bims-misrem Biomed News
on Mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒07‒04
nine papers selected by
Rafael Antonio Casuso Pérez
University of Granada

  1. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Jun 28. 12(7): 657
      Subcellular organelles communicate with each other to regulate function and coordinate responses to changing cellular conditions. The physical-functional coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with mitochondria allows for the direct transfer of Ca2+ between organelles and is an important avenue for rapidly increasing mitochondrial metabolic activity. As such, increasing ER-mitochondrial coupling can boost the generation of ATP that is needed to restore homeostasis in the face of cellular stress. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR) is activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in mitochondria. Retrograde signaling from mitochondria to the nucleus promotes mtUPR transcriptional responses aimed at restoring protein homeostasis. It is currently unknown whether the changes in mitochondrial-ER coupling also play a role during mtUPR stress. We hypothesized that mitochondrial stress favors an expansion of functional contacts between mitochondria and ER, thereby increasing mitochondrial metabolism as part of a protective response. Hela cells were treated with doxycycline, an antibiotic that inhibits the translation of mitochondrial-encoded proteins to create protein disequilibrium. Treatment with doxycycline decreased the abundance of mitochondrial encoded proteins while increasing expression of CHOP, C/EBPβ, ClpP, and mtHsp60, markers of the mtUPR. There was no change in either mitophagic activity or cell viability. Furthermore, ER UPR was not activated, suggesting focused activation of the mtUPR. Within 2 h of doxycycline treatment, there was a significant increase in physical contacts between mitochondria and ER that was distributed throughout the cell, along with an increase in the kinetics of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. This was followed by the rise in the rate of oxygen consumption at 4 h, indicating a boost in mitochondrial metabolic activity. In conclusion, an early phase of the response to doxycycline-induced mitochondrial stress is an increase in mitochondrial-ER coupling that potentiates mitochondrial metabolic activity as a means to support subsequent steps in the mtUPR pathway and sustain cellular adaptation.
  2. J Nutr. 2021 Jun 30. pii: nxab193. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Boosting NAD+ via supplementation with niacin equivalents has been proposed as a potential modality capable of promoting healthy aging and negating age-dependent declines of skeletal muscle mass and function.OBJECTIVES: We investigated the efficacy of NAD+-precursor supplementation (tryptophan, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide) on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in physically compromised older adults.
    METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted in 14 (female/male: 4/10) community-dwelling, older adults with impaired physical function [age, 72.9 ± 4.0 years; BMI, 25.2 ± 2.3 kg/m2]. Participants were supplemented with 207.5 mg niacin equivalents/day [intervention (INT)] and a control product (CON) that did not contain niacin equivalents, each for 32 days. The primary outcomes tested were mitochondrial oxidative capacity and exercise efficiency, analyzed by means of paired Student's t-tests. Secondary outcomes, such as NAD+ concentrations, were analyzed accordingly.
    RESULTS: Following supplementation, skeletal muscle NAD+ concentrations [7.5 ± 1.9 compared with 7.9 ± 1.6 AU, respectively] in INT compared with CON conditions were not significantly different compared to the control condition, whereas skeletal muscle methyl-nicotinamide levels were significantly higher under NAD+-precursor supplementation [INT, 0.098 ± 0.063 compared with CON, 0.025 ± 0.014; P = 0.001], suggesting an increased NAD+ metabolism. Conversely, neither ADP-stimulated [INT, 82.1 ± 19.0 compared with CON, 84.0 ± 19.2; P = 0.716] nor maximally uncoupled mitochondrial respiration [INT, 103.4 ± 30.7 compared with CON, 108.7 ± 33.4; P = 0.495] improved under NAD+-precursor supplementation, nor did net exercise efficiency during the submaximal cycling test [INT, 20.2 ± 2.77 compared with CON, 20.8 ± 2.88; P = 0.342].
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with previous findings on NAD+ efficacy in humans, and we show in community-dwelling, older adults with impaired physical function that NAD+-precursor supplementation through L-tryptophan, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide does not improve mitochondrial or skeletal muscle function. This study was registered at as NCT03310034.
    Keywords:  NAD+-precursors; metabolism; mitochondrial function; muscle health; older adults; skeletal muscle
  3. PLoS Genet. 2021 Jul 02. 17(7): e1009664
      Mitochondrial defects can cause a variety of human diseases and protective mechanisms exist to maintain mitochondrial functionality. Imbalances in mitochondrial proteostasis trigger a transcriptional program, termed mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR). However, the temporal sequence of events in mtUPR is unclear and the consequences on mitochondrial protein import are controversial. Here, we have quantitatively analyzed all main import pathways into mitochondria after different time spans of mtUPR induction. Kinetic analyses reveal that protein import into all mitochondrial subcompartments strongly increases early upon mtUPR and that this is accompanied by rapid remodelling of the mitochondrial signature lipid cardiolipin. Genetic inactivation of cardiolipin synthesis precluded stimulation of protein import and compromised cellular fitness. At late stages of mtUPR upon sustained stress, mitochondrial protein import efficiency declined. Our work clarifies the enigma of protein import upon mtUPR and identifies sequential mtUPR stages, in which an early increase in protein biogenesis to restore mitochondrial proteostasis is followed by late stages characterized by a decrease in import capacity upon prolonged stress induction.
