bims-mitdyn Biomed News
on Mitochondrial dynamics: mechanisms
Issue of 2020‒09‒27
twenty-six papers selected by
Edmond Chan
Queen’s University, School of Medicine

  1. Nat Commun. 2020 Sep 25. 11(1): 4866
      Mitochondria house evolutionarily conserved pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism that drive cellular energy production. Mitochondrial bioenergetics is regulated by calcium uptake through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), a multi-protein complex whose assembly in the inner mitochondrial membrane is facilitated by the scaffold factor MCUR1. Intriguingly, many fungi that lack MCU contain MCUR1 homologs, suggesting alternate functions. Herein, we characterize Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologs Put6 and Put7 of MCUR1 as regulators of mitochondrial proline metabolism. Put6 and Put7 are tethered to the inner mitochondrial membrane in a large hetero-oligomeric complex, whose abundance is regulated by proline. Loss of this complex perturbs mitochondrial proline homeostasis and cellular redox balance. Yeast cells lacking either Put6 or Put7 exhibit a pronounced defect in proline utilization, which can be corrected by the heterologous expression of human MCUR1. Our work uncovers an unexpected role of MCUR1 homologs in mitochondrial proline metabolism.
  2. Nat Commun. 2020 09 24. 11(1): 4837
      ATP synthesis and thermogenesis are two critical outputs of mitochondrial respiration. How these outputs are regulated to balance the cellular requirement for energy and heat is largely unknown. Here we show that major facilitator superfamily domain containing 7C (MFSD7C) uncouples mitochondrial respiration to switch ATP synthesis to thermogenesis in response to heme. When heme levels are low, MSFD7C promotes ATP synthesis by interacting with components of the electron transport chain (ETC) complexes III, IV, and V, and destabilizing sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2b (SERCA2b). Upon heme binding to the N-terminal domain, MFSD7C dissociates from ETC components and SERCA2b, resulting in SERCA2b stabilization and thermogenesis. The heme-regulated switch between ATP synthesis and thermogenesis enables cells to match outputs of mitochondrial respiration to their metabolic state and nutrient supply, and represents a cell intrinsic mechanism to regulate mitochondrial energy metabolism.
  3. Brain Sci. 2020 Sep 17. pii: E646. [Epub ahead of print]10(9):
      Mitochondrial morphology, distribution and function are maintained by the opposing forces of mitochondrial fission and fusion, the perturbation of which gives rise to several neurodegenerative disorders. The large guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is a critical regulator of mitochondrial fission by mediating membrane scission, often at points of mitochondrial constriction at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrial contacts. Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) subtype SPG61 is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the ER-shaping protein Arl6IP1. We have previously reported defects in both the ER and mitochondrial networks in a Drosophila model of SPG61. In this study, we report that knockdown of Arl6IP1 lowers Drp1 protein levels, resulting in reduced ER-mitochondrial contacts and impaired mitochondrial load at the distal ends of long motor neurons. Increasing mitochondrial fission, by overexpression of wild-type Drp1 but not a dominant negative Drp1, increases ER-mitochondrial contacts, restores mitochondrial load within axons and partially rescues locomotor deficits. Arl6IP1 knockdown Drosophila also demonstrate impaired autophagic flux and an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, which occur independent of Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission defects. Together, these findings provide evidence that impaired mitochondrial fission contributes to neurodegeneration in this in vivo model of HSP.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; autophagy; endoplasmic reticulum; fission; mitochondria; neurodegeneration
  4. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2020 Sep 19. pii: S0955-0674(20)30111-3. [Epub ahead of print]68 28-36
      Mitochondria form networks that continually remodel and adapt to carry out their cellular function. The mitochondrial network is remodeled through changes in mitochondrial morphology, number, and distribution within the cell. Mitochondrial dynamics depend directly on fission, fusion, shape transition, and transport or tethering along the cytoskeleton. Over the past several years, many of the mechanisms underlying these processes have been uncovered. It has become clear that each process is precisely and contextually regulated within the cell. Here, we discuss the mechanisms regulating each aspect of mitochondrial dynamics, which together shape the network as a whole.
