bims-mitdyn Biomed News
on Mitochondrial dynamics: mechanisms
Issue of 2020‒09‒06
fifteen papers selected by
Edmond Chan
Queen’s University, School of Medicine

  1. Cell Metab. 2020 Sep 01. pii: S1550-4131(20)30412-5. [Epub ahead of print]32(3): 479-497.e9
    Antonicka H, Lin ZY, Janer A, Aaltonen MJ, Weraarpachai W, Gingras AC, Shoubridge EA.
      We used BioID, a proximity-dependent biotinylation assay with 100 mitochondrial baits from all mitochondrial sub-compartments, to create a high-resolution human mitochondrial proximity interaction network. We identified 1,465 proteins, producing 15,626 unique high-confidence proximity interactions. Of these, 528 proteins were previously annotated as mitochondrial, nearly half of the mitochondrial proteome defined by Mitocarta 2.0. Bait-bait analysis showed a clear separation of mitochondrial compartments, and correlation analysis among preys across all baits allowed us to identify functional clusters involved in diverse mitochondrial functions and to assign uncharacterized proteins to specific modules. We demonstrate that this analysis can assign isoforms of the same mitochondrial protein to different mitochondrial sub-compartments and show that some proteins may have multiple cellular locations. Outer membrane baits showed specific proximity interactions with cytosolic proteins and proteins in other organellar membranes, suggesting specialization of proteins responsible for contact site formation between mitochondria and individual organelles.
    Keywords:  BioID proximity interactions; functional modules; mitochondrial protein proximity map; mitochondrial translation initiation; organellar contact sites; sub-mitochondrial organization
  2. Mol Cell. 2020 Aug 04. pii: S1097-2765(20)30515-3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Singh AP, Salvatori R, Aftab W, Aufschnaiter A, Carlström A, Forne I, Imhof A, Ott M.
      Mitochondria contain their own gene expression systems, including membrane-bound ribosomes dedicated to synthesizing a few hydrophobic subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes. We used a proximity-dependent biotinylation technique, BioID, coupled with mass spectrometry to delineate in baker's yeast a comprehensive network of factors involved in biogenesis of mitochondrial encoded proteins. This mitochondrial gene expression network (MiGENet) encompasses proteins involved in transcription, RNA processing, translation, or protein biogenesis. Our analyses indicate the spatial organization of these processes, thereby revealing basic mechanistic principles and the proteins populating strategically important sites. For example, newly synthesized proteins are directly handed over to ribosomal tunnel exit-bound factors that mediate membrane insertion, co-factor acquisition, or their mounting into OXPHOS complexes in a special early assembly hub. Collectively, the data reveal the connectivity of mitochondrial gene expression, reflecting a unique tailoring of the mitochondrial gene expression system.
    Keywords:  assembly; co-factor acquisition; gene expression; mitochondria; network; proximity interactions; respiratory chain; ribosome; translation; tunnel exit
  3. J Biol Chem. 2020 Sep 04. pii: jbc.REV120.010218. [Epub ahead of print]
    Grandjean JMD, Wiseman RL.
      The unfolded protein response (UPR) plays a central role in regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and global cellular physiology in response to pathologic ER stress. The UPR is comprised of three signaling pathways activated downstream of the ER membrane proteins IRE1, ATF6, and PERK. Once activated, these proteins initiate transcriptional and translational signaling that functions to alleviate ER stress, adapt cellular physiology, and dictate cell fate.  Imbalances in UPR signaling are implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous, etiologically-diverse diseases including many neurodegenerative diseases, protein misfolding diseases, diabetes, ischemic disorders, and cancer. This has led to significant interest in establishing pharmacologic strategies to selectively modulate IRE1, ATF6, or PERK signaling to both ameliorate pathologic imbalances in UPR signaling implicated in these different diseases, and to define the importance of the UPR in diverse cellular and organismal contexts. Recently, there has been significant progress in the identification and characterization of UPR modulating compounds, providing new opportunities to probe the pathologic and potentially therapeutic implications of UPR signaling in human disease. Here, we describe currently available UPR modulating compounds, specifically highlighting the strategies used for their discovery and specific advantages and disadvantages in their application for probing UPR function. Furthermore, we discuss lessons learned from the application of these compounds in cellular and in vivo models to identify favorable compound properties that can help drive the further translational development of selective UPR modulators for human disease.
