bims-mitdyn Biomed News
on Mitochondrial dynamics: mechanisms
Issue of 2020‒10‒18
sixteen papers selected by
Edmond Chan
Queen’s University, School of Medicine


  1. J Cell Sci. 2020 Oct 16. pii: jcs.249045. [Epub ahead of print]
    Harada T, Sada R, Osugi Y, Matsumoto S, Matsuda T, Hayashi-Nishino M, Nagai T, Harada A, Kikuchi A.
      Cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) is palmitoylated type II transmembrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Knockout (KO) of CKAP4 in HeLaS3 cells induced the alterations of mitochondrial structures and increased the number of ER-mitochondria contact sites. To understand the involvement of CKAP4 in mitochondrial functions, the binding proteins of CKAP4 were explored, enabling identification of the mitochondrial porin voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2 (VDAC2), which is localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane. Palmitoylation at Cys100 of CKAP4 was required for the binding of CKAP4 and VDAC2. In CKAP4 KO cells, the binding of inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and VDAC2 was enhanced, the intramitochondrial Ca2+ concentration increased, and the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased. In addition, CKAP4 KO decreased the oxidative consumption rate, in vitro cancer cell proliferation under low-glucose conditions, and in vivo xenograft tumor formation. The phenotypes were not rescued by a palmitoylation-deficient CKAP4 mutant. These results suggest that CKAP4 plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial functions through the binding to VDAC2 at ER-mitochondria contact sites and that palmitoylation is required for this novel function of CKAP4.
    Keywords:  CKAP4; ER; MAM; Mitochondria; Palmitoylation; VDAC2
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.249045
  2. J Cell Biol. 2020 Nov 02. pii: e202003024. [Epub ahead of print]219(11):
    Tirrell PS, Nguyen KN, Luby-Phelps K, Friedman JR.
      MICOS is a conserved multisubunit complex that localizes to mitochondrial cristae junctions and organizes cristae positioning within the organelle. MICOS is organized into two independent subcomplexes; however, the mechanisms that dictate the assembly and spatial positioning of each MICOS subcomplex are poorly understood. Here, we determine that MICOS subcomplexes target independently of one another to sites on the inner mitochondrial membrane that are in proximity to contact sites between mitochondria and the ER. One subcomplex, composed of Mic27/Mic26/Mic10/Mic12, requires ERMES complex function for its assembly. In contrast, the principal MICOS component, Mic60, self-assembles and localizes in close proximity to the ER through an independent mechanism. We also find that Mic60 can uniquely redistribute adjacent to forced mitochondria-vacuole contact sites. Our data suggest that nonoverlapping properties of interorganelle contact sites provide spatial cues that enable MICOS assembly and ultimately lead to proper physical and functional organization of mitochondria.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202003024
  3. Autophagy. 2020 Oct 12. 1-16
    da Silva Rosa SC, Martens MD, Field JT, Nguyen L, Kereliuk SM, Hai Y, Chapman D, Diehl-Jones W, Aliani M, West AR, Thliveris J, Ghavami S, Rampitsch C, Dolinsky VW, Gordon JW.
