bims-misrem Biomed News
on Mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒06‒27
nine papers selected by
Rafael Antonio Casuso Pérez
University of Granada

  1. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 625044
      Concurrent exercise training has been suggested to create an 'interference effect,' attenuating resistance training-based skeletal muscle adaptations, including myofibre hypertrophy. Satellite cells support myofibre hypertrophy and are influenced by exercise mode. To determine whether satellite cells contribute to the 'interference effect' changes in satellite cell and myonuclear content were assessed following a period of training in 32 recreationally active males (age: 25 ± 5 year; body mass index: 24 ± 3 kg⋅m-2; mean ± SD) who undertook 12-week of either isolated (3 d⋅w-1) resistance (RES; n = 10), endurance (END; n = 10), or alternate day (6 d⋅w-1) concurrent (CET, n = 12) training. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained pre-intervention and after 2, 8, and 12 weeks of training to determine fibre type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell content (Pax7+DAPI+), and myonuclei (DAPI+) using immunofluorescence microscopy. After 12 weeks, myofibre CSA increased in all training conditions in type II (P = 0.0149) and mixed fibres (P = 0.0102), with no difference between conditions. Satellite cell content remained unchanged after training in both type I and type II fibres. Significant correlations were observed between increases in fibre type-specific myonuclear content and CSA of Type I (r = 0.63, P < 0.0001), Type II (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001), and mixed fibres (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001). Resistance, endurance, and concurrent training induce similar myofibre hypertrophy in the absence of satellite cell and myonuclear pool expansion. These findings suggest that myonuclear accretion via satellite cell fusion is positively correlated with hypertrophy after 12 weeks of concurrent training, and that individuals with more myonuclear content displayed greater myofibre hypertrophy.
    Keywords:  concurrent exercise; endurance exercise; resistance exercise; satellite cells; skeletal muscle
  2. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2021 06 23.
      Muscle fiber denervation is a major contributor to the decline in physical function observed with aging. Denervation can occur through breakdown of the NMJ itself, affecting only that particular fiber, or through the death of a motoneuron, which can lead to a loss of all the muscle fibers in that motor unit. In this review we discuss the muscle-nerve relationship, where signaling from both the motor neuron and the muscle fiber is required for maximal preservation of neuromuscular function in old age. Physical activity is likely to be the most important single factor that can contribute to this preservation. Furthermore, we propose that inactivity is not an innocent bystander, but plays an active role in denervation through the production of signals hostile to neuron survival. Investigating denervation in human muscle tissue samples is challenging due to the shared protein profile of regenerating and denervated muscle fibers. In this review we provide a detailed overview of the key traits observed in immunohistochemical preparations of muscle biopsies from healthy young and elderly individuals. Overall, a combination of assessing tissue samples, circulating biomarkers, and electrophysiological assessments in humans will prove fruitful in the quest to gain more understanding of denervation of skeletal muscle. In addition, cell culture models represent a valuable tool in the search for key signaling factors exchanged between muscle and nerve, and which exercise has the capacity to alter.
  3. Dis Model Mech. 2021 Jun 01. pii: dmm048912. [Epub ahead of print]14(6):
      Mitochondria are organelles with vital functions in almost all eukaryotic cells. Often described as the cellular 'powerhouses' due to their essential role in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondria perform many other essential functions beyond energy production. As signaling organelles, mitochondria communicate with the nucleus and other organelles to help maintain cellular homeostasis, allow cellular adaptation to diverse stresses, and help steer cell fate decisions during development. Mitochondria have taken center stage in the research of normal and pathological processes, including normal tissue homeostasis and metabolism, neurodegeneration, immunity and infectious diseases. The central role that mitochondria assume within cells is evidenced by the broad impact of mitochondrial diseases, caused by defects in either mitochondrial or nuclear genes encoding for mitochondrial proteins, on different organ systems. In this Review, we will provide the reader with a foundation of the mitochondrial 'hardware', the mitochondrion itself, with its specific dynamics, quality control mechanisms and cross-organelle communication, including its roles as a driver of an innate immune response, all with a focus on development, disease and aging. We will further discuss how mitochondrial DNA is inherited, how its mutation affects cell and organismal fitness, and current therapeutic approaches for mitochondrial diseases in both model organisms and humans.