    Keywords:  endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress); proteostasis; small molecule; stress response; unfolded protein response (UPR)
  4. JCI Insight. 2020 Sep 03. pii: 140326. [Epub ahead of print]5(17):
    Kerr M, Miller JJ, Thapa D, Stiewe S, Timm KN, Aparicio CNM, Scott I, Tyler DJ, Heather LC.
      Cardiac energetic dysfunction has been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is an independent predictor of mortality. Identification of the mechanisms driving mitochondrial dysfunction, and therapeutic strategies to rescue these modifications, will improve myocardial energetics in T2D. We demonstrate using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) that decreased cardiac ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations occurred before contractile dysfunction or a reduction in PCr/ATP ratio in T2D. Real-time mitochondrial ATP synthesis rates and state 3 respiration rates were similarly depressed in T2D, implicating dysfunctional mitochondrial energy production. Driving this energetic dysfunction in T2D was an increase in mitochondrial protein acetylation, and increased ex vivo acetylation was shown to proportionally decrease mitochondrial respiration rates. Treating T2D rats in vivo with the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 activator honokiol reversed the hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins and restored mitochondrial respiration rates to control levels. Using 13C-hyperpolarized MRS, respiration with different substrates, and enzyme assays, we localized this improvement to increased glutamate dehydrogenase activity. Finally, honokiol treatment increased ATP and PCr concentrations and increased total ATP synthesis flux in the T2D heart. In conclusion, hyperacetylation drives energetic dysfunction in T2D, and reversing acetylation with the SIRT3 activator honokiol rescued myocardial and mitochondrial energetics in T2D.
    Keywords:  Cardiology; Metabolism; Mitochondria
  5. J Cell Sci. 2020 Sep 02. pii: jcs.248492. [Epub ahead of print]
    Rawat S, Ghosh S, Mondal D, Anusha V, Raychaudhuri S.
      Proteasome-mediated degradation of misfolded proteins prevents aggregation inside and outside mitochondria. But how do cells safeguard mitochondrial proteome and function despite increased aggregation during proteasome-inactivation? Here, using a novel two-dimensional complexome profiling strategy, we report increased supra-organizations of respiratory complexes (RCs) in proteasome-inhibited cells simultaneous to pelletable aggregation of RC-subunits inside mitochondria. Complex-II (CII) and CV-subunits are increasingly incorporated into oligomers. CI, CIII and CIV-subunits are engaged into supercomplex formation. We unravel unique quinary-states of supercomplexes at early-stress that exhibit plasticity and inequivalence of constituent RCs. Core stoichiometry of CI and CIII is preserved whereas CIV-composition varies. These partially disintegrated supercomplexes remain functionally competent via conformational optimization. Subsequently, increased stepwise integration of RC-subunits into holocomplex and supercomplexes re-establish steady-state stoichiometry. Overall, the mechanism of increased supra-organization of RCs mimics the cooperative unfolding and folding pathways for protein-folding, restricted to RCs only and not observed for any other mitochondrial protein complexes.
    Keywords:  Increased supercomplex; Multistep proteome remodelling; Proteostasis; Quinary supercomplex; Respiratory complex biogenesis; Two-dimensional complexome profiling
  6. Nat Cell Biol. 2020 Sep;22(9): 1091-1102
    Miceli C, Roccio F, Penalva-Mousset L, Burtin M, Leroy C, Nemazanyy I, Kuperwasser N, Pontoglio M, Friedlander G, Morel E, Terzi F, Codogno P, Dupont N.
      Organs and cells must adapt to shear stress induced by biological fluids, but how fluid flow contributes to the execution of specific cell programs is poorly understood. Here we show that shear stress favours mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic reprogramming to ensure energy production and cellular adaptation in kidney epithelial cells. Shear stress stimulates lipophagy, contributing to the production of fatty acids that provide mitochondrial substrates to generate ATP through β-oxidation. This flow-induced process is dependent on the primary cilia located on the apical side of epithelial cells. The interplay between fluid flow and lipid metabolism was confirmed in vivo using a unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse model. Finally, primary cilium-dependent lipophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis are required to support energy-consuming cellular processes such as glucose reabsorption, gluconeogenesis and cytoskeletal remodelling. Our findings demonstrate how primary cilia and autophagy are involved in the translation of mechanical forces into metabolic adaptation.