    Keywords:  Cytoskeleton; Fission; Fusion; Mitochondria; Morphology; Transport
  5. EMBO Rep. 2020 Sep 25. e50202
      Mitochondrial quality is controlled by the selective removal of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy. Mitophagy impairment is associated with aging and many pathological conditions. An iron loss induced by iron chelator triggers mitophagy by a yet unknown mechanism. This type of mitophagy may have therapeutic potential, since iron chelators are clinically used. Here, we aimed to clarify the mechanisms by which iron loss induces mitophagy. Deferiprone, an iron chelator, treatment resulted in the increased expression of mitochondrial ferritin (FTMT) and the localization of FTMT precursor on the mitochondrial outer membrane. Specific protein 1 and its regulator hypoxia-inducible factor 1α were necessary for deferiprone-induced increase in FTMT. FTMT specifically interacted with nuclear receptor coactivator 4, an autophagic cargo receptor. Deferiprone-induced mitophagy occurred selectively for depolarized mitochondria. Additionally, deferiprone suppressed the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in mice by inducing mitophagy. Silencing FTMT abrogated deferiprone-induced mitophagy and suppression of HCC. These results demonstrate the mechanisms by which iron loss induces mitophagy and provide a rationale for targeting mitophagic activation as a therapeutic strategy.
    Keywords:  hepatocellular carcinoma; iron chelator; mitochondria; mitochondrial ferritin; mitophagy
  6. Redox Biol. 2020 Aug 07. pii: S2213-2317(20)30881-8. [Epub ahead of print]37 101676
      UCH-L1 is a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), highly abundant in neurons, with a sub-cellular localization dependent on its farnesylation state. Despite UCH-L1's association with familial Parkinson's Disease (PD), the effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics and quality control remain unexplored. Here we investigated the role of UCHL-1 in mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics. We demonstrate that knock-down (KD) of UCH-L1 in different cell lines reduces the levels of the mitochondrial fusion protein Mitofusin-2, but not Mitofusin-1, resulting in mitochondrial enlargement and disruption of the tubular network. This was associated with lower tethering between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, consequently altering mitochondrial calcium uptake. Respiratory function was also altered, as UCH-L1 KD cells displayed higher proton leak and maximum respiratory capacity. Conversely, overexpression of UCH-L1 increased Mfn2 levels, an effect dramatically enhanced by the mutation of the farnesylation site (C220S), which drives UCH-L1 binding to membranes. These data indicate that the soluble cytosolic form of UCH-L1 regulates Mitofusin-2 levels and mitochondrial function. These effects are biologically conserved, since knock-down of the corresponding UCH-L1 ortholog in D. melanogaster reduces levels of the mitofusin ortholog Marf and also increases mitochondrial respiratory capacity. We thus show that Mfn-2 levels are directly affected by UCH-L1, demonstrating that the mitochondrial roles of DUBs go beyond controlling mitophagy rates.
    Keywords:  Deubiquitinase; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial function; Parkinson's disease
  7. Science. 2020 Sep 25. pii: eabc5809. [Epub ahead of print]369(6511):
      Organelle identity depends on protein composition. How mistargeted proteins are selectively recognized and removed from organelles is incompletely understood. Here, we found that the orphan P5A-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) transporter ATP13A1 (Spf1 in yeast) directly interacted with the transmembrane segment (TM) of mitochondrial tail-anchored proteins. P5A-ATPase activity mediated the extraction of mistargeted proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Cryo-electron microscopy structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spf1 revealed a large, membrane-accessible substrate-binding pocket that alternately faced the ER lumen and cytosol and an endogenous substrate resembling an α-helical TM. Our results indicate that the P5A-ATPase could dislocate misinserted hydrophobic helices flanked by short basic segments from the ER. TM dislocation by the P5A-ATPase establishes an additional class of P-type ATPase substrates and may correct mistakes in protein targeting or topogenesis.