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial diseases; Mitochondrial fusion and fission; Mitochondrial unfolded protein response; Mitophagy; mtDNA heteroplasmy and inheritance; mtDNA-mediated innate immune response
  4. Cell Rep. 2021 Jun 22. pii: S2211-1247(21)00642-2. [Epub ahead of print]35(12): 109275
      The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), the highly selective channel responsible for mitochondrial Ca2+ entry, plays important roles in physiology and pathology. However, only few pharmacological compounds directly and selectively modulate its activity. Here, we perform high-throughput screening on a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library comprising 1,600 compounds to identify molecules modulating mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. We find amorolfine and benzethonium to be positive and negative MCU modulators, respectively. In agreement with the positive effect of MCU in muscle trophism, amorolfine increases muscle size, and MCU silencing is sufficient to blunt amorolfine-induced hypertrophy. Conversely, in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, benzethonium delays cell growth and migration in an MCU-dependent manner and protects from ceramide-induced apoptosis, in line with the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in cancer progression. Overall, we identify amorolfine and benzethonium as effective MCU-targeting drugs applicable to a wide array of experimental and disease conditions.
    Keywords:  FDA-approved drugs; MCU; amorolfine; benzethonium; high-throughput screening; mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake; mitochondrial calcium uniporter; skeletal muscle hypertrophy; triple-negative breast cancer
  5. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 664896
      Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved process, plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. It is widely believed that mitochondria influence the development of disease by regulating cellular metabolism. When challenged by different stimuli, mitochondria may experience morphological disorders and functional abnormalities, leading to a selective form of autophagy-mitophagy, which can clear damaged mitochondria to promote mitochondrial quality control. Sepsis is a complex global problem with multiple organ dysfunction, often accompanied by manifold mitochondrial damage. Recent studies have shown that autophagy can regulate both innate and acquired immune processes to protect against organ dysfunction in sepsis. Sepsis-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may play a pathophysiological role in the initiation and progression of sepsis-induced organ failure. Mitophagy is reported to be beneficial for sepsis by eliminating disabled mitochondria and maintaining homeostasis to protect against organ failure. In this review, we summarize the recent findings and mechanisms of mitophagy and its involvement in septic organ dysfunction as a potential therapeutic target.
    Keywords:  autophagy; mitochondria; mitophagy; organ dysfunction; sepsis
  6. Redox Biol. 2021 Jun 16. pii: S2213-2317(21)00203-2. [Epub ahead of print]45 102044
      The chief ROS formed by mitochondria are superoxide (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Superoxide is converted rapidly to H2O2 and therefore the latter is the chief ROS emitted by mitochondria into the cell. Once considered an unavoidable by-product of aerobic respiration, H2O2 is now regarded as a central mitokine used in mitochondrial redox signaling. However, it has been postulated that O2·- can also serve as a signal in mammalian cells. Progress in understanding the role of mitochondrial H2O2 in signaling is due to significant advances in the development of methods and technologies for its detection. Unfortunately, the development of techniques to selectively measure basal O2·- changes has been met with more significant hurdles due to its short half-life and the lack of specific probes. The development of sensitive techniques for the selective and real time measure of O2·- and H2O2 has come on two fronts: development of genetically encoded fluorescent proteins and small molecule reporters. In 2015, I published a detailed comprehensive review on the state of knowledge for mitochondrial ROS production and how it is controlled, which included an in-depth discussion of the up-to-date methods utilized for the detection of both superoxide (O2·-) and H2O2. In the article, I presented the challenges associated with utilizing these probes and their significance in advancing our collective understanding of ROS signaling. Since then, many other authors in the field of Redox Biology have published articles on the challenges and developments detecting O2·- and H2O2 in various organisms [1-3]. There has been significant advances in this state of knowledge, including the development of novel genetically encoded fluorescent H2O2 probes, several O2·- sensors, and the establishment of a toolkit of inhibitors and substrates for the interrogation of mitochondrial H2O2 production and the antioxidant defenses utilized to maintain the cellular H2O2 steady-state. Here, I provide an update on these methods and their implementation in furthering our understanding of how mitochondria serve as cell ROS stabilizing devices for H2O2 signaling.