  7. Cell Metab. 2020 Sep 01. pii: S1550-4131(20)30417-4. [Epub ahead of print]32(3): 447-456.e6
    Asadi Shahmirzadi A, Edgar D, Liao CY, Hsu YM, Lucanic M, Asadi Shahmirzadi A, Wiley CD, Gan G, Kim DE, Kasler HG, Kuehnemann C, Kaplowitz B, Bhaumik D, Riley RR, Kennedy BK, Lithgow GJ.
      Metabolism and aging are tightly connected. Alpha-ketoglutarate is a key metabolite in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and its levels change upon fasting, exercise, and aging. Here, we investigate the effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (delivered in the form of a calcium salt, CaAKG) on healthspan and lifespan in C57BL/6 mice. To probe the relationship between healthspan and lifespan extension in mammals, we performed a series of longitudinal, clinically relevant measurements. We find that CaAKG promotes a longer, healthier life associated with a decrease in levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines. We propose that induction of IL-10 by dietary AKG suppresses chronic inflammation, leading to health benefits. By simultaneously reducing frailty and enhancing longevity, AKG, at least in the murine model, results in a compression of morbidity.
    Keywords:  IL-10; SASP; alpha-ketoglutarate; frailty; healthspan; inflammation; lifespan; longevity
  8. Cell Metab. 2020 Sep 01. pii: S1550-4131(20)30422-8. [Epub ahead of print]32(3): 323-325
    Rhoads TW, Anderson RM.
      In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Asadi Shahmirzadi et al. (2020) demonstrate that late-onset dietary supplementation with calcium alpha-ketoglutarate results in increased survival, compressed morbidity, and reduced frailty in mice. The study provides further evidence for critical links between metabolism, inflammation, and aging.
  9. Cell Discov. 2020 ;6 56
    Chen W, Zhang Z, Chang C, Yang Z, Wang P, Fu H, Wei X, Chen E, Tan S, Huang W, Sun L, Ni T, Yang Y, Wang Y.
      A bioenergetic balance between glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration is particularly important for stem cell fate specification. It however remains to be determined whether undifferentiated spermatogonia switch their preference for bioenergy production during differentiation. In this study, we found that ATP generation in spermatogonia was gradually increased upon retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation. To accommodate this elevated energy demand, RA signaling concomitantly switched ATP production in spermatogonia from glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration, accompanied by increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Disrupting mitochondrial respiration significantly blocked spermatogonial differentiation. Inhibition of glucose conversion to glucose-6-phosphate or pentose phosphate pathway also repressed the formation of c-Kit+ differentiating germ cells, suggesting that metabolites produced from glycolysis are required for spermatogonial differentiation. We further demonstrated that the expression levels of several metabolic regulators and enzymes were significantly altered upon RA-induced differentiation, with both RNA-seq and quantitative proteomic analyses. Taken together, our data unveil a critically regulated bioenergetic balance between glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration that is required for spermatogonial proliferation and differentiation.
    Keywords:  Cell biology; Stem cells
  10. EMBO Mol Med. 2020 Aug 16. e12423
    Villa-Bellosta R.
      Aging is associated with redox imbalance according to the redox theory of aging. Consistently, a mouse model of premature aging (LmnaG609G/+) showed an increased level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a reduced basal antioxidant capacity, including loss of the NADPH-coupled glutathione redox system. LmnaG609G/+ mice also exhibited reduced mitochondrial ATP synthesis secondary to ROS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Treatment of LmnaG609G/+ vascular smooth muscle cells with magnesium-enriched medium improved the intracellular ATP level, enhanced the antioxidant capacity, and thereby reduced mitochondrial ROS production. Moreover, treatment of LmnaG609G/+ mice with dietary magnesium improved the proton pumps (complexes I, III, and IV), stimulated extramitochondrial NADH oxidation and enhanced the coupled mitochondrial membrane potential, and thereby increased H+-coupled mitochondrial NADPH and ATP synthesis, which is necessary for cellular energy supply and survival. Consistently, magnesium treatment reduced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and improved the longevity of mice. This antioxidant property of magnesium may be beneficial in children with HGPS.