  8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 21. pii: 202005506. [Epub ahead of print]
      Maintaining the fidelity of nascent peptide chain (NP) synthesis is essential for proteome integrity and cellular health. Ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) serves to resolve stalled translation, during which untemplated Ala/Thr residues are added C terminally to stalled peptide, as shown during C-terminal Ala and Thr addition (CAT-tailing) in yeast. The mechanism and biological effects of CAT-tailing-like activity in metazoans remain unclear. Here we show that CAT-tailing-like modification of poly(GR), a dipeptide repeat derived from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD)-associated GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in C9ORF72, contributes to disease. We find that poly(GR) can act as a mitochondria-targeting signal, causing some poly(GR) to be cotranslationally imported into mitochondria. However, poly(GR) translation on mitochondrial surface is frequently stalled, triggering RQC and CAT-tailing-like C-terminal extension (CTE). CTE promotes poly(GR) stabilization, aggregation, and toxicity. Our genetic studies in Drosophila uncovered an important role of the mitochondrial protease YME1L in clearing poly(GR), revealing mitochondria as major sites of poly(GR) metabolism. Moreover, the mitochondria-associated noncanonical Notch signaling pathway impinges on the RQC machinery to restrain poly(GR) accumulation, at least in part through the AKT/VCP axis. The conserved actions of YME1L and noncanonical Notch signaling in animal models and patient cells support their fundamental involvement in ALS/FTD.
    Keywords:  C9-ALS/FTD; CAT-tailing; Notch; YME1L; ribosome-associated quality control
  9. Trends Cell Biol. 2020 Sep 22. pii: S0962-8924(20)30169-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that have essential metabolic and regulatory functions. Earlier studies using electron microscopy (EM) revealed an immense diversity in the architecture of cristae - infoldings of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) - in different cells, tissues, bioenergetic and metabolic conditions, and during apoptosis. However, cristae were considered to be largely static entities. Recently, advanced super-resolution techniques have revealed that cristae are independent bioenergetic units that are highly dynamic and remodel on a timescale of seconds. These advances, coupled with mechanistic and structural studies on key molecular players, such as the MICOS (mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system) complex and the dynamin-like GTPase OPA1, have changed our view on mitochondria in a fundamental way. We summarize these recent findings and discuss their functional implications.
    Keywords:  MICOS; OPA1; cristae dynamics; remodeling
  10. FEBS J. 2020 Sep 22.
      Mitochondrial protein homeostasis is crucial for cellular health and perturbations have been linked to a plethora of human diseases. Proteostasis is maintained mainly by a network of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases, that assist in protein folding and degrade non-functional or superfluous proteins. Upon proteomic imbalances or defects in mitochondrial functions protective cellular responses are activated to restore and maintain organellar integrity. This viewpoint describes our current knowledge and understanding of these protective pathways and addresses open questions and perspectives in the field of mitochondrial stress responses.
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial proteostasis; integrated stress response; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondrial protein biogenesis
  11. J Vis Exp. 2020 Sep 02.
      Mitochondrial dynamics is essential for the organelle's diverse functions and cellular responses. The crowded, spatially complex, mitochondrial membrane is a challenging environment to distinguish regulatory factors. Experimental control of protein and lipid components can help answer specific questions of regulation. Yet, quantitative manipulation of these factors is challenging in cellular assays. To investigate the molecular mechanism of mitochondria inner-membrane fusion, we introduced an in vitro reconstitution platform that mimics the lipid environment of the mitochondrial inner-membrane. Here we describe detailed steps for preparing lipid bilayers and reconstituting mitochondrial membrane proteins. The platform allowed analysis of intermediates in mitochondrial inner-membrane fusion, and the kinetics for individual transitions, in a quantitative manner. This protocol describes the fabrication of bilayers with asymmetric lipid composition and describes general considerations for reconstituting transmembrane proteins into a cushioned bilayer. The method may be applied to study other membrane systems.
