bims-misrem Biomed News
on Mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle mass
Issue of 2020‒08‒23
two papers selected by
Rafael Antonio Casuso Pérez
University of Granada

  1. Elife. 2020 Aug 17. pii: e58041. [Epub ahead of print]9
    Nowinski SM, Solmonson A, Rusin SF, Maschek JA, Bensard CL, Fogarty S, Jeong MY, Lettlova S, Berg JA, Morgan JT, Ouyang Y, Naylor BC, Paulo JA, Funai K, Cox JE, Gygi SP, Winge DR, DeBerardinis RJ, Rutter J.
      Cells harbor two systems for fatty acid synthesis, one in the cytoplasm (catalyzed by fatty acid synthase, FASN) and one in the mitochondria (mtFAS). In contrast to FASN, mtFAS is poorly characterized, especially in higher eukaryotes, with the major product(s), metabolic roles, and cellular function(s) being essentially unknown. Here we show that hypomorphic mtFAS mutant mouse skeletal myoblast cell lines display a severe loss of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes and exhibit compensatory metabolic activities including reductive carboxylation. This effect on ETC complexes appears to be independent of protein lipoylation, the best characterized function of mtFAS, as mutants lacking lipoylation have an intact ETC. Finally, mtFAS impairment blocks the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts in vitro. Together, these data suggest that ETC activity in mammals is profoundly controlled by mtFAS function, thereby connecting anabolic fatty acid synthesis with the oxidation of carbon fuels.
    Keywords:  biochemistry; chemical biology; mouse
  2. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2020 Aug 18.
    Protasi F, Pietrangelo L, Boncompagni S.
      In the last decades the term Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) has been used in the scientific literature to describe an ubiquitous cellular mechanism that allows recovery of calcium (Ca2+) from the extracellular space. SOCE is triggered by a reduction of Ca2+ content (i.e. depletion) in intracellular stores, i.e. endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER and SR). In skeletal muscle the mechanism is primarily mediated by a physical interaction between stromal interaction molecule-1 (STIM1), a Ca2+ sensor located in the SR membrane, and ORAI1, a Ca2+-permeable channel of external membranes, located in transverse tubules (TTs), the invaginations of the plasma membrane (PM) deputed to propagation of action potentials. It is generally accepted that in skeletal muscle SOCE is important to limit muscle fatigue during repetitive stimulation. We recently discovered that exercise promotes the assembly of new intracellular junctions that contains colocalized STIM1 and ORAI1, and that the presence of these new junctions increases Ca2+ entry via ORAI1, while improving fatigue resistance during repetitive stimulation. Based on these findings we named these new junctions Ca2+ Entry Units (CEUs). CEUs are dynamic organelles that assemble during muscle activity and disassemble during recovery thanks to the plasticity of the SR (containing STIM1) and the elongation/retraction of TTs (bearing ORAI1). Interestingly, similar structures described as SR stacks were previously reported in different mouse models carrying mutations in proteins involved in Ca2+ handling (calsequestrin-null mice; triadin and junctin null mice, etc.) or associated to microtubules (MAP6 knockout mice). Mutations in Stim1 and Orai1 (and calsequestrin-1) genes have been associated to tubular aggregate myopathy (TAM), a muscular disease characterized by: (a) muscle pain, cramping, or weakness that begins in childhood and worsens over time, and (b) the presence of large accumulations of ordered SR tubes (tubular aggregates, TAs) that do not contain myofibrils, mitochondria, nor TTs. Interestingly, TAs are also present in fast twitch muscle fibers of ageing mice. Several important issues remain un-answered: (a) the molecular mechanisms and signals that trigger the remodeling of membranes and the functional activation of SOCE during exercise are unclear; and (b) how dysfunctional SOCE and/or mutations in Stim1, Orai1 and calsequestrin (Casq1) genes lead to the formation of tubular aggregates (TAs) in aging and disease deserve investigation.
    Keywords:  Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR); Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE); Transverse tubules (TT); Tubular aggregate myopathy (TAM)