bims-misrem Biomed News
on Mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle mass
Issue of 2020‒08‒09
nine papers selected by
Rafael Antonio Casuso Pérez
University of Granada

  1. Physiol Rep. 2020 Aug;8(15): e14526
    Mesquita PHC, Lamb DA, Parry HA, Moore JH, Smith MA, Vann CG, Osburn SC, Fox CD, Ruple BA, Huggins KW, Fruge AD, Young KC, Kavazis AN, Roberts MD.
      We investigated the acute and chronic effects of resistance training (RT) on skeletal muscle markers of mitochondrial content and remodeling in older, untrained adults. Sixteen participants (n = 6 males, n = 10 females; age = 59 ± 4 years) completed 10 weeks of full-body RT (2 day/week). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were obtained prior to RT (Pre), 24 hr following the first training session (Acute), and 72 hr following the last training session (Chronic). Protein levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I-V (+39 to +180%, p ≤ .020) and markers of mitochondrial fusion Mfn1 (+90%, p = .003), Mfn2 (+110%, p < .001), and Opa1 (+261%, p = .004) increased following chronic RT. Drp1 protein levels also increased (+134%, p = .038), while Fis1 protein levels did not significantly change (-5%, p = .584) following chronic RT. Interestingly, protein markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (i.e., PGC-1α, TFAM, and NRF1) or mitophagy (i.e., Pink1 and Parkin) were not significantly altered (p > .050) after 10 weeks of RT. In summary, chronic RT promoted increases in content of electron transport chain proteins (i.e., increased protein levels of all five OXPHOS complexes) and increase in the levels of proteins related to mitochondrial dynamics (i.e., increase in fusion protein markers) in skeletal muscle of older adults. These results suggest that chronic RT could be a useful strategy to increase mitochondrial protein content in older individuals.
    Keywords:  aging; mitochondrial dynamics; mitochondrial function
  2. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Aug 05. pii: E710. [Epub ahead of print]9(8):
    Thoma A, Lyon M, Al-Shanti N, Nye GA, Cooper RG, Lightfoot AP.
      Maladaptive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with modified reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial abnormalities; and is postulated as a potential mechanism involved in muscle weakness in myositis, an acquired autoimmune neuromuscular disease. This study investigates the impact of ROS generation in an in vitro model of ER stress in skeletal muscle, using the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (24 h) in the presence or absence of a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic Eukarion (EUK)-134. Tunicamycin induced maladaptive ER stress, which was mitigated by EUK-134 at the transcriptional level. ER stress promoted mitochondrial dysfunction, described by substantial loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as a reduction in respiratory control ratio, reserve capacity, phosphorylating respiration, and coupling efficiency, which was ameliorated by EUK-134. Tunicamycin induced ROS-mediated biogenesis and fusion of mitochondria, which, however, had high propensity of fragmentation, accompanied by upregulated mRNA levels of fission-related markers. Increased cellular ROS generation was observed under ER stress that was prevented by EUK-134, even though no changes in mitochondrial superoxide were noticeable. These findings suggest that targeting ROS generation using EUK-134 can amend aspects of ER stress-induced changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function, and therefore, in instances of chronic ER stress, such as in myositis, quenching ROS generation may be a promising therapy for muscle weakness and dysfunction.
    Keywords:  ER stress; EUK-134; antioxidant; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species
  3. Basic Res Cardiol. 2020 Aug 03. 115(5): 53
    Wagner M, Bertero E, Nickel A, Kohlhaas M, Gibson GE, Heggermont W, Heymans S, Maack C.
      In heart failure, a functional block of complex I of the respiratory chain provokes superoxide generation, which is transformed to H2O2 by dismutation. The Krebs cycle produces NADH, which delivers electrons to complex I, and NADPH for H2O2 elimination via isocitrate dehydrogenase and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). At high NADH levels, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH) is a major source of superoxide in skeletal muscle mitochondria with low NNT activity. Here, we analyzed how α-KGDH and NNT control H2O2 emission in cardiac mitochondria. In cardiac mitochondria from NNT-competent BL/6N mice, H2O2 emission is equally low with pyruvate/malate (P/M) or α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) as substrates. Complex I inhibition with rotenone increases H2O2 emission from P/M, but not α-KG respiring mitochondria, which is potentiated by depleting H2O2-eliminating capacity. Conversely, in NNT-deficient BL/6J mitochondria, H2O2 emission is higher with α-KG than with P/M as substrate, and further potentiated by complex I blockade. Prior depletion of H2O2-eliminating capacity increases H2O2 emission from P/M, but not α-KG respiring mitochondria. In cardiac myocytes, downregulation of α-KGDH activity impaired dynamic mitochondrial redox adaptation during workload transitions, without increasing H2O2 emission. In conclusion, NADH from α-KGDH selectively shuttles to NNT for NADPH formation rather than to complex I of the respiratory chain for ATP production. Therefore, α-KGDH plays a key role for H2O2 elimination, but is not a relevant source of superoxide in heart. In heart failure, α-KGDH/NNT-dependent NADPH formation ameliorates oxidative stress imposed by complex I blockade. Downregulation of α-KGDH may, therefore, predispose to oxidative stress in heart failure.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase; Reactive oxygen species; α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
  4. Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2020 Aug 02.
