bims-misrem Biomed News
on Mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒04‒04
nine papers selected by
Rafael Antonio Casuso Pérez
University of Granada

  1. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Mar 04. pii: 2567. [Epub ahead of print]22(5):
      Skeletal muscle is an essential organ, responsible for many physiological functions such as breathing, locomotion, postural maintenance, thermoregulation, and metabolism. Interestingly, skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue, capable of adapting to anabolic and catabolic stimuli. Skeletal muscle contains a specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), known as the sarcoplasmic reticulum, composed of an extensive network of tubules. In addition to the role of folding and trafficking proteins within the cell, this specialized organelle is responsible for the regulated release of calcium ions (Ca2+) into the cytoplasm to trigger a muscle contraction. Under various stimuli, such as exercise, hypoxia, imbalances in calcium levels, ER homeostasis is disturbed and the amount of misfolded and/or unfolded proteins accumulates in the ER. This accumulation of misfolded/unfolded protein causes ER stress and leads to the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Interestingly, the role of the UPR in skeletal muscle has only just begun to be elucidated. Accumulating evidence suggests that ER stress and UPR markers are drastically induced in various catabolic stimuli including cachexia, denervation, nutrient deprivation, aging, and disease. Evidence indicates some of these molecules appear to be aiding the skeletal muscle in regaining homeostasis whereas others demonstrate the ability to drive the atrophy. Continued investigations into the individual molecules of this complex pathway are necessary to fully understand the mechanisms.
    Keywords:  ER stress; UPR; atrophy; muscle wasting; skeletal muscle
  2. Redox Biol. 2021 Mar 19. pii: S2213-2317(21)00092-6. [Epub ahead of print]41 101944
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a common product of active mitochondrial respiration carried in mitochondrial cristae, but whether cristae shape influences ROS levels is unclear. Here we report that the mitochondrial fusion and cristae shape protein Opa1 requires mitochondrial ATP synthase oligomers to reduce ROS accumulation. In cells fueled with galactose to force ATP production by mitochondria, cristae are enlarged, ATP synthase oligomers destabilized, and ROS accumulate. Opa1 prevents both cristae remodeling and ROS generation, without impinging on levels of mitochondrial antioxidant defense enzymes that are unaffected by Opa1 overexpression. Genetic and pharmacologic experiments indicate that Opa1 requires ATP synthase oligomerization and activity to reduce ROS levels upon a blockage of the electron transport chain. Our results indicate that the converging effect of Opa1 and mitochondrial ATP synthase on mitochondrial ultrastructure regulate ROS abundance to sustain cell viability.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; F(1)F(O)-ATP synthase; Mitochondrial cristae; Opa1; ROS; Ultrastructure
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Mar 23. pii: 3252. [Epub ahead of print]22(6):
      Insufficient stress response and elevated oxidative stress can contribute to skeletal muscle atrophy during mechanical unloading (e.g., spaceflight and bedrest). Perturbations in heat shock proteins (e.g., HSP70), antioxidant enzymes, and sarcolemmal neuronal nitric oxidase synthase (nNOS) have been linked to unloading-induced atrophy. We recently discovered that the sarcolemmal NADPH oxidase-2 complex (Nox2) is elevated during unloading, downstream of angiotensin II receptor 1, and concomitant with atrophy. Here, we hypothesized that peptidyl inhibition of Nox2 would attenuate disruption of HSP70, MnSOD, and sarcolemmal nNOS during unloading, and thus muscle fiber atrophy. F344 rats were divided into control (CON), hindlimb unloaded (HU), and hindlimb unloaded +7.5 mg/kg/day gp91ds-tat (HUG) groups. Unloading-induced elevation of the Nox2 subunit p67phox-positive staining was mitigated by gp91ds-tat. HSP70 protein abundance was significantly lower in HU muscles, but not HUG. MnSOD decreased with unloading; however, MnSOD was not rescued by gp91ds-tat. In contrast, Nox2 inhibition protected against unloading suppression of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. nNOS bioactivity was reduced by HU, an effect abrogated by Nox2 inhibition. Unloading-induced soleus fiber atrophy was significantly attenuated by gp91ds-tat. These data establish a causal role for Nox2 in unloading-induced muscle atrophy, linked to preservation of HSP70, Nrf2, and sarcolemmal nNOS.
