bims-misrem Biomed News
on Mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒05‒16
six papers selected by
Rafael Antonio Casuso Pérez
University of Granada

  1. FEBS J. 2021 May 10.
      To ensure correct function, mitochondria have developed several mechanisms of protein quality control (QC). Protein homeostasis highly relies on chaperones and proteases to maintain proper folding and remove damaged proteins that might otherwise form cell-toxic aggregates. Besides quality control, mitochondrial proteases modulate and regulate many essential functions, such as trafficking, processing, and activation of mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, and apoptosis. Therefore, the impaired function of mitochondrial proteases is associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, metabolic syndromes, and neurodegenerative disorders. This review recapitulates and discusses the emerging roles of two major proteases of the mitochondrial matrix, LON and ClpXP. Although commonly acknowledge for their protein quality control role, recent advances have uncovered several highly regulated processes controlled by the LON and ClpXP connected to mitochondrial gene expression and respiratory chain function maintenance. Furthermore, both proteases have been lately recognized as potent targets for anti-cancer therapies, and we summarize those findings.
    Keywords:  ClpXP; LONP1; cancer; degradation; metabolism; mitochondria; mitochondrial matrix; mtDNA; proteases; protein quality control; proteolysis; respiratory complexes
  2. J Cell Biol. 2021 Jul 05. pii: e202010006. [Epub ahead of print]220(7):
      The ER tethers tightly to mitochondria and the mitochondrial protein FUNDC1 recruits Drp1 to ER-mitochondria contact sites, subsequently facilitating mitochondrial fission and preventing mitochondria from undergoing hypoxic stress. However, the mechanisms by which the ER modulates hypoxia-induced mitochondrial fission are poorly understood. Here, we show that USP19, an ER-resident deubiquitinase, accumulates at ER-mitochondria contact sites under hypoxia and promotes hypoxia-induced mitochondrial division. In response to hypoxia, USP19 binds to and deubiquitinates FUNDC1 at ER-mitochondria contact sites, which facilitates Drp1 oligomerization and Drp1 GTP-binding and hydrolysis activities, thereby promoting mitochondrial division. Our findings reveal a unique hypoxia response pathway mediated by an ER protein that regulates mitochondrial dynamics.
  3. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 May 11.
      Despite new advances on the functions of ER chaperones at the cell surface, the translocation mechanisms whereby these chaperones can escape from the ER to the cell surface are just emerging. Previously we reported that in many cancer types, upon ER stress, IRE1α binds to and triggers SRC activation resulting in KDEL receptor dispersion from the Golgi and suppression of retrograde transport. In this study, using a combination of molecular, biochemical, and imaging approaches, we discovered that in colon and lung cancer, upon ER stress, ER chaperones, such as GRP78 bypass the Golgi and unconventionally traffic to the cell surface via endosomal transport mediated by Rab GTPases (Rab4, 11 and 15). Such unconventional transport is driven by membrane fusion between ER-derived vesicles and endosomes requiring the v-SNARE BET1 and t-SNARE Syntaxin 13. Furthermore, GRP78 loading into ER-derived vesicles requires the co-chaperone DNAJC3 that is regulated by ER-stress induced PERK-AKT-mTOR signaling.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Endosome; GRP78; Unconventional trafficking
  4. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2021 May 14.
      PURPOSE: To investigate within the one study potential molecular and cellular changes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis following 15 days of exposure to moderate hypoxia.METHODS: Eight males underwent a muscle biopsy before and after 15 days of hypoxia exposure (FiO2 = 0.140-0.154; ~ 2500-3200 m) in a hypoxic hotel. Mitochondrial respiration, citrate synthase (CS) activity, and the content of genes and proteins associated with mitochondrial biogenesis were investigated.
    RESULTS: Our main findings were the absence of significant changes in the mean values of CS activity, mitochondrial respiration in permeabilised fibers, or the content of genes and proteins associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, after 15 days of moderate normobaric hypoxia.
    CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence that 15 days of moderate normobaric hypoxia have negligible influence on skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function, or genes and proteins content associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, in young recreationally active males. However, the increase in mitochondrial protease LON content after hypoxia exposure suggests the possibility of adaptations to optimise respiratory chain function under conditions of reduced O2 availability.
    Keywords:  LONP; Mitochondrial respiration; P53; PGC-1α
  5. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 660068
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is a crucial contributor to heart diseases. Alterations in energetic metabolism affect crucial homeostatic processes, such asATP production, the generation of reactive oxygen species, and the release of pro-apoptotic factors, associated with metabolic abnormalities. In response to energetic deficiency, the cardiomyocytes activate the Mitochondrial Quality Control (MQC), a critical process in maintaining mitochondrial health. This process is compromised in cardiovascular diseases depending on the pathology's severity and represents, therefore, a potential therapeutic target. Several potential targeting molecules within this process have been identified in the last years, and therapeutic strategies have been proposed to ameliorate mitochondria monitoring and function. In this context, physical exercise is considered a non-pharmacological strategy to protect mitochondrial health. Physical exercise regulates MQC allowing the repair/elimination of damaged mitochondria and synthesizing new ones, thus recovering the metabolic state. In this review, we will deal with the effect of physical exercise on cardiac mitochondrial function tracing its ability to modulate specific steps in MQC both in physiologic and pathologic conditions.
    Keywords:  cardiovascular disease; energetic metabolism; heart; mitochondrial dysfunction; physical activity
  6. Nature. 2021 May 12.
      Adaptive thermogenesis has attracted much attention because of its ability to increase systemic energy expenditure and to counter obesity and diabetes1-3. Recent data have indicated that thermogenic fat cells use creatine to stimulate futile substrate cycling, dissipating chemical energy as heat4,5. This model was based on the super-stoichiometric relationship between the amount of creatine added to mitochondria and the quantity of oxygen consumed. Here we provide direct evidence for the molecular basis of this futile creatine cycling activity in mice. Thermogenic fat cells have robust phosphocreatine phosphatase activity, which is attributed to tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). TNAP hydrolyses phosphocreatine to initiate a futile cycle of creatine dephosphorylation and phosphorylation. Unlike in other cells, TNAP in thermogenic fat cells is localized to the mitochondria, where futile creatine cycling occurs. TNAP expression is powerfully induced when mice are exposed to cold conditions, and its inhibition in isolated mitochondria leads to a loss of futile creatine cycling. In addition, genetic ablation of TNAP in adipocytes reduces whole-body energy expenditure and leads to rapid-onset obesity in mice, with no change in movement or feeding behaviour. These data illustrate the critical role of TNAP as a phosphocreatine phosphatase in the futile creatine cycle.