    Philippou A, Xanthis D, Chryssanthopοulos C, Maridaki M, Koutsilieris M.
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure (HF) is a structural or functional cardiac abnormality which leads to failure of the heart to deliver oxygen commensurately with the requirements of the tissues and it may progress to a generalized wasting of skeletal muscle, fat tissue, and bone tissue (cardiac cachexia). Clinically, dyspnea, fatigue, and exercise intolerance are some typical signs and symptoms that characterize HF patients. This review focused on the phenotypic characteristics of HF-induced skeletal myopathy as well as the mechanisms of muscle wasting due to HF and highlighted possible therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle wasting in HF.RECENT FINDINGS: The impaired exercise capacity of those patients is not attributed to the reduced blood flow in the exercising muscles, but rather to abnormal metabolic responses, myocyte apoptosis and atrophy of skeletal muscle. Specifically, the development of skeletal muscle wasting in chronic HF is characterized by structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities in skeletal muscle and may be a result not only of reduced physical activity, but also of metabolic or hormonal derangements that favour catabolism over anabolism. In particular, abnormal energy metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, muscle atrophy, and reduction in muscular strength are included in skeletal muscle abnormalities which play a central role in the decreased exercise capacity of HF patients. Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise intolerance observed in HF are reversible by exercise training, since it is the only demonstrated intervention able to improve skeletal muscle metabolism, growth factor activity, and functional capacity and to reverse peripheral abnormalities.
    Keywords:  Heart failure; Muscle atrophy; Muscle wasting; Myopathy; Sarcopenia
  5. iScience. 2020 Jul 15. pii: S2589-0042(20)30558-7. [Epub ahead of print]23(8): 101370
    Roy Chowdhury A, Srinivasan S, Csordás G, Hajnóczky G, Avadhani NG.
      This study shows that multiple modes of mitochondrial stress generated by partial mtDNA depletion or cytochrome c oxidase disruption cause ryanodine receptor channel (RyR) dysregulation, which instigates the release of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm of C2C12 myoblasts and HCT116 carcinoma cells. We also observed a reciprocal downregulation of IP3R channel activity and reduced mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+. Ryanodine, an RyR antagonist, abrogated the mitochondrial stress-mediated increase in [Ca2+]c and the entire downstream signaling cascades of mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Interestingly, ryanodine also inhibited mitochondrial stress-induced invasive behavior in mtDNA-depleted C2C12 cells and HCT116 carcinoma cells. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation shows reduced FKBP12 protein binding to RyR channel proteins, suggesting the altered function of the Ca2+ channel. These results document how the endoplasmic reticulum-associated RyR channels, in combination with inhibition of the mitochondrial uniporter system, modulate cellular Ca2+ homeostasis and signaling under mitochondrial stress conditions.
    Keywords:  Biological Sciences; Cell Biology; Molecular Biology
  6. Nat Metab. 2020 Aug 03.
    Hargreaves M, Spriet LL.
      The continual supply of ATP to the fundamental cellular processes that underpin skeletal muscle contraction during exercise is essential for sports performance in events lasting seconds to several hours. Because the muscle stores of ATP are small, metabolic pathways must be activated to maintain the required rates of ATP resynthesis. These pathways include phosphocreatine and muscle glycogen breakdown, thus enabling substrate-level phosphorylation ('anaerobic') and oxidative phosphorylation by using reducing equivalents from carbohydrate and fat metabolism ('aerobic'). The relative contribution of these metabolic pathways is primarily determined by the intensity and duration of exercise. For most events at the Olympics, carbohydrate is the primary fuel for anaerobic and aerobic metabolism. Here, we provide an overview of exercise metabolism and the key regulatory mechanisms ensuring that ATP resynthesis is closely matched to the ATP demand of exercise. We also summarize various interventions that target muscle metabolism for ergogenic benefit in athletic events.
