bims-misrem Biomed News
on Mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒03‒28
eight papers selected by
Rafael Antonio Casuso Pérez
University of Granada

  1. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 03 22. 13
      Aging impairs mitochondrial function that leads to greater cardiac injury during ischemia and reperfusion. Cardiac endoplasm reticulum (ER) stress increases with age and contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction. Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug that protects cardiac mitochondria during acute ER stress. We hypothesized that metformin treatment would improve preexisting mitochondrial dysfunction in aged hearts by attenuating ER stress, followed by a decrease in cardiac injury during subsequent ischemia and reperfusion. Male young (3 mo.) and aged mice (24 mo.) received metformin (300 mg/kg/day) dissolved in drinking water with sucrose (0.2 g/100 ml) as sweetener for two weeks versus sucrose vehicle alone. Cytosol, subsarcolemmal (SSM), and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were isolated. In separate groups, cardioprotection was evaluated using ex vivo isolated heart perfusion with 25 min. global ischemia and 60 min. reperfusion. Infarct size was measured. The contents of CHOP and cleaved ATF6 were decreased in metformin-treated 24 mo. mice compared to vehicle, supporting a decrease in ER stress. Metformin treatment improved OXPHOS in IFM in 24 mo. using a complex I substrate. Metformin treatment decreased infarct size following ischemia-reperfusion. Thus, metformin feeding decreased cardiac injury in aged mice during ischemia-reperfusion by improving pre-ischemic mitochondrial function via inhibition of ER stress.
    Keywords:  electron transport chain; electron transport complex I; endoplasmic reticulum stress; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; myocardial infarction
  2. FASEB J. 2021 Apr;35(4): e21553
      The role of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) in the regulation of skeletal muscle (SM) mitochondria-sarcoplasmic (SR) juxtaposition, mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial cristae density (MCD), and SM quality has not been studied in humans. In in vitro studies, whether Mfn2 increases or decreases mitochondria-SR juxtaposition remains controversial. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images are commonly used to measure the organelle juxtaposition, but the measurements are performed "by-hand," thus potentially leading to between-rater differences. The purposes of this study were to: (1) examine the repeatability and reproducibility of mitochondrial-SR juxtaposition measurement from TEM images of human SM between three raters with different experience and (2) compare the mitochondrial-SR juxtaposition, mitochondrial morphology, MCD (stereological-method), and SM quality (cross-sectional area [CSA] and the maximum voluntary contraction [MVC]) between subjects with high abundance (Mfn2-HA; n = 6) and low abundance (Mfn2-LA; n = 6) of Mfn2 protein. The mitochondria-SR juxtaposition had moderate repeatability and reproducibility, with the most experienced raters showing the best values. There were no differences between Mfn2-HA and Mfn2-LA groups in mitochondrial size, distance from mitochondria to SR, CSA, or MVC. Nevertheless, the Mfn2-LA group showed lower mitochondria-SR interaction, MCD, and VO2max . In conclusion, mitochondrial-SR juxtaposition measurement depends on the experience of the rater, and Mfn2 protein seems to play a role in the metabolic control of human men SM, by regulating the mitochondria-SR interaction.
    Keywords:  MICOS complex; mitochondria dynamics; organelle communication; repeatability; reproducibility; transmission electron microscopy
  3. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2021 Mar 25.
      Leucine supplementation attenuates the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in older adults during bed rest. We sought to determine if leucine could also preserve and/or restore mitochondrial function and muscle oxidative capacity during periods of disuse and rehabilitation. Healthy older adults (69.1 ± 1.1 years) consumed a structured diet with supplemental leucine (LEU: 0.06 g/ kg body weight/ meal; n=8) or alanine (CON: 0.06 g/ kg body weight/meal; n=8) during 7 days of bed rest and 5 days of inpatient rehabilitation. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline (PreBR), after bed rest (PostBR) and rehabilitation (PostRehab) and used to calculate an indicator of insulin sensitivity, metabolic clearance rate. (MCR). Tissue samples from the m. vastus lateralis were collected PreBR, PostBR, and PostRehab to assess mitochondrial respiratory capacity and protein markers of the oxidative phosphorylation and a marker of the antioxidant defense systems. During bed rest, leucine tended to preserve insulin sensitivity (Change in MCR, CON vs. LEU: -3.5 ± 0.82 vs LEU: -0.98 ± 0.88, p=0.054), but had no effect on mitochondrial respiratory capacity (Change in State 3+succinate CON vs. LEU -8.7 ± 6.1 vs. 7.3 ± 4.1 pmol O2/sec/mg tissue, p=0.10) Following rehabilitation, leucine increased ATP-linked respiration (CON vs. LEU: -8.9 ± 6.2 vs. 15.5± 4.4 pmol O2/sec/mg tissue, p=0.0042). While the expression of mitochondrial respiratory and antioxidant proteins was not impacted, leucine supplementation preserved specific pathways of mitochondrial respiration, insulin sensitivity and a marker of oxidative stress during bed rest and rehabilitation.
