bims-misrem Biomed News
on Mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒01‒24
eight papers selected by
Rafael Antonio Casuso Pérez
University of Granada

  1. FASEB J. 2021 Feb;35(2): e21340
      The purpose of this study is to determine whether moderate aerobic exercise training improves high-fat diet-induced alterations in mitochondrial function and structure in the skeletal muscle. Male 4-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (CON), control plus exercise (CON + EX), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet plus exercise (HFD + EX). After obesity was induced by 20 weeks of 60% HFD, treadmill exercise training was performed at 13-16 m/min, 40-50 min/day, and 6 days/week for 12 weeks. Mitochondrial structure, function, and dynamics, and mitophagy were analyzed in the skeletal muscle fibers from the red gastrocnemius. Exercise training increased mitochondrial number and area and reduced high-fat diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia. In addition, exercise training attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction in the permeabilized myofibers, indicating that HFD-induced decrease of mitochondrial O2 respiration and Ca2+ retention capacity and increase of mitochondrial H2 O2 emission were attenuated in the HFD + EX group compared to the HFD group. Exercise also ameliorated HFD-induced imbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission, demonstrating that HFD-induced decrease in fusion protein levels was elevated, and increase in fission protein levels was reduced in the HFD + EX groups compared with the HFD group. Moreover, dysregulation of mitophagy induced by HFD was mitigated in the HFD + EX group, indicating a decrease in PINK1 protein level. Our findings demonstrated that moderate aerobic exercise training mitigated obesity-induced insulin resistance by improving mitochondrial function, and reversed obesity-induced mitochondrial structural damage by improving mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy, suggesting that moderate aerobic exercise training may play a therapeutic role in protecting the skeletal muscle against mitochondrial impairments and insulin resistance induced by obesity.
    Keywords:  aerobic exercise; insulin resistance; mitochondrial dynamics; mitochondrial function; skeletal muscle
  2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021 Jan 17. pii: S0006-291X(20)32115-X. [Epub ahead of print]540 116-122
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be a major cause of sarcopenia, defined as age-related muscle fiber atrophy and muscle weakness, as reduced mitochondrial respiration and morphological changes such as ragged red fibers (RRFs) are observed in aging muscles. However, the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sarcopenia is not fully elucidated. Although previous studies have suggested that aging has a fiber type-specific effect on mitochondrial function, little is known about mitochondrial changes in individual fiber types. Here, we used C57BL/6NCr female mice to identify fiber type-specific pathological changes, examine the significance of pathological changes in sarcopenia, and identify possible mechanisms behind mitochondrial changes in slow-twitch soleus muscle (SOL) and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL). We observed reduced type I fiber-specific mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity, impaired respiration, and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulation in aged SOL, which was different from RRFs. These pathological alterations were not directly associated with fiber atrophy. Additionally, we found increased oxidative stress markers in aged SOL, suggesting that oxidative stress is involved in the pathological and functional changes in mitochondria. Meanwhile, obvious mitochondrial changes were not seen in aged EDL. Thus, age-related mitochondrial dysfunction is specific to the fiber type and may correlate with the muscle quality rather than the muscle mass.
    Keywords:  Aging; Mitochondria; Muscle atrophy; Respiratory function; Sarcopenia
  3. Nat Commun. 2021 01 20. 12(1): 470
      Healthy aging can be promoted by enhanced metabolic fitness and physical capacity. Mitochondria are chief metabolic organelles with strong implications in aging that also coordinate broad physiological functions, in part, using peptides that are encoded within their independent genome. However, mitochondrial-encoded factors that actively regulate aging are unknown. Here, we report that mitochondrial-encoded MOTS-c can significantly enhance physical performance in young (2 mo.), middle-age (12 mo.), and old (22 mo.) mice. MOTS-c can regulate (i) nuclear genes, including those related to metabolism and proteostasis, (ii) skeletal muscle metabolism, and (iii) myoblast adaptation to metabolic stress. We provide evidence that late-life (23.5 mo.) initiated intermittent MOTS-c treatment (3x/week) can increase physical capacity and healthspan in mice. In humans, exercise induces endogenous MOTS-c expression in skeletal muscle and in circulation. Our data indicate that aging is regulated by genes encoded in both of our co-evolved mitochondrial and nuclear genomes.
  4. Metabolites. 2021 Jan 14. pii: E52. [Epub ahead of print]11(1):
      Biological membranes are not only essential barriers that separate cellular and subcellular structures, but also perform other critical functions such as the initiation and propagation of intra- and intercellular signals. Each membrane-delineated organelle has a tightly regulated and custom-made membrane lipid composition that is critical for its normal function. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of a dynamic membrane network that is required for the synthesis and modification of proteins and lipids. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen activates an adaptive stress response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR-ER). Interestingly, recent findings show that lipid perturbation is also a direct activator of the UPR-ER, independent of protein misfolding. Here, we review proteostasis-independent UPR-ER activation in the genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. We review the current knowledge on the membrane lipid composition of the ER, its impact on organelle function and UPR-ER activation, and its potential role in human metabolic diseases. Further, we summarize the bi-directional interplay between lipid metabolism and the UPR-ER. We discuss recent progress identifying the different respective mechanisms by which disturbed proteostasis and lipid bilayer stress activate the UPR-ER. Finally, we consider how genetic and metabolic disturbances may disrupt ER homeostasis and activate the UPR and discuss how using -omics-type analyses will lead to more comprehensive insights into these processes.