  12. J Biol Chem. 2020 Sep 25. pii: jbc.RA120.013987. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with a variety of human diseases including neurodegeneration, diabetes, non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cancer, but its underlying causes are incompletely understood. Using the human hepatic cell line HepG2 as a model, we show here that endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD), an ER protein quality control process, is critically required for mitochondrial function in mammalian cells. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of key proteins involved in ERAD increased cell death under both basal conditions and in response to proinflammatory cytokines, a situation frequently found in NAFLD. Decreased viability of ERAD-deficient HepG2 cells was traced to impaired mitochondrial functions including reduced ATP production, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and increased mitochondrial outer membrane permeability (MOMP). Transcriptome profiling revealed widespread down-regulation of genes underpinning mitochondrial functions, and up-regulation of genes associated with tumor growth and aggression. These results highlight a critical role for ERAD in maintaining mitochondrial functional and structural integrity and raise the possibility of improving cellular and organismal mitochondrial function via enhancing cellular ERAD capacity.
    Keywords:  endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress); endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD); liver; mitochondrial disease; mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)
  13. mSphere. 2020 Sep 23. pii: e00579-20. [Epub ahead of print]5(5):
      Malaria remains a huge global health burden, and control of this disease has run into a severe bottleneck. To defeat malaria and reach the goal of eradication, a deep understanding of the parasite biology is urgently needed. The mitochondrion of the malaria parasite is essential throughout the parasite's life cycle and has been validated as a clinical drug target. In the asexual development of Plasmodium spp., the single mitochondrion grows from a small tubular structure to a complex branched network. This branched mitochondrion is divided at the end of schizogony when 8 to 32 daughter cells are produced, distributing one mitochondrion to each forming merozoite. In mosquito and liver stages, the giant mitochondrial network is split into thousands of pieces and daughter mitochondria are segregated into individual progeny. Despite the significance of mitochondrial fission in Plasmodium, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Studies of mitochondrial fission in model eukaryotes have revealed that several mitochondrial fission adaptor proteins are involved in recruiting dynamin GTPases to physically split mitochondrial membranes. Apicomplexan parasites, however, share no identifiable homologs of mitochondrial fission adaptor proteins with yeast or humans, except for Fis1. Here, we investigated the localization and essentiality of the Fis1 homolog in Plasmodium falciparum, PfFis1 (PF3D7_1325600), during the asexual life cycle. We found that PfFis1 requires an intact C terminus for mitochondrial localization but is not essential for parasite development or mitochondrial fission. The dispensable role of PfFis1 indicates that Plasmodium contains additional fission adaptor proteins on the mitochondrial outer membrane that could be essential for mitochondrial fission.IMPORTANCE Malaria is responsible for over 230 million clinical cases and ∼half a million deaths each year. The single mitochondrion of the malaria parasite functions as a metabolic hub throughout the parasite's developmental cycle (DC) and also as a source of ATP in certain stages. To pass on its essential functions, the parasite's mitochondrion needs to be properly divided and segregated into all progeny during cell division via a process termed mitochondrial fission. Due to the divergent nature of Plasmodium spp., the molecular players involved in mitochondrial fission and their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here, we found that the only identifiable mitochondrial fission adaptor protein that is evolutionarily conserved in the Apicomplexan phylum, Fis1, it not essential in P. falciparum asexual stages. Our data suggest that malaria parasites use redundant fission adaptor proteins on the mitochondrial outer membrane to mediate the fission process.
    Keywords:  Apicomplexa; Fis1; PfFis1; Plasmodium falciparum ; malaria; malaria parasite; mitochondrial fission; mitochondrion
  14. J Biol Chem. 2020 Sep 24. pii: jbc.RA120.014851. [Epub ahead of print]
      Viral infection is one environmental factor that may contribute to the initiation of pancreatic β-cell destruction during the development of autoimmune diabetes. Picornaviruses, such as encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), induce a pro-inflammatory response in islets leading to local production of cytokines, such as IL-1, by resident islet leukocytes. Furthermore, IL-1 is known to stimulate β-cell expression of iNOS and production of the free radical nitric oxide. The purpose of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide contributes to the β-cells response to viral infection. We show that nitric oxide protects β-cells against virally mediated lysis by limiting EMCV replication. This protection requires low micromolar, or iNOS-derived, levels of nitric oxide. At these concentrations nitric oxide inhibits the TCA enzyme aconitase and complex IV of the electron transport chain. Like nitric oxide, pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism attenuates EMCV-mediated β-cell lysis by inhibiting viral replication. These findings provide novel evidence that cytokine signaling in β-cells functions to limit viral replication and subsequent β-cell lysis by attenuating mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in a nitric oxide-dependent manner.