    Keywords:  aging; bed rest; dietary supplementation; nutrition
  4. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2021 Mar 20. pii: S1096-4959(21)00035-X. [Epub ahead of print]255 110596
      Oxidative phosphorylation is compromised in hypoxia, but many organisms live and exercise in low oxygen environments. Hypoxia-driven adaptations at the mitochondrial level are common and may enhance energetic efficiency or minimize deleterious reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Mitochondria from various hypoxia-tolerant animals exhibit robust functional changes following in vivo hypoxia and we hypothesized that similar plasticity would occur in naked mole-rat skeletal muscle. To test this, we exposed adult subordinate naked mole-rats to normoxia (21% O2) or acute (4 h, 7% O2) or chronic hypoxia (4-6 weeks, 11% O2) and then isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria. Using high-resolution respirometry and a fluorescent indicator of ROS production, we then probed for changes in: i) lipid- (palmitoylcarnitine-malate), ii) carbohydrate- (pyruvate-malate), and iii) succinate-fueled metabolism, and also iv) complex IV electron transfer capacity, and v) H2O2 production. Compared to normoxic values, a) lipid-fueled uncoupled respiration was reduced ~15% during acute and chronic hypoxia, b) complex I-II capacity and the rate of ROS efflux were both unaffected, and c) complex II and IV uncoupled respiration were supressed ~16% following acute hypoxia. Notably, complex II-linked H2O2 efflux was 33% lower after acute hypoxia, which may reduce deleterious ROS bursts during reoxygenation. These mild changes in lipid- and carbohydrate-fueled respiratory capacity may reflect the need for this animal to exercise regularly in highly variable and intermittently hypoxic environments in which more robust plasticity may be energetically expensive.
    Keywords:  Electron transport system; High resolution respirometry; Oxidative phosphorylation; Reactive oxygen species; Succinate
  5. FEBS J. 2021 Mar 23.
      From the discovery of ATP and motor proteins to synaptic neurotransmitters and growth factor control of cell differentiation, skeletal muscle has provided an extreme model system in which to understand aspects of tissue function. Muscle is one of the few tissues that can undergo both increase and decrease in size during everyday life. Muscle size depends on its contractile activity, but the precise cellular and molecular pathway(s) by which the activity stimulus influences muscle size and strength remain unclear. Four correlates of muscle contraction could, in theory, regulate muscle growth: nerve-derived signals, cytoplasmic calcium dynamics, the rate of ATP consumption, and physical force. Here, we summarize the evidence for and against each stimulus and what is known or remains unclear concerning their molecular signal transduction pathways and cellular effects. Skeletal muscle can grow in three ways, by generation of new syncytial fibres, addition of nuclei from muscle stem cells to existing fibres or increase in cytoplasmic volume/nucleus. Evidence suggests the latter two processes contribute to exercise-induced growth. Fibre growth requires increase in sarcolemmal surface area and cytoplasmic volume at different rates. It has long been known that high force exercise is a particularly effective growth stimulus, but how this stimulus is sensed and drives coordinated growth that is appropriately scaled across organelles remains a mystery.
    Keywords:  calcium; energy; exercise; force; growth; hypertrophy; muscle
  6. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Mar 22.