      Lipotoxicity is a form of cellular stress caused by the accumulation of lipids resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance in muscle. Previously, we demonstrated that the mitophagy receptor BNIP3L/Nix is responsive to lipotoxicity and accumulates in response to a high-fat (HF) feeding. To provide a better understanding of this observation, we undertook gene expression array and shot-gun metabolomics studies in soleus muscle from rodents on an HF diet. Interestingly, we observed a modest reduction in several autophagy-related genes. Moreover, we observed alterations in the fatty acyl composition of cardiolipins and phosphatidic acids. Given the reported roles of these phospholipids and BNIP3L in mitochondrial dynamics, we investigated aberrant mitochondrial turnover as a mechanism of impaired myocyte insulin signaling. In a series of gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments in rodent and human myotubes, we demonstrate that BNIP3L accumulation triggers mitochondrial depolarization, calcium-dependent activation of DNM1L/DRP1, and mitophagy. In addition, BNIP3L can inhibit insulin signaling through activation of MTOR-RPS6KB/p70S6 kinase inhibition of IRS1, which is contingent on phosphatidic acids and RHEB. Finally, we demonstrate that BNIP3L-induced mitophagy and impaired glucose uptake can be reversed by direct phosphorylation of BNIP3L by PRKA/PKA, leading to the translocation of BNIP3L from the mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. These findings provide insight into the role of BNIP3L, mitochondrial turnover, and impaired myocyte insulin signaling during an overfed state when overall autophagy-related gene expression is reduced. Furthermore, our data suggest a mechanism by which exercise or pharmacological activation of PRKA may overcome myocyte insulin resistance. Abbreviations: BCL2: B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2; BNIP3L/Nix: BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3-like; DNM1L/DRP1: dynamin 1-like; FUNDC1: FUN14 domain containing 1; IRS1: insulin receptor substrate 1; MAP1LC3A/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha; MFN1: mitofusin 1; MFN2: mitofusin 2; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; OPA1: OPA1 mitochondrial dynamin like GTPase; PDE4i: phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor; PLD1: phospholipase D1; PLD6: phospholipase D family member 6; PRKA/PKA: protein kinase, AMP-activated; PRKCD/PKCδ: protein kinase C, delta; PRKCQ/PKCθ: protein kinase C, theta; RHEB: Ras homolog enriched in brain; RPS6KB/p70S6K: ribosomal protein S6 kinase; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; YWHAB/14-3-3β: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta.
    Keywords:  Insulin signaling; MTOR; Nix; PKA; mitochondria; mitophagy; muscle
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1821548
  4. EMBO Rep. 2020 Oct 12. e50085
    Wang Z, Ning T, Song A, Rutter J, Wang QA, Jiang L.
      The cultured brown adipocytes can oxidize glucose in vitro, but it is still not fully clear whether brown adipose tissue (BAT) could completely oxidize glucose in vivo. Although positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) showed a high level of glucose uptake in the activated BAT, the non-metabolizable 18 F-FDG cannot fully demonstrate intracellular glucose metabolism. Through in vivo [U-13 C]glucose tracing, here we show that chronic cold exposure dramatically activates glucose oxidation in BAT and the browning/beiging subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). Specifically, chronic cold exposure enhances glucose flux into the mitochondrial TCA cycle. Metabolic flux analysis models that β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) agonist significantly enhances the flux of mitochondrial pyruvate uptake through mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) in the differentiated primary brown adipocytes. Furthermore, in vivo MPC inhibition blocks cold-induced glucose oxidation and impairs body temperature maintenance in mice. Together, mitochondrial pyruvate uptake and oxidation serve an important energy source in the chronic cold exposure activated BAT and beige adipose tissue, which supports a role for glucose oxidation in brown fat thermogenesis.
    Keywords:  BAT; in vivo glucose tracing; metabolic flux analysis; mitochondrial pyruvate carrier
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.202050085
  5. Nat Commun. 2020 Oct 16. 11(1): 5261
    Bridges HR, Fedor JG, Blaza JN, Di Luca A, Jussupow A, Jarman OD, Wright JJ, Agip AA, Gamiz-Hernandez AP, Roessler MM, Kaila VRI, Hirst J.
      Respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) captures the free energy from oxidising NADH and reducing ubiquinone to drive protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane and power oxidative phosphorylation. Recent cryo-EM analyses have produced near-complete models of the mammalian complex, but leave the molecular principles of its long-range energy coupling mechanism open to debate. Here, we describe the 3.0-Å resolution cryo-EM structure of complex I from mouse heart mitochondria with a substrate-like inhibitor, piericidin A, bound in the ubiquinone-binding active site. We combine our structural analyses with both functional and computational studies to demonstrate competitive inhibitor binding poses and provide evidence that two inhibitor molecules bind end-to-end in the long substrate binding channel. Our findings reveal information about the mechanisms of inhibition and substrate reduction that are central for understanding the principles of energy transduction in mammalian complex I.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18950-3
  6. FASEB J. 2020 Oct 15.
    Berry BJ, Baldzizhar A, Nieves TO, Wojtovich AP.