    Keywords:  endoplasmic reticulum; lipid bilayer stress; lipidomics; phosphatidylcholine; unfolded protein response; unsaturated fatty acid
  5. Cell Rep. 2021 Jan 19. pii: S2211-1247(20)31649-1. [Epub ahead of print]34(3): 108660
      Aging is characterized by loss of proteostasis and mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we provide bioinformatic evidence of dysregulation of mitochondrial and proteostasis pathways in muscle aging and diseases. Moreover, we show accumulation of amyloid-like deposits and mitochondrial dysfunction during natural aging in the body wall muscle of C. elegans, in human primary myotubes, and in mouse skeletal muscle, partially phenocopying inclusion body myositis (IBM). Importantly, NAD+ homeostasis is critical to control age-associated muscle amyloidosis. Treatment of either aged N2 worms, a nematode model of amyloid-beta muscle proteotoxicity, human aged myotubes, or old mice with the NAD+ boosters nicotinamide riboside (NR) and olaparib (AZD) increases mitochondrial function and muscle homeostasis while attenuating amyloid accumulation. Hence, our data reveal that age-related amyloidosis is a contributing factor to mitochondrial dysfunction and that both are features of the aging muscle that can be ameliorated by NAD+ metabolism-enhancing approaches, warranting further clinical studies.
    Keywords:  NAD(+); aging; amyloid-beta; amyloidosis; inclusion body myositis; mitochondria; nicotinamide riboside; olaparib; proteostasis; skeletal muscle
  6. Life (Basel). 2021 Jan 15. pii: E61. [Epub ahead of print]11(1):
      The incidence and severity of metabolic diseases can be reduced by introducing healthy lifestyle habits including moderate exercise. A common observation in age-related metabolic diseases is an increment in systemic inflammation (the so-called inflammaging) where mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may have a key role. Exercise prevents these metabolic pathologies, at least in part, due to its ability to alter immunometabolism, e.g., reducing systemic inflammation and by improving immune cell metabolism. Here, we review how exercise regulates immunometabolism within contracting muscles. In fact, we discuss how circulating and resident macrophages alter their function due to mitochondrial signaling, and we propose how these effects can be triggered within skeletal muscle in response to exercise. Finally, we also describe how exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations can help to fight against virus infection. Moreover, the fact that moderate exercise increases circulating immune cells must be taken into account by public health agencies, as it may help prevent virus spread. This is of interest in order to face not only acute respiratory-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic but also for future virus infection challenges.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; exercise; immune system; metabolic disease; mitochondria
  7. Nat Commun. 2021 Jan 22. 12(1): 521
      The endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complex creates contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, playing crucial roles in interorganelle communication, mitochondrial fission, mtDNA inheritance, lipid transfer, and autophagy. The mechanism regulating the number of ERMES foci within the cell remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial membrane protein Emr1 contributes to regulating the number of ERMES foci. We show that the absence of Emr1 significantly decreases the number of ERMES foci. Moreover, we find that Emr1 interacts with the ERMES core component Mdm12 and colocalizes with Mdm12 on mitochondria. Similar to ERMES mutant cells, cells lacking Emr1 display defective mitochondrial morphology and impaired mitochondrial segregation, which can be rescued by an artificial tether capable of linking the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. We further demonstrate that the cytoplasmic region of Emr1 is required for regulating the number of ERMES foci. This work thus reveals a crucial regulatory protein necessary for ERMES functions and provides mechanistic insights into understanding the dynamic regulation of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria communication.
  8. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Jan 14. pii: S0891-5849(21)00041-1. [Epub ahead of print]164 285-302
      Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a key component for many essential metabolic and antioxidant activities in cells in mitochondria and cell membranes. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of aging and age-related diseases. Deprivation of CoQ during aging can be the cause or the consequence of this mitochondrial dysfunction. In any case, it seems clear that aging-associated CoQ deprivation accelerates mitochondrial dysfunction in these diseases. Non-genetic prolongevity interventions, including CoQ dietary supplementation, can increase CoQ levels in mitochondria and cell membranes improving mitochondrial activity and delaying cell and tissue deterioration by oxidative damage. In this review, we discuss the importance of CoQ deprivation in aging and age-related diseases and the effect of prolongevity interventions on CoQ levels and synthesis and CoQ-dependent antioxidant activities.
    Keywords:  Age-related diseases; Aging; Calorie restriction; Coenzyme Q; Mitochondria; Oxidative damage; Polyphenols; Reactive oxygen species