      The remodeling of the mitochondrial network is a critical process in maintaining cellular homeostasis and is intimately related to mitochondrial function. The interplay between the formation of new mitochondria (biogenesis) and the removal of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) provide a means for the repopulation of the mitochondrial network. Additionally, mitochondrial fission and fusion serve as a bridge between biogenesis and mitophagy. In recent years, the importance of these processes has been characterised in multiple tissue- and cell-types, and under various conditions. In skeletal muscle, the robust remodeling of the mitochondrial network is observed, particularly after injury where large portions of the tissue/cell structures are damaged. The significance of mitochondrial remodeling in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration has been widely studied, with alterations in mitochondrial remodeling processes leading to incomplete regeneration and impaired skeletal muscle function. Needless to say, important questions related to mitochondrial remodeling and skeletal muscle regeneration still remain unanswered and require further investigation. Therefore, this review will discuss the known molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial network remodeling, as well as integrate these mechanisms and discuss their relevance in myogenesis and regenerating skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  Biogenesis; Fission; Fusion; Mitochondria; Mitophagy; Regeneration; Skeletal muscle; Skeletal muscle stem cells
  7. FASEB J. 2021 Apr;35(4): e21426
      Mitochondrial remodeling through fusion and fission is crucial for progenitor cell differentiation but its role in myogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the function of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a mitochondrial outer membrane protein critical for mitochondrial fusion, in muscle progenitor cells (myoblasts). Mfn2 expression is upregulated during myoblast differentiation in vitro and muscle regeneration in vivo. Targeted deletion of Mfn2 gene in myoblasts (Mfn2MKO ) increases oxygen-consumption rates (OCR) associated with the maximal respiration and spare respiratory capacity, and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Skeletal muscles of Mfn2MKO mice exhibit robust mitochondrial swelling with normal mitochondrial DNA content. Additionally, mitochondria isolated from Mfn2MKO muscles have reduced OCR at basal state and for complex I respiration, associated with decreased levels of complex I proteins NDUFB8 (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8) and NDUFS3 (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit S3). However, Mfn2MKO has no obvious effects on myoblast differentiation, muscle development and function, and muscle regeneration. These results demonstrate a novel role of Mfn2 in regulating mitochondrial complex I protein abundance and respiratory functions in myogenic progenitors and myofibers.
    Keywords:  Mfn2; mitochondrion; myogenesis; myogenic progenitor cells; oxidative respiration
  8. Diabetologia. 2021 Mar 26.
      AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to determine putative relationships among improved mitochondrial respiration, insulin sensitivity and altered skeletal muscle lipids and metabolite signature in response to combined aerobic and resistance training in women with obesity.METHODS: This study reports a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial including additional measures of mitochondrial respiration, skeletal muscle lipidomics, metabolomics and protein content. Women with obesity were randomised into 12 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training (n = 20) or control (n = 15) groups. Pre- and post-intervention testing included peak oxygen consumption, whole-body insulin sensitivity (intravenous glucose tolerance test), skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration (high-resolution respirometry), lipidomics and metabolomics (mass spectrometry) and lipid content (magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy). Proteins involved in glucose transport (i.e. GLUT4) and lipid turnover (i.e. sphingomyelin synthase 1 and 2) were assessed by western blotting.
    RESULTS: The original randomised controlled trial showed that exercise training increased insulin sensitivity (median [IQR]; 3.4 [2.0-4.6] to 3.6 [2.4-6.2] x10-5 pmol l-1 min-1), peak oxygen consumption (mean ± SD; 24.9 ± 2.4 to 27.6 ± 3.4 ml kg-1 min-1), and decreased body weight (84.1 ± 8.7 to 83.3 ± 9.7 kg), with an increase in weight (pre intervention, 87.8± 10.9 to post intervention 88.8 ± 11.0 kg) in the control group (interaction p < 0.05). The current study shows an increase in mitochondrial respiration and content in response to exercise training (interaction p < 0.05). The metabolite and lipid signature at baseline were significantly associated with mitochondrial respiratory capacity (p < 0.05) but were not associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity or GLUT4 protein content. Exercise training significantly altered the skeletal muscle lipid profile, increasing specific diacylglycerol(32:2) and ceramide(d18:1/24:0) levels, without changes in other intermediates or total content of diacylglycerol and ceramide. The total content of cardiolipin, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) increased with exercise training with a decrease in the PC:PE ratios containing 22:5 and 20:4 fatty acids. These changes were associated with content-driven increases in mitochondrial respiration (p < 0.05), but not with the increase in whole-body insulin sensitivity or GLUT4 protein content. Exercise training increased sphingomyelin synthase 1 (p < 0.05), with no change in plasma-membrane-located sphingomyelin synthase 2.
    CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The major findings of our study were that exercise training altered specific intramuscular lipid intermediates, associated with content-driven increases in mitochondrial respiration but not whole-body insulin sensitivity. This highlights the benefits of exercise training and presents putative target pathways for preventing lipotoxicity in skeletal muscle, which is typically associated with the development of type 2 diabetes.
    Keywords:  Acylcarnitines; Aerobic and resistance training; Cardiolipins; Cardiorespiratory fitness; Ectopic fat; Mitochondrial biogenesis; Obesity; Phospholipid hydrolysis; Sphingomyelin; Triacylglycerol