    Keywords:  beta cell (B-cell); diabetes; innate immunity; mitochondrial metabolism; nitric oxide; plus-stranded RNA virus
  15. J Cell Sci. 2020 Sep 21. pii: jcs.244855. [Epub ahead of print]
      Imbalances in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis provoke a condition known as ER stress and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, an evolutionary conserved cell survival mechanism. Here, we show that mouse myoblasts respond to UPR activation by stimulating glycogenesis and the formation of α-amylase-degradable, glycogen-containing, ER structures. We demonstrate that, the glycogen-binding protein Stbd1 is markedly upregulated through the PERK signalling branch of the UPR pathway and is required for the build-up of glycogen structures in response to ER stress activation. In the absence of ER stress, Stbd1 overexpression is sufficient to induce glycogen clustering but does not stimulate glycogenesis. Glycogen structures induced by ER stress are degraded under conditions of glucose restriction through a process which does not depend on autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, we provide evidence that failure to induce glycogen clustering during ER stress is associated with enhanced activation of the apoptotic pathway. Our results reveal a so far unknown response of mouse myoblasts to ER stress and uncover a novel specific function of Stbd1 in this process, which may have physiological implications during myogenic differentiation.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; ER stress; Glycogen; Glycogen synthase; Glycogenin; UPR
  16. EMBO Rep. 2020 Sep 23. e50635
      Nutrients are indispensable resources that provide the macromolecular building blocks and energy requirements for sustaining cell growth and survival. Cancer cells require several key nutrients to fulfill their changing metabolic needs as they progress through stages of development. Moreover, both cell-intrinsic and microenvironment-influenced factors determine nutrient dependencies throughout cancer progression-for which a comprehensive characterization remains incomplete. In addition to the widely studied role of genetic alterations driving cancer metabolism, nutrient use in cancer tissue may be affected by several factors including the following: (i) diet, the primary source of bodily nutrients which influences circulating metabolite levels; (ii) tissue of origin, which can influence the tumor's reliance on specific nutrients to support cell metabolism and growth; (iii) local microenvironment, which dictates the accessibility of nutrients to tumor cells; (iv) tumor heterogeneity, which promotes metabolic plasticity and adaptation to nutrient demands; and (v) functional demand, which intensifies metabolic reprogramming to fuel the phenotypic changes required for invasion, growth, or survival. Here, we discuss the influence of these factors on nutrient metabolism and dependence during various steps of tumor development and progression.
    Keywords:  cancer metabolism; diet; microenvironment; nutrients; tumor heterogeneity
  17. Cell Metab. 2020 Sep 16. pii: S1550-4131(20)30483-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      The nutritional source for catabolism in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a fundamental question in metabolic physiology. Limited by data and mathematical analysis, controversy exists. Using isotope-labeling data in vivo across several experimental conditions, we construct multiple models of central carbon metabolism and develop methods based on metabolic flux analysis (MFA) to solve for the preferences of glucose, lactate, and other nutrients used in the TCA cycle. We show that in nearly all circumstances, glucose contributes more than lactate as a substrate to the TCA cycle. This conclusion is verified in different animal strains from different studies and different administrations of 13C glucose, and is extended to multiple tissue types. Thus, this quantitative analysis of organismal metabolism defines the relative contributions of nutrient fluxes in physiology, provides a resource for analysis of in vivo isotope tracing data, and concludes that glucose is the major nutrient used in mammals.