    Keywords:  Methods for measuring ROS; Mitochondria; Peroxide detectors; Reactive oxygen species; Superoxide probes
  7. Behav Brain Res. 2021 Jun 17. pii: S0166-4328(21)00272-2. [Epub ahead of print] 113384
      Autophagy is involved in aging-related cognitive impairment. Aerobic exercise training can improve cognitive function in the elderly and this effect may be associated with autophagic mechanisms and mitochondrial respiratory function. High intensity interval training (HIIT) has beneficial effects on heart and skeletal muscles by activating autophagy and/or mitophagy, but the effects of HIIT on autophagy/mitophagy in the aging brain are unknown. This study investigated the effects of HIIT on the mitochondrial respiratory complex and autophagy/mitophagy, and its relation to brain function. Thirteen middle-aged male ICR mice underwent HIIT for 7 weeks. The exercise program reduced the spontaneous behavior and exploration activities of the mice. The phosphorylation level of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreased after the 7-week HIIT. Exercise downregulated the protein expression of Complex Ⅰ and upregulated the protein expression of Complex Ⅲ, Complex Ⅳ and Complex Ⅴ. HIIT also decreased the expression of mitophagy-related proteins in the mitochondrial fractions of the hippocampus. However, HIIT did not change the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3, P62, Atg5, Atg7, Beclin-1 and Lamp2 in the total lysate of the hippocampus. These data indicated that HIIT might have negative effects on the plasticity of the hippocampus in middle-aged mice. The effects may be related to the dysregulation of CREB-BDNF signaling, mitochondrial respiratory complex and mitophagy induced by HIIT.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; High intensity interval training; Hippocampus; Mitochondrial respiratory complex; Mitophagy
  8. J Physiol. 2021 Jun 22.
      KEY POINTS: Females have lower fatigability than males during single limb isometric and dynamic contractions, but whether sex-differences exists during high-intensity whole-body exercise remains unknown. This study shows that males and females respond similarly to repeated supramaximal whole-body exercise, and that at task failure a large functional reserve remains in both sexes. Using post-exercise ischaemia with repeated exercise we have shown that this functional reserve depends on the glycolytic component of substrate-level phosphorylation and is almost identical in both sexes. Metaboreflex activation during post-exercise ischaemia and the O2 debt per kg of active lean mass is also similar in males and females after supramaximal exercise. Females have a greater capacity to extract oxygen during repeated supramaximal exercise and reach lower PET CO2 , experiencing a larger drop in brain oxygenation than males, without apparent negative repercussion on performance. Females had no faster recovery of performance after accounting for sex differences in lean mass.ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to ascertain what mechanisms explain sex differences at task failure and to determine whether males and females have a functional reserve at exhaustion. Exercise performance, cardiorespiratory variables, oxygen deficit, and brain and muscle oxygenation were determined in 18 males and 18 females (21-36 years old) in two sessions consisting of three bouts of constant-power exercise at 120% of VO2max until exhaustion interspaced by 20s recovery periods. In one of the two sessions, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during the recovery periods. Females had a higher muscle O2 extraction during fatiguing supramaximal exercise than males. Metaboreflex activation, and lean mass-adjusted O2 deficit and debt were similar in males and females. Compared to males, females reached lower PET CO2 and brain oxygenation during supramaximal exercise, without apparent negative consequences on performance. After the occlusions, males and females were able to restart exercising at 120% of VO2max , revealing a similar functional reserve, which depends on glycolytic component of substrate-level phosphorylation and its rate of utilisation. After ischaemia, muscle O2 extraction was increased, and muscle VO2 was similarly reduced in males and females. The physiological response to repeated supramaximal exercise to exhaustion is remarkably similar in males and females when differences in lean mass are considered. Both sexes fatigue with a large functional reserve, which depends on the glycolytic energy supply, yet females have higher oxygen extraction capacity, but reduced PET CO2 and brain oxygenation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  O2 debt; O2 deficit; O2 extraction; brain oxygenation; fatigue; ischaemia; oxygen debt; oxygen deficit; performance; sex dimorphism