    Keywords:  HSP70; MnSOD; NADPH oxidase; Nrf2; atrophy; nNOS; oxidative stress; skeletal muscle; unloading
  4. Life (Basel). 2021 Mar 15. pii: 242. [Epub ahead of print]11(3):
      Under aerobic conditions, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) converts the energy released by nutrient oxidation into ATP, the currency of living organisms. The whole biochemical machinery is hosted by the inner mitochondrial membrane (mtIM) where the protonmotive force built by respiratory complexes, dynamically assembled as super-complexes, allows the F1FO-ATP synthase to make ATP from ADP + Pi. Recently mitochondria emerged not only as cell powerhouses, but also as signaling hubs by way of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, when ROS removal systems and/or OXPHOS constituents are defective, the physiological ROS generation can cause ROS imbalance and oxidative stress, which in turn damages cell components. Moreover, the morphology of mitochondria rules cell fate and the formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the mtIM, which, most likely with the F1FO-ATP synthase contribution, permeabilizes mitochondria and leads to cell death. As the multiple mitochondrial functions are mutually interconnected, changes in protein composition by mutations or in supercomplex assembly and/or in membrane structures often generate a dysfunctional cascade and lead to life-incompatible diseases or severe syndromes. The known structural/functional changes in mitochondrial proteins and structures, which impact mitochondrial bioenergetics because of an impaired or defective energy transduction system, here reviewed, constitute the main biochemical damage in a variety of genetic and age-related diseases.
    Keywords:  ATP synthase/hydrolase; ROS; cellular signaling; cristae; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; oxidative phosphorylation; respiratory supercomplexes
  5. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Mar 30.
      Cancer cachexia is a complex multi-organ catabolic syndrome that reduces mobility, increases fatigue, decreases the efficiency of therapeutic strategies, diminishes the quality of life, and increases the mortality of cancer patients. This review provides an exhaustive and comprehensive analysis of cancer cachexia-related phenotypic changes in skeletal muscle at both the cellular and subcellular levels in human cancer patients, as well as in animal models of cancer cachexia. Cancer cachexia is characterized by a major decrease in skeletal muscle mass in human and animals that depends on the severity of the disease/model and the localization of the tumour. It affects both type 1 and type 2 muscle fibres, even if some animal studies suggest that type 2 muscle fibres would be more prone to atrophy. Animal studies indicate an impairment in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism resulting from a decrease in mitochondrial content, an alteration in mitochondria morphology, and a reduction in mitochondrial metabolic fluxes. Immuno-histological analyses in human and animal models also suggest that a faulty mechanism of skeletal muscle repair would contribute to muscle mass loss. An increase in collagen deposit, an accumulation of fat depot outside and inside the muscle fibre, and a disrupted contractile machinery structure are also phenotypic features that have been consistently reported in cachectic skeletal muscle. Muscle function is also profoundly altered during cancer cachexia with a strong reduction in skeletal muscle force. Even though the loss of skeletal muscle mass largely contributes to the loss of muscle function, other factors such as muscle-nerve interaction and calcium handling are probably involved in the decrease in muscle force. Longitudinal analyses of skeletal muscle mass by imaging technics and skeletal muscle force in cancer patients, but also in animal models of cancer cachexia, are necessary to determine the respective kinetics and functional involvements of these factors. Our analysis also emphasizes that measuring skeletal muscle force through standardized tests could provide a simple and robust mean to early diagnose cachexia in cancer patients. That would be of great benefit to cancer patient's quality of life and health care systems.
    Keywords:  Cancer cachexia; Fibre type; Fibrosis; Force; Metabolism; Regeneration; Skeletal muscle
  6. J Physiol. 2021 Mar 26.
      KEY POINTS: Muscle glycogen and intramuscular triglycerides (IMTG, stored in lipid droplets) are important energy substrates during prolonged exercise. Exercise-induced changes in lipid droplet (LD) morphology (i.e., LD size and number) has not yet been studied under nutritional conditions typically adopted by elite endurance athletes, that is, after carbohydrate (CHO) loading and CHO feeding during exercise. We report for the first time that exercise reduces IMTG content in both central and peripheral regions of type I and IIa fibres, reflective of decreased LD number in both fibre types whereas reductions in LD size was exclusive to type I fibres. Additionally, CHO feeding does not alter subcellular IMTG utilisation, LD morphology or muscle glycogen utilisation in type I or IIa/II fibres. In the absence of alterations to muscle fuel selection, CHO feeding does not attenuate cell signalling with regulatory roles in mitochondrial biogenesis.ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) feeding on lipid droplet (LD) morphology, muscle glycogen utilisation and exercise-induced skeletal muscle cell signalling. After a 36 h CHO loading protocol and pre-exercise meal (12 and 2 g·kg-1 , respectively), eight trained males ingested 0, 45 or 90 g CHO·h-1 during 180 min cycling at lactate threshold followed by an exercise capacity test (150% lactate threshold). Muscle biopsies were obtained pre- and post-completion of submaximal exercise. Exercise decreased (P<0.01) glycogen concentration to comparable levels (∼700 to 250 mmol·kg-1 dw), though utilisation was greater in type I (∼40%) versus type II fibres (∼10%) (P<0.01). LD content decreased in type I (∼50%) and type IIa fibres (∼30%) (P<0.01) with greater utilisation in type I fibres (P<0.01). CHO feeding did not affect glycogen or IMTG utilisation in type I or II fibres (all P>0.05). Exercise decreased LD number within central and peripheral regions of both type I and IIa fibres, though reduced LD size was exclusive to type I fibres. Exercise induced (all P<0.05) comparable AMPKThr172 (∼4 fold), p53Ser15 (∼2 fold) and CaMKIIThr268 phosphorylation (∼2 fold) with no effects of CHO feeding (all P>0.05). CHO increased exercise capacity where 90 g·h-1 (233 ± 133 s) > 45 g·h-1 (156 ± 66 s; P = 0.06) > 0 g·h-1 (108 ± 54 s; P = 0.03). In conditions of high pre-exercise CHO availability, we conclude CHO feeding does not influence exercise-induced changes in LD morphology, glycogen utilisation or cell signalling pathways with regulatory roles in mitochondrial biogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  glycogen; intramuscular triglyceride; vastus lateralis