    Keywords:  TCA cycle; glucose metabolism; isotope tracing; lactate; liver metabolism; metabolic flux analysis; mitochondrial metabolism; multi-tissue modeling; parameter sensitivity analysis; quantitative biology; systems biology
  18. Nat Cell Biol. 2020 Sep 21.
      Stem cells need to be protected from genotoxic and proteotoxic stress to maintain a healthy pool throughout life1-3. Little is known about the proteostasis mechanism that safeguards stem cells. Here we report endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) as a protein quality checkpoint that controls the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-niche interaction and determines the fate of HSCs. The SEL1L-HRD1 complex, the most conserved branch of ERAD4, is highly expressed in HSCs. Deletion of Sel1l led to niche displacement of HSCs and a complete loss of HSC identity, and allowed highly efficient donor-HSC engraftment without irradiation. Mechanistic studies identified MPL, the master regulator of HSC identity5, as a bona fide ERAD substrate that became aggregated in the endoplasmic reticulum following ERAD deficiency. Restoration of MPL signalling with an agonist partially rescued the number and reconstitution capacity of Sel1l-deficient HSCs. Our study defines ERAD as an essential proteostasis mechanism to safeguard a healthy stem cell pool by regulating the stem cell-niche interaction.
  19. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Sep 21.
      Mitochondria play a key role in homeostasis and are central to one of the leading hypotheses of ageing, the free radical theory. Mitochondria function as a reticulated network, constantly adapting to the cellular environment through fusion (joining), biogenesis (formation of new mitochondria) and fission (separation). This adaptive response is particularly important in response to oxidative stress, cellular damage and ageing, when mitochondria are selectively removed through mitophagy, a mitochondrial equivalent of autophagy. During this complex process, mitochondria influence surrounding cell biology and organelles through the release of signalling molecules. Given that the human placenta is a unique organ having a transient and somewhat defined lifespan of approximately 280 days, any adaption or dysfunction associated with mitochondrial physiology as a result of ageing will have a dramatic impact on the health and function of both the placenta and the fetus. Additionally, a defective placenta during gestation, resulting in reduced fetal growth, has been shown to influence the development of chronic disease in later life. In this review we focus on the mitochondrial adaptions and transformations which accompany gestational length and share similarities with aged related diseases. In addition, we will discuss the role of such changes in regulating placental function throughout gestation, the aetiology of gestational complications and in the development of chronic diseases later in life.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Mitochondrial morphology; Placental Ageing; Trophoblast; fetal development
  20. Redox Biol. 2020 Sep 14. pii: S2213-2317(20)30927-7. [Epub ahead of print]37 101722
      Understanding how mitochondria contribute to cellular oxidative stress and drive signaling and disease is critical, but quantitative assessment is difficult. Our previous studies of cultured C2C12 cells used inhibitors of specific sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production to show that mitochondria generate about half of the hydrogen peroxide released by the cells, and site IQ of respiratory complex I produces up to two thirds of the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated in the mitochondrial matrix. Here, we used the same approach to measure the engagement of these sites in seven diverse cell lines to determine whether this pattern is specific to C2C12 cells, or more general. These diverse cell lines covered primary, immortalized, and cancerous cells, from seven tissues (liver, cervix, lung, skin, neuron, heart, bone) of three species (human, rat, mouse). The rate of appearance of hydrogen peroxide in the extracellular medium spanned a 30-fold range from HeLa cancer cells (3 pmol/min/mg protein) to AML12 liver cells (84 pmol/min/mg protein). The mean contribution of identified mitochondrial sites to this extracellular hydrogen peroxide signal was 30 ± 7% SD; the mean contribution of NADPH oxidases was 60 ± 14%. The relative contributions of different sites in the mitochondrial electron transport chain were broadly similar in all seven cell types (and similar to published results for C2C12 cells). 70 ± 4% of identified superoxide/hydrogen peroxide generation in the mitochondrial matrix was from site IQ; 30 ± 4% was from site IIIQo. We conclude that although absolute rates vary considerably, the relative contributions of different sources of hydrogen peroxide production are similar in nine diverse cell types under unstressed conditions in vitro. Identified mitochondrial sites account for one third of total cellular hydrogen peroxide production (half each from sites IQ and IIIQo); in the mitochondrial matrix the majority (two thirds) of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide is from site IQ.