  4. Metabolites. 2021 Jun 26. pii: 422. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex, multifunctional organelle of eukaryotic cells and responsible for the trafficking and processing of nearly 30% of all human proteins. Any disturbance to these processes can cause ER stress, which initiates an adaptive mechanism called unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER functions and homeostasis. Mitochondrial ATP production is necessary to meet the high energy demand of the UPR, while the molecular mechanisms of ER to mitochondria crosstalk under such stress conditions remain mainly enigmatic. Thus, better understanding the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics during ER stress is essential to combat many pathologies involving ER stress, the UPR, and mitochondria. This article investigates the role of Sigma-1 Receptor (S1R), an ER chaperone, has in enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics during early ER stress using human neuroblastoma cell lines. Our results show that inducing ER stress with tunicamycin, a known ER stressor, greatly enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics in a time- and S1R-dependent manner. This is achieved by enhanced ER Ca2+ leak directed towards mitochondria by S1R during the early phase of ER stress. Our data point to the importance of S1R in promoting mitochondrial bioenergetics and maintaining balanced H2O2 metabolism during early ER stress.
    Keywords:  ER Ca2+ leak; ER stress; UPR; mitochondrial Ca2+; mitochondrial bioenergetics; mitochondrial metabolism; sigma-1 receptor
  5. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jun 08. pii: 6195. [Epub ahead of print]22(12):
      Proper skeletal muscle function is controlled by intracellular Ca2+ concentration and by efficient production of energy (ATP), which, in turn, depend on: (a) the release and re-uptake of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic-reticulum (SR) during excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, which controls the contraction and relaxation of sarcomeres; (b) the uptake of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix, which stimulates aerobic ATP production; and finally (c) the entry of Ca2+ from the extracellular space via store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), a mechanism that is important to limit/delay muscle fatigue. Abnormalities in Ca2+ handling underlie many physio-pathological conditions, including dysfunction in ageing. The specific focus of this review is to discuss the importance of the proper architecture of organelles and membrane systems involved in the mechanisms introduced above for the correct skeletal muscle function. We reviewed the existing literature about EC coupling, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, SOCE and about the structural membranes and organelles deputed to those functions and finally, we summarized the data collected in different, but complementary, projects studying changes caused by denervation and ageing to the structure and positioning of those organelles: a. denervation of muscle fibers-an event that contributes, to some degree, to muscle loss in ageing (known as sarcopenia)-causes misplacement and damage: (i) of membrane structures involved in EC coupling (calcium release units, CRUs) and (ii) of the mitochondrial network; b. sedentary ageing causes partial disarray/damage of CRUs and of calcium entry units (CEUs, structures involved in SOCE) and loss/misplacement of mitochondria; c. functional electrical stimulation (FES) and regular exercise promote the rescue/maintenance of the proper architecture of CRUs, CEUs, and of mitochondria in both denervation and ageing. All these structural changes were accompanied by related functional changes, i.e., loss/decay in function caused by denervation and ageing, and improved function following FES or exercise. These data suggest that the integrity and proper disposition of intracellular organelles deputed to Ca2+ handling and aerobic generation of ATP is challenged by inactivity (or reduced activity); modifications in the architecture of these intracellular membrane systems may contribute to muscle dysfunction in ageing and sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ entry unit (CEU); Ca2+ release unit (CRU); excitation–contraction (EC) coupling; mitochondria; sarcoplasmic-reticulum (SR); store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE); transverse tubule (TT)
  6. Biology (Basel). 2021 Jun 29. pii: 600. [Epub ahead of print]10(7):
      Mitochondria are double membrane-enclosed organelles performing important cellular and metabolic functions such as ATP generation, heme biogenesis, apoptosis, ROS production and calcium buffering. The mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) is folded into cristae membranes (CMs) of variable shapes using molecular players including the 'mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system' (MICOS) complex, the dynamin-like GTPase OPA1, the F1FO ATP synthase and cardiolipin. Aberrant cristae structures are associated with different disorders such as diabetes, neurodegeneration, cancer and hepato-encephalopathy. In this review, we provide an updated view on cristae biogenesis by focusing on novel roles of the MICOS complex in cristae dynamics and shaping of cristae. For over seven decades, cristae were considered as static structures. It was recently shown that cristae constantly undergo rapid dynamic remodeling events. Several studies have re-oriented our perception on the dynamic internal ambience of mitochondrial compartments. In addition, we discuss the recent literature which sheds light on the still poorly understood aspect of cristae biogenesis, focusing on the role of MICOS and its subunits. Overall, we provide an integrated and updated view on the relation between the biogenesis of cristae and the novel aspect of cristae dynamics.
