bims-misrem Biomed News
on Mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒01‒17
seven papers selected by
Rafael Antonio Casuso Pérez
University of Granada

  1. iScience. 2021 Jan 22. 24(1): 101972
      There is evidence that ATM mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) plays a key role in protecting against mitochondrial dysfunction, the mechanism for which remains unresolved. We demonstrate here that ATM-deficient cells are exquisitely sensitive to nutrient deprivation, which can be explained by defective cross talk between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondrion. Tethering between these two organelles in response to stress was reduced in cells lacking ATM, and consistent with this, Ca2+ release and transfer between ER and mitochondria was reduced dramatically when compared with control cells. The impact of this on mitochondrial function was evident from an increase in oxygen consumption rates and a defect in mitophagy in ATM-deficient cells. Our findings reveal that ER-mitochondrial connectivity through IP3R1-GRP75-VDAC1, to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis, as well as an abnormality in mitochondrial fusion defective in response to nutrient stress, can account for at least part of the mitochondrial dysfunction observed in A-T cells.
    Keywords:  Cell Biology; Functional Aspects of Cell Biology; Organizational Aspects of Cell Biology
  2. FEBS Lett. 2021 Jan 16.
      Mitochondria contain more than 1000 different proteins, including several proteolytic enzymes. These mitochondrial proteases form a complex system that performs limited and terminal proteolysis to build the mitochondrial proteome, maintain and control its functions or degrade mitochondrial proteins and peptides. During protein biogenesis presequence proteases cleave and degrade mitochondrial targeting signals to obtain mature functional proteins. Processing by proteases also exerts a regulatory role in modulation of mitochondrial functions and quality control enzymes degrade misfolded, aged or superfluous proteins. Depending on their different functions and substrates, defects in mitochondrial proteases can affect the majority of the mitochondrial proteome or only a single protein. Consequently, mutations in mitochondrial proteases have been linked to several human diseases. This review gives an overview of the components and functions of the mitochondrial proteolytic machinery and highlights the pathological consequences of dysfunctional mitochondrial protein processing and turnover.
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial proteases; cancer; cardiomyopathy; mitochondrial protein biogenesis; mitochondrial protein quality control; neurodegeneration; proteostasis
  3. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 609241
      Research efforts in the twenty-first century have been paramount to the discovery and development of novel pharmacological treatments in a variety of diseases resulting in improved life expectancy. Yet, cardiac disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over time, there has been an expansion in conditions such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). Although past research has elucidated specific pathways that participate in the development of distinct cardiac pathologies, the exact mechanisms of action leading to disease remain to be fully characterized. Protein turnover and cellular bioenergetics are integral components of cardiac diseases, highlighting the importance of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in driving cellular homeostasis. More specifically, the interactions between mitochondria and ER are crucial to calcium signaling, apoptosis induction, autophagy, and lipid biosynthesis. Here, we summarize mitochondrial and ER functions and physical interactions in healthy physiological states. We then transition to perturbations that occur in response to pathophysiological challenges and how this alters mitochondrial-ER and other intracellular organelle interactions. Finally, we discuss lifestyle interventions and innovative therapeutic targets that may be used to restore beneficial mitochondrial and ER interactions, thereby improving cardiac function.
    Keywords:  endoplasmic reticulum stress; heart; membrane communication mechanism; mitochondria; mitochondria-ER communication
  4. Trends Cell Biol. 2021 Jan 11. pii: S0962-8924(20)30251-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo cycles of fission and fusion events depending on cellular requirements. During mitochondrial division, the GTPase dynamin-related protein-1 is recruited to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-induced mitochondrial constriction sites where it drives fission. However, the events required to complete scission of mitochondrial membranes are not well understood. Here, we emphasize the recently described roles for Golgi-derived phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P)-containing vesicles in the last steps of mitochondrial division. We then propose how trans-Golgi network vesicles at mitochondria-ER contact sites and PI4P generation could mechanistically execute mitochondrial division, by recruiting PI4P effectors and/or the actin nucleation machinery. Finally, we speculate on mechanisms to explain why such a complex dance of different organelles is required to facilitate the remodelling of mitochondrial membranes.