      Organisms adapt to their environment through coordinated changes in mitochondrial function and metabolism. The mitochondrial protonmotive force (PMF) is an electrochemical gradient that powers ATP synthesis and adjusts metabolism to energetic demands via cellular signaling. It is unknown how or where transient PMF changes are sensed and signaled due to the lack of precise spatiotemporal control in vivo. We addressed this by expressing a light-activated proton pump in mitochondria to spatiotemporally "turn off" mitochondrial function through PMF dissipation in tissues with light. We applied our construct-mitochondria-OFF (mtOFF)-to understand how metabolic status impacts hypoxia resistance, a response that relies on mitochondrial function. Activation of mtOFF induced starvation-like behavior mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We found prophylactic mtOFF activation increased survival following hypoxia, and that protection relied on neuronal AMPK. Our study links spatiotemporal control of mitochondrial PMF to cellular metabolic changes that mediate behavior and stress resistance.
    Keywords:  anoxia; metabolism; optogenetics; uncoupling
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001150RR
  7. J Biol Chem. 2020 10 15. pii: jbc.REV120.015101. [Epub ahead of print]
    Prole DL, Chinnery PF, Jones NS.
      Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes proteins and RNAs that support the functions of mitochondria and thereby numerous physiological processes. Mutations of mtDNA can cause mitochondrial diseases and are implicated in ageing. The mtDNA within cells is organized into nucleoids within the mitochondrial matrix, but how mtDNA nucleoids are formed and regulated within cells remains incompletely resolved. Visualization of mtDNA within cells is a powerful means by which mechanistic insight can be gained. Manipulation of the amount, and sequence of, mtDNA within cells is important experimentally and for developing therapeutic interventions to treat mitochondrial disease. This review details recent developments and opportunities for improvements in the experimental tools and techniques that can be used to visualize, quantify and manipulate the properties of mtDNA within cells.
    Keywords:  aging; gene editing; microscopy; mitochondria; mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); mitochondrial disease; mitophagy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.REV120.015101
  8. PLoS Genet. 2020 Oct 16. 16(10): e1009046
    Chen H, Miller PW, Johnson DL, Laribee RN.
      The Ccr4-Not complex functions as an effector of multiple signaling pathways that control gene transcription and mRNA turnover. Consequently, Ccr4-Not contributes to a diverse array of processes, which includes a significant role in cell metabolism. Yet a mechanistic understanding of how it contributes to metabolism is lacking. Herein, we provide evidence that Ccr4-Not activates nutrient signaling through the essential target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) pathway. Ccr4-Not disruption reduces global TORC1 signaling, and it also upregulates expression of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway terminal kinase Mpk1. Although CWI signaling represses TORC1 signaling, we find that Ccr4-Not loss inhibits TORC1 independently of CWI activation. Instead, we demonstrate that Ccr4-Not promotes the function of the vacuole V-ATPase, which interacts with the Gtr1 GTPase-containing EGO complex to stimulate TORC1 in response to nutrient sufficiency. Bypassing the V-ATPase requirement in TORC1 activation using a constitutively active Gtr1 mutant fully restores TORC1 signaling in Ccr4-Not deficient cells. Transcriptome analysis and functional studies revealed that loss of the Ccr4 subunit activates the TORC1 repressed retrograde signaling pathway to upregulate mitochondrial activity. Blocking this mitochondrial upregulation in Ccr4-Not deficient cells further represses TORC1 signaling, and it causes synergistic deficiencies in mitochondrial-dependent metabolism. These data support a model whereby Ccr4-Not loss impairs V-ATPase dependent TORC1 activation that forces cells to enhance mitochondrial metabolism to sustain a minimal level of TORC1 signaling necessary for cell growth and proliferation. Therefore, Ccr4-Not plays an integral role in nutrient signaling and cell metabolism by promoting V-ATPase dependent TORC1 activation.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009046
  9. PLoS Genet. 2020 Oct 15. 16(10): e1009140
    Dai Z, Li D, Du X, Ge Y, Hursh DA, Bi X.