    Keywords:  HGPS; aging; magnesium; progeria; vascular calcification
  11. Nat Commun. 2020 Sep 04. 11(1): 4416
    Luczak ED, Wu Y, Granger JM, Joiner MA, Wilson NR, Gupta A, Umapathi P, Murphy KR, Reyes Gaido OE, Sabet A, Corradini E, Tseng WW, Wang Y, Heck AJR, Wei AC, Weiss RG, Anderson ME.
      Despite the clear association between myocardial injury, heart failure and depressed myocardial energetics, little is known about upstream signals responsible for remodeling myocardial metabolism after pathological stress. Here, we report increased mitochondrial calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) activation and left ventricular dilation in mice one week after myocardial infarction (MI) surgery. By contrast, mice with genetic mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition are protected from left ventricular dilation and dysfunction after MI. Mice with myocardial and mitochondrial CaMKII overexpression (mtCaMKII) have severe dilated cardiomyopathy and decreased ATP that causes elevated cytoplasmic resting (diastolic) Ca2+ concentration and reduced mechanical performance. We map a metabolic pathway that rescues disease phenotypes in mtCaMKII mice, providing insights into physiological and pathological metabolic consequences of CaMKII signaling in mitochondria. Our findings suggest myocardial dilation, a disease phenotype lacking specific therapies, can be prevented by targeted replacement of mitochondrial creatine kinase or mitochondrial-targeted CaMKII inhibition.
  12. Curr Pharm Des. 2020 Sep 03.
    Mokrov GV, Deeva OA, Gudasheva TA.
      In 2020, it is already 43 years since Braestrup and Squires discovered 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), known until 2006 as 'peripheral benzodiazepine receptor'. During this time the functions of this receptor which is located on the outer membrane of mitochondria were studied in detail. One of the key functions of TSPO is the transfer of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is the limiting stage in the synthesis of neurosteroids. TSPO is also involved in the transport of porphyrins, mitochondrial respiration, the opening of mitochondrial pores, apoptosis and cell proliferation. This review presents current information on the structure of TSPO, the mechanism of its participation in neurosteroidogenesis, as well as endogenous and synthetic TSPO ligands. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of approaches to the design of synthetic ligands and their neuropsychotropic activity in vitro and in vivo. The presented review demonstrates the promise of constructing new neuropsychotropic drugs in the series of TSPO ligands.
    Keywords:  18 kDa translocator protein TSPO; TSPO ligands; cholesterol.; drug design; neuropsychotropic activity; neurosteroids
  13. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Sep 01. pii: E810. [Epub ahead of print]9(9):
    Wang FS, Kuo CW, Ko JY, Chen YS, Wang SY, Ke HJ, Kuo PC, Lee CH, Wu JC, Lu WB, Tai MH, Jahr H, Lian WS.
      Compromised autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction downregulate chondrocytic activity, accelerating the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Irisin, a cleaved form of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5), regulates bone turnover and muscle homeostasis. Little is known about the effect of Irisin on chondrocytes and the development of osteoarthritis. This study revealed that human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes express decreased level of FNDC5 and autophagosome marker LC3-II but upregulated levels of oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and apoptosis. Intra-articular administration of Irisin further alleviated symptoms of medial meniscus destabilization, like cartilage erosion and synovitis, while improved the gait profiles of the injured legs. Irisin treatment upregulated autophagy, 8-OHdG and apoptosis in chondrocytes of the injured cartilage. In vitro, Irisin improved IL-1β-mediated growth inhibition, loss of specific cartilage markers and glycosaminoglycan production by chondrocytes. Irisin also reversed Sirt3 and UCP-1 pathways, thereby improving mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production, and catalase to attenuated IL-1β-mediated reactive oxygen radical production, mitochondrial fusion, mitophagy, and autophagosome formation. Taken together, FNDC5 loss in chondrocytes is correlated with human knee OA. Irisin repressed inflammation-mediated oxidative stress and extracellular matrix underproduction through retaining mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagic program. Our analyses shed new light on the chondroprotective actions of this myokine, and highlight the remedial effects of Irisin on OA development.
    Keywords:  FNDC5; autophagy; chondrocyte; irisin; mitochondria; osteoarthritis
  14. J Proteomics. 2020 Aug 31. pii: S1874-3919(20)30317-1. [Epub ahead of print] 103949
    Sulkshane P, Duek I, Ram J, Thakur A, Reis N, Ziv T, Glickman MH.
