondrial compartment, as well as the balance between mtDNA repair and degradation. Finally, efforts to understand the events underlying mtDNA release into the cytosol are warranted. Pursuing these and many related avenues can improve our understanding of what goes wrong in mitochondrial disease.