      Precise regulation of stem cell activity is crucial for tissue homeostasis. In Drosophila, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) maintain the midgut epithelium and respond to oxidative challenges. However, the connection between intestinal homeostasis and redox signaling remains obscure. Here we find that Caliban (Clbn) functions as a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in enterocytes (ECs) and is required for intestinal homeostasis. The clbn knock-out flies have a shortened lifespan and lose the intestinal homeostasis. Clbn is highly expressed and localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria in ECs. Mechanically, Clbn mediates mitochondrial dynamics in ECs and removal of clbn leads to mitochondrial fragmentation, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, ECs damage, activation of JNK and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Moreover, multiple mitochondria-related genes are differentially expressed between wild-type and clbn mutated flies by a whole-genome transcriptional profiling. Furthermore, loss of clbn promotes tumor growth in gut generated by activated Ras in intestinal progenitor cells. Our findings reveal an EC-specific function of Clbn in regulating mitochondrial dynamics, and provide new insight into the functional link among mitochondrial redox modulation, tissue homeostasis and longevity.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009140
  10. FEBS Lett. 2020 Oct 14.
    Jain A, Dadsena S, Holthuis JCM.
      Mitochondrial translocation of ceramides triggers Bax-dependent apoptosis. To elucidate how ceramides activate Bax and commit cells to death, we developed a switchable version of the ceramide transfer protein CERT, sCERT. Upon its drug-induced recruitment to mitochondria, sCERT retains the ability to bind VAP proteins in the ER and catalyzes mitochondrial import of externally added fluorescent ceramides. Mitochondrial recruitment of sCERT also triggers mitochondrial translocation of Bax. The ability of mitochondria-bound sCERT to mediate ceramide import and Bax translocation requires both its START domain and ongoing ceramide biosynthesis. These data extend our previous finding that mistargeting of ER ceramides to mitochondria specifically activates Bax and establish sCERT as a novel tool to dissect the underlying mechanism in a time-resolved manner.
    Keywords:  Bcl2 proteins; CERT; ceramide; chemical dimerization technology; lipid transfer protein; mitochondrial apoptosis; protein engineering; sphingolipids
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.13956
  11. Aging Cell. 2020 Oct 13. e13166
    Moore TM, Zhou Z, Strumwasser AR, Cohn W, Lin AJ, Cory K, Whitney K, Ho T, Ho T, Lee JL, Rucker DH, Hoang AN, Widjaja K, Abrishami AD, Charugundla S, Stiles L, Whitelegge JP, Turcotte LP, Wanagat J, Hevener AL.
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is frequently associated with impairment in metabolic homeostasis and insulin action, and is thought to underlie cellular aging. However, it is unclear whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance in humans. To determine the impact of intrinsic mitochondrial dysfunction on metabolism and insulin action, we performed comprehensive metabolic phenotyping of the polymerase gamma (PolG) D257A "mutator" mouse, a model known to accumulate supraphysiological mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations. We utilized the heterozygous PolG mutator mouse (PolG+/mut ) because it accumulates mtDNA point mutations ~ 500-fold > wild-type mice (WT), but fails to develop an overt progeria phenotype, unlike PolGmut/mut animals. To determine whether mtDNA point mutations induce metabolic dysfunction, we examined male PolG+/mut mice at 6 and 12 months of age during normal chow feeding, after 24-hr starvation, and following high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. No marked differences were observed in glucose homeostasis, adiposity, protein/gene markers of metabolism, or oxygen consumption in muscle between WT and PolG+/mut mice during any of the conditions or ages studied. However, proteomic analyses performed on isolated mitochondria from 12-month-old PolG+/mut mouse muscle revealed alterations in the expression of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, electron transport chain components, and oxidative stress-related factors compared with WT. These findings suggest that mtDNA point mutations at levels observed in mammalian aging are insufficient to disrupt metabolic homeostasis and insulin action in male mice.