      Strict quality control for mitochondrial proteins is necessary to ensure cell homeostasis. Two cellular pathways-Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) and autophagy-contribute to mitochondrial homeostasis under stressful conditions. Here, we investigate changes to the mitochondria proteome and to the ubiquitin landscape at mitochondria in response to proteasome inhibition. Treatment of HeLa cells devoid of Parkin, the primary E3 ligase responsible for mitophagy, with proteasome inhibitor MG132 for a few hours caused mitochondrial oxidative stress and fragmentation, reduced energy output, and increased mitochondrial ubiquitination without inducing mitophagy. Overexpression of Parkin did not show any induction of mitophagy in response to MG132 treatment. Analysis of ubiquitin chains on isolated mitochondria revealed predominance of K48, K29 and K63-linked polyubiquitin. Interestingly, of all ubiquitinated mitochondrial proteins detected in response to MG132 treatment, a majority (≥90%) were intramitochondrial irrespective of Parkin expression. However, overall levels of these ubiquitinated mitochondrial proteins did not change significantly upon proteasome inhibition when evaluated by quantitative proteomics (LFQ and SILAC), suggesting that only a small portion are ubiquitinated under basal conditions. Another aspect of proteasome inhibition is significant enrichment of UPS, lysosomal and phagosomal components, and other heat shock proteins associated with isolated mitochondria. Taken together, our study highlights a critical role of UPS for ubiquitinating and removing imported proteins as part of a basal mitochondrial quality control system independent of Parkin. SIGNIFICANCE: As centers of cellular bioenergetics, numerous metabolic pathways and signaling cascades, the health of mitochondria is of utmost importance for ensuring cell survival. Due to their unique physiology, mitochondria are constantly subjected to damaging oxidative radicals (ROS) and protein import-related stress due to buildup of unfolded aggregate-prone proteins. Thus, for quality control purposes, mitochondria are constantly under surveillance by Autophagy and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS), both of which share ubiquitin as a common signal. The ubiquitin landscape of mitochondria has been studied in detail under stressful conditions, however, little is known about basal mitochondrial ubiquitination. Our study reveals that the extent of ubiquitination at mitochondria greatly increases upon proteasome inhibition, pointing to a large number of potential substrates for proteasomal degradation. Interestingly, most of the ubiquitination occurs on intramitochondrial proteins, components of the electron transport chain (ETC) and matrix-resident metabolic enzymes in particular. Moreover, numerous cytosolic UPS components, chaperones and autophagy-lysosomal proteins were recruited to mitochondria upon proteasome inhibition. Taken together, this suggests that the levels and functions of mitochondrial proteins are constantly regulated through ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation even under basal conditions. Unclogging mitochondrial import channels may provide a mechanism to alleviate stress associated with mitochondrial protein import or to adapt cells according to their metabolic needs. Therefore, targeting the mitochondrial ubiquitination/deubiquitination machinery, such as improving the therapeutic potency of proteasome inhibitors, may provide an additional therapeutic arsenal against tumors.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; Mitostasis; Proteasome; Quantitative proteomics; Ubiquitin
  15. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2020 Aug 27. pii: S0005-2728(20)30152-3. [Epub ahead of print] 148302
    Alsayyah C, Ozturk O, Cavellini L, Belgareh-Touzé N, Cohen MM.
      From mitochondrial quality control pathways to the regulation of specific functions, the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) could be compared to a Swiss knife without which mitochondria could not maintain its integrity in the cell. Here, we review the mechanisms that the UPS employs to regulate mitochondrial function and efficiency. For this purpose, we depict how Ubiquitin and the Proteasome participate in diverse quality control pathways that safeguard entry into the mitochondrial compartment. A focus is then achieved on the UPS-mediated control of the yeast mitofusin Fzo1 which provides insights into the complex regulation of this particular protein in mitochondrial fusion. We ultimately dissect the mechanisms by which the UPS controls the degradation of mitochondria by autophagy in both mammalian and yeast systems. This organization should offer a useful overview of this abundant but fascinating literature on the crosstalks between mitochondria and the UPS.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; Mitochondrial Quality Control; Mitochondrial fusion; Mitophagy; Proteasome; Ubiquitin