  7. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Mar 29. pii: 533. [Epub ahead of print]10(4):
      We investigated the relationship between mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial energetics in various rat tissues with different contents of the reduced coenzyme Q (Q) pool (Q9 + Q10). Our results indicate that similar to the tissue level, mitochondrial H2O2 release under nonphosphorylating conditions was strongly dependent on the amount of the reduced Q pool. Namely, in brain and lung mitochondria, less H2O2 release corresponded to a less reduced Q pool, while in liver and heart mitochondria, higher H2O2 release corresponded to a more reduced Q pool. We can conclude that the differences observed in rat tissues in the size of the reduced Q pool reflect different levels of ROS production and hence may reflect different demands for reduced Q as an antioxidant. Moreover, differences in mitochondrial H2O2 release were observed in different types of rat mitochondria during the oxidation of succinate (complex II substrate), malate plus glutamate (complex I substrate), and their mixture under phosphorylating and nonphosphorylating conditions. Our results indicate the existence of a tissue-specific maximum respiratory chain capacity in ROS production, possibly related to the membrane potential-mediated control of oxidative phosphorylation. We propose the use of a new parameter for the study of isolated mitochondria, RCRROS, the ratio between the formation of mitochondrial ROS under nonphosphorylating and phosphorylating conditions, which represents the maximum factorial increase in mitochondrial ROS formation that can be achieved after all ADP is phosphorylated.
    Keywords:  coenzyme Q; mitochondrial energetics; mitochondrial reactive oxygen species
  8. Skelet Muscle. 2021 Mar 30. 11(1): 9
      BACKGROUND: ALAS2 (delta-aminolevulinate synthase 2) is one of the two isoenzymes catalyzing the synthesis of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which is the first precursor of heme synthesis. ALAS2-overexpressing transgenic mice (Tg mice) showed syndrome of porphyria, a series of diseases related to the heme anabolism deficiency. Tg mice showed an obvious decrease in muscle size. Muscle atrophy results from a decrease in protein synthesis and an increase in protein degradation, which ultimately leads to a decrease in myofiber size due to loss of contractile proteins, organelles, nuclei, and cytoplasm.METHODS: The forelimb muscle grip strength of age-matched ALAS-2 transgenic mice (Tg mice) and wild-type mice (WT mice) were measured with an automated grip strength meter. The activities of serum LDH and CK-MB were measured by Modular DPP. The histology of skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris and gastrocnemius) was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscope. Real-time PCR was used to detect mtDNA content and UCP3 mRNA expression. Evans blue dye staining was used to detect the membrane damage of the muscle fiber. Single skeletal muscle fiber diameter was measured by single-fiber analyses. Muscle adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were detected by a luminometric assay with an ATP assay kit.
    RESULTS: Compared with WT mice, the strength of forelimb muscle and mass of gastrocnemius were decreased in Tg mice. The activities of serum CK-MB and LDH, the number of central nuclei fibers, and Evans blue positive fibers were more than those in WT mice, while the diameter of single fibers was smaller, which were associated with suppressed expression levels of MHC, myoD1, dystrophin, atrogin1, and MuRF1. Re-expression of eMyHC was only showed in the quadriceps of Tg mice, but not in WT mice. Muscle mitochondria in Tg mice showed dysfunction with descented ATP production and mtDNA content, downregulated UCP3 mRNA expression, and swelling of mitochondria.
    CONCLUSION: ALAS2 overexpressing-transgenic mice (Tg mice) showed muscle dystrophy, which was associated with decreased atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, and closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction.
    Keywords:  Delta-aminolevulinate synthase 2; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Muscle atrophy; Transgenic mice
  9. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Mar 09. pii: 415. [Epub ahead of print]10(3):
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are series of chemical products originated from one or several electron reductions of oxygen. ROS are involved in physiology and disease and can also be both cause and consequence of many biological scenarios. Mitochondria are the main source of ROS in the cell and, particularly, the enzymes in the electron transport chain are the major contributors to this phenomenon. Here, we comprehensively review the modes by which ROS are produced by mitochondria at a molecular level of detail, discuss recent advances in the field involving signalling and disease, and the involvement of supercomplexes in these mechanisms. Given the importance of mitochondrial ROS, we also provide a schematic guide aimed to help in deciphering the mechanisms involved in their production in a variety of physiological and pathological settings.
    Keywords:  ROS; disease; mechanism; mitochondria; signalling; supercomplexes