    Keywords:  POLG; aging; insulin resistance; metabolism; mitochondria; mitochondrial DNA; obesity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/acel.13166
  12. Metabolites. 2020 Oct 14. pii: E411. [Epub ahead of print]10(10):
    Simard CJ, Touaibia M, Allain EP, Hebert-Chatelain E, Pichaud N.
      Excess dietary carbohydrates are linked to dysregulation of metabolic pathways converging to mitochondria and metabolic inflexibility. Here, we determined the role of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) in the occurrence of this metabolic inflexibility in wild-type (WT) and MPC1-deficient (MPC1def) flies that were exposed to diets with different sucrose concentrations for 15-25 days (Standard Diet: SD, Medium-Sucrose Diet: MSD, and High-Sucrose Diet: HSD). Our results showed that MPC1def flies had lower mitochondrial respiration rates than WT flies on the SD and MSD. However, when exposed to the HSD, WT flies displayed decreased mitochondrial respiration rates compared to MPC1def flies. WT flies exposed to the HSD also displayed increased proline contribution and slightly decreased MPC1 expression. Surprisingly, when fed the MSD and the HSD, few metabolites were altered in WT flies whereas MPC1def flies display significant accumulation of glycogen, glucose, fructose, lactate, and glycerol. Overall, this suggests that metabolic inflexibility starts to occur in WT flies after 15-25 days of exposure to the HSD whereas the MPC1def flies display metabolic inflexibility independently of the diet provided. This study thus highlights the involvement of MPC as an essential protein in Drosophila to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis during changes in dietary resources.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; homeostasis; metabolic inflexibility; metabolomics; mitochondrial pyruvate carrier; mitochondrial respiration; sucrose
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10100411
  13. Biochem Pharmacol. 2020 Oct 12. pii: S0006-2952(20)30518-9. [Epub ahead of print] 114282
    Rodrigues T, Silva Ferraz L.
      In the past mitochondria were considered as the "powerhouse" of cell, since they generate more than 90% of ATP in aerobic conditions through the oxidative phosphorylation. However, based on the current knowledge, mitochondria play several other cellular functions, including participation in calcium homeostasis, generation of free radicals and oxidative species, triggering/regulation of apoptosis, among others. Additionally, previous discoveries recognized mitochondria as highly dynamic structures, which undergo morphological alterations resulting in long or short fragments inside the living cells. This highly regulated process was referred as mitochondrial dynamics and involves mitochondrial fusion and fission. Thus, the number of mitochondria and the morphology of mitochondrial networks depend on the mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, and mitophagy. In each cell, there is a delicate balance between fusion and fission to allow the maintenance of appropriate mitochondrial functions. It has been proposed that the fusion and fission dynamics process controls cell cycle, metabolism, and survival, being implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathological conditions. Mitochondrial fusion is mediated by dynamin-like proteins, including mitofusin 1 (MFN1), mitofusin 2 (MFN2), and optic atrophy 1 protein (OPA1). Conversely, mitochondrial fission results in a large number of small fragments, which is mediated mainly by dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1). Interestingly, there is growing evidence proposing that tumor cells modify the mitochondrial dynamics rheostat in order to gain proliferative and survival advantages. Increased mitochondrial fission has been reported in several types of human cancer cells (melanoma, ovarian, breast, lung, thyroid, glioblastoma, and others) and some studies have reported a possible direct correlation between increased mitochondrial fusion and chemoresistance of tumor cells. Here, the current knowledge about alterations of mitochondrial dynamics in cancer will be reviewed and its potential as a target for adjuvant cancer chemotherapy will be discussed.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Cancer; Cell death; Chemotherapy; Mitochondrial dynamics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114282
  14. Front Neurol. 2020 ;11 587
    Grossmann D, Berenguer-Escuder C, Chemla A, Arena G, Krüger R.