    Keywords:  Drp1; PI4P; TGN vesicles; membrane contact sites; mitochondrial division
  5. Nat Commun. 2021 01 12. 12(1): 304
      Skeletal muscle conveys several of the health-promoting effects of exercise; yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Studying skeletal muscle is challenging due to its different fiber types and the presence of non-muscle cells. This can be circumvented by isolation of single muscle fibers. Here, we develop a workflow enabling proteomics analysis of pools of isolated muscle fibers from freeze-dried human muscle biopsies. We identify more than 4000 proteins in slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers. Exercise training alters expression of 237 and 172 proteins in slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers, respectively. Interestingly, expression levels of secreted proteins and proteins involved in transcription, mitochondrial metabolism, Ca2+ signaling, and fat and glucose metabolism adapts to training in a fiber type-specific manner. Our data provide a resource to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying muscle function and health, and our workflow allows fiber type-specific proteomic analyses of snap-frozen non-embedded human muscle biopsies.
  6. Cells. 2021 Jan 13. pii: E146. [Epub ahead of print]10(1):
      The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations induced by aerobic exercise (AE) are not fully understood. We have previously shown that AE induces mitochondrial adaptations in cardiac muscle, mediated by sympathetic stimulation. Since direct sympathetic innervation of neuromuscular junctions influences skeletal muscle homeostasis, we tested the hypothesis that β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR)-mediated sympathetic activation induces mitochondrial adaptations to AE in skeletal muscle. Male FVB mice were subjected to a single bout of AE on a treadmill (80% Vmax, 60 min) under β2-AR blockade with ICI 118,551 (ICI) or vehicle, and parameters of mitochondrial function and morphology/dynamics were evaluated. An acute bout of AE significantly increased maximal mitochondrial respiration in tibialis anterior (TA) isolated fiber bundles, which was prevented by β2-AR blockade. This increased mitochondrial function after AE was accompanied by a change in mitochondrial morphology towards fusion, associated with increased Mfn1 protein expression and activity. β2-AR blockade fully prevented the increase in Mfn1 activity and reduced mitochondrial elongation. To determine the mechanisms involved in mitochondrial modulation by β2-AR activation in skeletal muscle during AE, we used C2C12 myotubes, treated with the non-selective β-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) in the presence of the specific β2-AR antagonist ICI or during protein kinase A (PKA) and Gαi protein blockade. Our in vitro data show that β-AR activation significantly increases mitochondrial respiration in myotubes, and this response was dependent on β2-AR activation through a Gαs-PKA signaling cascade. In conclusion, we provide evidence for AE-induced β2-AR activation as a major mechanism leading to alterations in mitochondria function and morphology/dynamics. β2-AR signaling is thus a key-signaling pathway that contributes to skeletal muscle plasticity in response to exercise.
    Keywords:  aerobic exercise; mitochondria; skeletal muscle; sympathetic nervous system; β2-adrenoceptor
  7. Nat Commun. 2021 01 12. 12(1): 330
      Skeletal muscle is the protein reservoir of our body and an important regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Consequently, the growth or the loss of muscle mass can influence general metabolism, locomotion, eating and respiration. Therefore, it is not surprising that excessive muscle loss is a bad prognostic index of a variety of diseases ranging from cancer, organ failure, infections and unhealthy ageing. Muscle function is influenced by different quality systems that regulate the function of contractile proteins and organelles. These systems are controlled by transcriptional dependent programs that adapt muscle cells to environmental and nutritional clues. Mechanical, oxidative, nutritional and energy stresses, as well as growth factors or cytokines modulate signaling pathways that, ultimately, converge on protein and organelle turnover. Novel insights that control and orchestrate such complex network are continuously emerging and will be summarized in this review. Understanding the mechanisms that control muscle mass will provide therapeutic targets for the treatment of muscle loss in inherited and non-hereditary diseases and for the improvement of the quality of life during ageing.