    Keywords:  Hydrogen peroxide; Matrix; Mitochondria; NOX; S1QEL; S3QEL; Superoxide
  21. Front Oncol. 2020 ;10 1333
      O. Warburg conducted one of the first studies on tumor energy metabolism. His early discoveries pointed out that cancer cells display a decreased respiration and an increased glycolysis proportional to the increase in their growth rate, suggesting that they mainly depend on fermentative metabolism for ATP generation. Warburg's results and hypothesis generated controversies that are persistent to this day. It is thus of great importance to understand the mechanisms by which cancer cells can reversibly regulate the two pathways of their energy metabolism as well as the functioning of this metabolism in cell proliferation. Here, we made use of yeast as a model to study the Warburg effect and its eventual function in allowing an increased ATP synthesis to support cell proliferation. The role of oxidative phosphorylation repression in this effect was investigated. We show that yeast is a good model to study the Warburg effect, where all parameters and their modulation in the presence of glucose can be reconstituted. Moreover, we show that in this model, mitochondria are not dysfunctional, but that there are fewer mitochondria respiratory chain units per cell. Identification of the molecular mechanisms involved in this process allowed us to dissociate the parameters involved in the Warburg effect and show that oxidative phosphorylation repression is not mandatory to promote cell growth. Last but not least, we were able to show that neither cellular ATP synthesis flux nor glucose consumption flux controls cellular growth rate.
    Keywords:  Hap4p; Warburg effect; mitochondria; mitochondrial biogenesis; oxidative phosphorylation; yeast
  22. Autophagy. 2020 Sep 24. 1-11
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in aging and multiple degenerative diseases, including intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) and osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, the maintenance of mitochondria homeostasis and function is important. Mitophagy, a process that selectively clears damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria through autophagic machinery, functions to maintain mitochondrial quality control and homeostasis. IVDD and OA are similar joint diseases involving the degradation of cartilaginous tissues that are mainly caused by oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence indicates the essential role of mitophagy in the pathogenesis of IVDD and OA. Importantly, strategies by the regulation of mitophagy exert beneficial effects in the pre-clinical experiments. Given the importance and novelty of mitophagy, we provide an overview of mitophagy pathways and discuss the roles of mitophagy in IVDD and OA. We also highlight the potential of targeting mitophagy for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases. Abbreviations: AD: Alzheimer disease; AF: annulus fibrosus; ADORA2A/A2AR: adenosine A2a receptor; AMBRA1: autophagy and beclin 1 regulator 1; BMSCs: bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; BNIP3: BCL2 interacting protein 3; BNIP3L/NIX: BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3-like; CDH6: cadherin 6; CEP: cartilaginous endplates; circRNA: circular RNA; DNM1L/DRP1: dynamin 1-like; ECM: extracellular matrix; HIF1A: hypoxia inducible factor 1: alpha subunit; IL1B: interleukin 1 beta; IMM: inner mitochondrial membranes; IVDD: intervertebral disc degeneration; MAPK8/JNK: mitogen-activated protein kinase 8; MFN1: mitofusin 1; MFN2: mitofusin 2; MIA: monosodium iodoacetate; RHOT/MIRO: ras homolog family member T; MMP: mitochondrial transmembrane potential; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; NFE2L2: nuclear factor: erythroid 2 like 2; NP: nucleus pulposus; OA: osteoarthritis; OPA1: OPA1: mitochondrial dynamin like GTPase; OPTN: optineurin; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; PD: Parkinson disease; PGAM5: PGAM family member 5; PPARGC1A/PGC-1A: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor: gamma: coactivator 1 alpha; PHF23: PHD finger protein 23; PINK1: PTEN induced putative kinase 1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SfMSCs: synovial fluid MSCs; SIRT1: sirtuin 1; SIRT2: sirtuin 2; SIRT3: sirtuin 3; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; Ub: ubiquitin; UBL: ubiquitin-like; VDAC: voltage-dependent anion channel.