      The expected increase in prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) as the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder over the next years underscores the need for a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathogenesis. Here, first insights provided by genetics over the last two decades, such as dysfunction of molecular and organellar quality control, are described. The mechanisms involved relate to impaired intracellular calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial dynamics, which are tightly linked to the cross talk between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. A number of proteins related to monogenic forms of PD have been mapped to these pathways, i.e., PINK1, Parkin, LRRK2, and α-synuclein. Recently, Miro1 was identified as an important player, as several studies linked Miro1 to mitochondrial quality control by PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy and mitochondrial transport. Moreover, Miro1 is an important regulator of mitochondria-ER contact sites (MERCs), where it acts as a sensor for cytosolic calcium levels. The involvement of Miro1 in the pathogenesis of PD was recently confirmed by genetic evidence based on the first PD patients with heterozygous mutations in RHOT1/Miro1. Patient-based cellular models from RHOT1/Miro1 mutation carriers showed impaired calcium homeostasis, structural alterations of MERCs, and increased mitochondrial clearance. To account for the emerging role of Miro1, we present a comprehensive overview focusing on the role of this protein in PD-related neurodegeneration and highlighting new developments in our understanding of Miro1, which provide new avenues for neuroprotective therapies for PD patients.
    Keywords:  Miro1; Parkinson's disease; calcium signaling; mitochondrial dynamics; mitophagy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00587
  15. Eur Respir Rev. 2020 Sep 30. pii: 200165. [Epub ahead of print]29(157):
    Cloonan SM, Kim K, Esteves P, Trian T, Barnes PJ.
      Mitochondrial biology has seen a surge in popularity in the past 5 years, with the emergence of numerous new avenues of exciting mitochondria-related research including immunometabolism, mitochondrial transplantation and mitochondria-microbe biology. Since the early 1960s mitochondrial dysfunction has been observed in cells of the lung in individuals and in experimental models of chronic and acute respiratory diseases. However, it is only in the past decade with the emergence of more sophisticated tools and methodologies that we are beginning to understand how this enigmatic organelle regulates cellular homeostasis and contributes to disease processes in the lung. In this review, we highlight the diverse role of mitochondria in individual lung cell populations and what happens when these essential organelles become dysfunctional with ageing and in acute and chronic lung disease. Although much remains to be uncovered, we also discuss potential targeted therapeutics for mitochondrial dysfunction in the ageing and diseased lung.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1183/16000617.0165-2020
  16. Front Aging Neurosci. 2020 ;12 581849
    Muñoz-Carvajal F, Sanhueza M.
      Aging is the time-dependent functional decline that increases the vulnerability to different forms of stress, constituting the major risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Dysfunctional mitochondria significantly contribute to aging phenotypes, accumulating particularly in post-mitotic cells, including neurons. To cope with deleterious effects, mitochondria feature different mechanisms for quality control. One such mechanism is the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRMT), which corresponds to the transcriptional activation of mitochondrial chaperones, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes to repair defective mitochondria. Transcription of target UPRMT genes is epigenetically regulated by Histone 3-specific methylation. Age-dependency of this regulation could explain a differential UPRMT activity in early developmental stages or aged organisms. At the same time, precise tuning of mitochondrial stress responses is crucial for maintaining neuronal homeostasis. However, compared to other mitochondrial and stress response programs, the role of UPRMT in neurodegenerative disease is barely understood and studies in this topic are just emerging. In this review, we document the reported evidence characterizing the evolutionarily conserved regulation of the UPRMT and summarize the recent advances in understanding the role of the pathway in neurodegenerative diseases and aging.
    Keywords:  aging; epigenetic regulation; mitochondria; mitochondrial unfolded protein response; neurodegenerative diseases; stress response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.581849