  7. Aging Cell. 2020 Aug 03. e13202
    Abdulla H, Phillips BE, Wilkinson DJ, Limb M, Jandova T, Bass JJ, Rankin D, Cegielski J, Sayda M, Crossland H, Williams JP, Smith K, Idris I, Atherton PJ.
      BACKGROUND: Despite its known insulin-independent effects, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) role in muscle protein turnover has not been explored under fed-state conditions or in the context of older age, when declines in insulin sensitivity and protein anabolism, as well as losses of muscle mass and function, occur.METHODS: Eight older-aged men (71 ± 1 year, mean ± SEM) were studied in a crossover trial. Baseline measures were taken over 3 hr, prior to a 3 hr postprandial insulin (~30 mIU ml-1 ) and glucose (7-7.5 mM) clamp, alongside I.V. infusions of octreotide and Vamin 14 (±infusions of GLP-1). Four muscle biopsies were taken, and muscle protein turnover was quantified via incorporation of 13 C6 phenylalanine and arteriovenous balance kinetics, using mass spectrometry. Leg macro- and microvascular flow was assessed via ultrasound and anabolic signalling by immunoblotting. GLP-1 and insulin were measured by ELISA.
    RESULTS: GLP-1 augmented muscle protein synthesis (MPS; fasted: 0.058 ± 0.004% hr-1 vs. postprandial: 0.102 ± 0.005% hr-1 , p < 0.01), in comparison with non-GLP-1 trials. Muscle protein breakdown (MPB) was reduced throughout clamp period, while net protein balance across the leg became positive in both groups. Total femoral leg blood flow was unchanged by the clamp; however, muscle microvascular blood flow (MBF) was significantly elevated in both groups, and to a significantly greater extent in the GLP-1 group (MBF: 5 ± 2 vs. 1.9 ± 1 fold change +GLP-1 and -GLP-1, respectively, p < 0.01). Activation of the Akt-mTOR signalling was similar across both trials.
    CONCLUSION: GLP-1 infusion markedly enhanced postprandial microvascular perfusion and further stimulated muscle protein metabolism, primarily through increased MPS, during a postprandial insulin hyperaminoacidaemic clamp.
    Keywords:  glucagon-like peptide 1; microvascular blood flow; muscle protein breakdown; muscle protein synthesis
  8. Mitochondrion. 2020 Jul 29. pii: S1567-7249(20)30169-0. [Epub ahead of print]
    Bornstein R, Gonzalez B, Johnson SC.
      Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles known best for their roles in energy production and metabolism. While often thought of as simply the 'powerhouse of the cell,' these organelles participate in a variety of critical cellular processes including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, regulation of programmed cell death, modulation of inter- and intracellular nutrient signaling pathways, and maintenance of cellular proteostasis. Disrupted mitochondrial function is a hallmark of eukaryotic aging, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported to play a role in many aging-related diseases. While mitochondria are major players in human diseases, significant questions remain regarding their precise mechanistic role. In this review, we detail mechanisms by which mitochondrial dysfunction participate in disease and aging based on findings from model organisms and human genetics studies.
  9. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2020 Aug 03.
    Abreu P, Kowaltowski AJ.
      BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) are well known to participate in regeneration and maintenance of the tissue over time. Studies have shown increases in the number of satellite cells after exercise, but their functional role in endurance training remains unexplored.METHODS: Young adult mice were submitted to endurance exercise training and the function, differentiation, and metabolic characteristics of satellite cells were investigated in vivo and in vitro.
    RESULTS: We found that injured muscles from endurance-exercised mice display improved regenerative capacity, demonstrated through higher densities of newly formed myofibres compared with controls (evidenced by an increase in embryonic myosin heavy chain expression), as well as lower inflammation (evidenced by quantifying CD68-marked macrophages), and reduced fibrosis. Enhanced myogenic function was accompanied by an increased fraction of satellite cells expressing self-renewal markers, while control satellite cells had morphologies suggestive of early differentiation. The beneficial effects of endurance exercise were associated with satellite cell metabolic reprogramming, including reduced mitochondrial respiration (O2 consumption) under resting conditions (absence of muscle injury) and increased stemness. During proliferation or activated states (3 days after injury), O2 consumption was equal in control and exercised cells, while exercise enhanced myogenic colony formation. Surprisingly, inhibition of mitochondrial O2 consumption was sufficient to enhance muscle stem cell self-renewal characteristics in vitro. Moreover, transplanted muscle satellite cells from exercised mice or cells with reduced mitochondrial respiration promoted a significant reduction in inflammation compared with controls.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that endurance exercise promotes self-renewal and inhibits differentiation in satellite cells, an effect promoted by metabolic reprogramming and respiratory inhibition, which is associated with a more favourable muscular response to injury.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Muscle stem cells