    Keywords:  MICOS; cristae; cristae biogenesis; cristae dynamics; mitochondria
  7. J Cell Biol. 2021 Aug 02. pii: e202011078. [Epub ahead of print]220(8):
      The ER is a key organelle of membrane biogenesis and crucial for the folding of both membrane and secretory proteins. Sensors of the unfolded protein response (UPR) monitor the unfolded protein load in the ER and convey effector functions for maintaining ER homeostasis. Aberrant compositions of the ER membrane, referred to as lipid bilayer stress, are equally potent activators of the UPR. How the distinct signals from lipid bilayer stress and unfolded proteins are processed by the conserved UPR transducer Ire1 remains unknown. Here, we have generated a functional, cysteine-less variant of Ire1 and performed systematic cysteine cross-linking experiments in native membranes to establish its transmembrane architecture in signaling-active clusters. We show that the transmembrane helices of two neighboring Ire1 molecules adopt an X-shaped configuration independent of the primary cause for ER stress. This suggests that different forms of stress converge in a common, signaling-active transmembrane architecture of Ire1.
  8. Compr Physiol. 2021 Jun 30. 11(3): 1895-1959
      Exercise causes major shifts in multiple ions (e.g., K+ , Na+ , H+ , lactate- , Ca2+ , and Cl- ) during muscle activity that contributes to development of muscle fatigue. Sarcolemmal processes can be impaired by the trans-sarcolemmal rundown of ion gradients for K+ , Na+ , and Ca2+ during fatiguing exercise, while changes in gradients for Cl- and Cl- conductance may exert either protective or detrimental effects on fatigue. Myocellular H+ accumulation may also contribute to fatigue development by lowering glycolytic rate and has been shown to act synergistically with inorganic phosphate (Pi) to compromise cross-bridge function. In addition, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release function is severely affected by fatiguing exercise. Skeletal muscle has a multitude of ion transport systems that counter exercise-related ionic shifts of which the Na+ /K+ -ATPase is of major importance. Metabolic perturbations occurring during exercise can exacerbate trans-sarcolemmal ionic shifts, in particular for K+ and Cl- , respectively via metabolic regulation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP ) and the chloride channel isoform 1 (ClC-1). Ion transport systems are highly adaptable to exercise training resulting in an enhanced ability to counter ionic disturbances to delay fatigue and improve exercise performance. In this article, we discuss (i) the ionic shifts occurring during exercise, (ii) the role of ion transport systems in skeletal muscle for ionic regulation, (iii) how ionic disturbances affect sarcolemmal processes and muscle fatigue, (iv) how metabolic perturbations exacerbate ionic shifts during exercise, and (v) how pharmacological manipulation and exercise training regulate ion transport systems to influence exercise performance in humans. © 2021 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 11:1895-1959, 2021.
  9. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Jul 01.
      BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a progressive reduction in cellular function leading to poor health and loss of physical performance. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of aging; hence, interventions targeting mitochondrial dysfunction have the potential to provide preventive and therapeutic benefits to elderly individuals. Meta-analyses of age-related gene expression profiles showed that the expression of Ahnak1, a protein regulating several signal-transduction pathways including metabolic homeostasis, is increased with age, which is associated with low VO2MAX and poor muscle fitness. However, the role of Ahnak1 in the aging process remained unknown. Here, we investigated the age-related role of Ahnak1 in murine exercise capacity, mitochondrial function, and contractile function of cardiac and skeletal muscles.METHODS: We employed 15- to 16-month-old female and male Ahnak1-knockout (Ahnak1-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice and performed morphometric, biochemical, and bioenergetics assays to evaluate the effects of Ahnak1 on exercise capacity and mitochondrial morphology and function in cardiomyocytes and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. A human left ventricular (LV) cardiomyocyte cell line (AC16) was used to investigate the direct role of Ahnak1 in cardiomyocytes.
    RESULTS: We found that the level of Ahnak1 protein is significantly up-regulated with age in the murine LV (1.9-fold) and TA (1.8-fold) tissues. The suppression of Ahnak1 was associated with improved exercise tolerance, as all aged adult Ahnak1-KO mice (100%) successfully completed the running programme, whereas approximately 31% male and 8% female WT mice could maintain the required running speed and distance. Transmission electron microscopic studies showed that LV and TA tissue specimens of aged adult Ahnak1-KO of both sexes have significantly more enlarged/elongated mitochondria and less small mitochondria compared with WT littermates (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) at basal level. Further, we observed a shift in mitochondrial fission/fusion balance towards fusion in cardiomyocytes and TA muscle from aged adult Ahnak1-KO mice. The maximal and reserve respiratory capacities were significantly higher in cardiomyocytes from aged adult Ahnak1-KO mice compared with the WT counterparts (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Cardiomyocyte contractility and fatigue resistance of TA muscles were significantly increased in Ahnak1-KO mice of both sexes, compared with the WT groups. In vitro studies using AC16 cells have confirmed that the alteration of mitochondrial function is indeed a direct effect of Ahnak1. Finally, we presented Ahnak1 as a novel cardiac mitochondrial membrane-associated protein.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that Ahnak1 is involved in age-related cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction and could therefore serve as a promising therapeutical target.
    Keywords:  Age-related mitochondrial dysfunction; Ahnak1; Heart; Physical performance; Skeletal muscle