    Keywords:  Chondrocyte; intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD); mitophagy; nucleus pulposus cells; osteoarthritis (OA); oxidative stress
  23. Cell Calcium. 2020 Sep 01. pii: S0143-4160(20)30124-X. [Epub ahead of print]91 102282
      Mitochondria play a central role in glucose metabolism and the stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. In this review, we discuss firstly the regulation and roles of mitochondrial Ca2+ transport in glucose-regulated insulin secretion, and the molecular machinery involved. Next, we discuss the evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction in β-cells is associated with type 2 diabetes, from a genetic, functional and structural point of view, and then the possibility that these changes may in part be mediated by dysregulation of cytosolic Ca2+. Finally, we review the importance of preserved mitochondrial structure and dynamics for mitochondrial gene expression and their possible relevance to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
    Keywords:  Ca(2+); Insulin secretion; Mitochondria; Type 2 diabetes; β-cells
  24. Oncogene. 2020 Sep 25.
      Metabolic reprogramming fulfils increased nutrient demands and regulates numerous oncogenic processes in tumors, leading to tumor malignancy. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, i.e., valine, leucine, and isoleucine) function as nitrogen donors to generate macromolecules such as nucleotides and are indispensable for human cancer cell growth. The cell-autonomous and non-autonomous roles of altered BCAA metabolism have been implicated in cancer progression and the key proteins in the BCAA metabolic pathway serve as possible prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers in human cancers. Here we summarize how BCAA metabolic reprogramming is regulated in cancer cells and how it influences cancer progression.
  25. Front Microbiol. 2020 ;11 1992
      Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that maintain the dynamic balance of split-fusion via kinetic proteins. This maintains the stability of their morphological functions. This dynamic balance is highly susceptible to various stress environments, including viral infection. After viral infection, the dynamic balance of the host cell mitochondria is disturbed, affecting the processes of energy generation, metabolism, and innate immunity. This creates an intracellular environment that is conducive to viral proliferation and begins the process of its own infection and causes further damage to the body. Herein, we discuss the mechanism of the virus-induced mitochondrial dynamics imbalance and its subsequent effects on the body, which will help to improve our understanding of the relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and viral infection and its importance.
    Keywords:  RIG-I-like receptors pathway; apoptosis; mitochondrial fission and fusion; mitophagy; virus infection
  26. Front Oncol. 2020 ;10 1692
      Mitochondria as the cellular energy powerhouses provide a common site for multiple metabolic reactions in order to cover energy and biomolecule demands, thus integrating the diverse metabolic pathways to endow cells with metabolic adaptation. Mitochondrial plasticity is normally regulated by mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Given that tumor cells and T cells share the metabolic similarities of survival, proliferation, expansion as well as effector function, manipulation of mitochondrial plasticity would change the metabolic competition between "foe" and "friend" during tumor malignant progression. On the one hand, for "foe" tumor cells, mitochondrial plasticity provides the enhancement of tumor metastasis and the development of resistance to' diverse antitumor drugs. On the other hand, for "friend" T cells, mitochondrial plasticity promotes the generation of long-term memory T (TM) cells and alleviates the exhaustion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Therefore, downregulation of mitochondrial plasticity of tumor cells through engineering tumor-targeting nanoparticles may effectively potentiate metabolic vulnerability and re-sensitize tumor to relevant therapeutic treatment. On the contrary, upregulation of mitochondrial plasticity of T cells through optimizing adoptive cellular immunotherapy (ACI) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy would provide T cells with the robust metabolic fitness and the persistent immune function, thus blocking tumor metastasis and reoccurrence.
    Keywords:  T cells exhaustion; memory T cells; mitochondrial plasticity; therapeutic resistance; tumor metastasis