bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2022‒03‒20
twelve papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. Curr Biol. 2022 Mar 08. pii: S0960-9822(22)00328-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial damage (MtD) represents a dramatic change in cellular homeostasis, necessitating metabolic changes and stimulating mitophagy. One rapid response to MtD is a rapid peri-mitochondrial actin polymerization termed ADA (acute damage-induced actin). The activation mechanism for ADA is unknown. Here, we use mitochondrial depolarization or the complex I inhibitor metformin to induce ADA. We show that two parallel signaling pathways are required for ADA. In one pathway, increased cytosolic calcium in turn activates PKC-β, Rac, WAVE regulatory complex, and Arp2/3 complex. In the other pathway, a drop in cellular ATP in turn activates AMPK (through LKB1), Cdc42, and FMNL formins. We also identify putative guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rac and Cdc42, Trio and Fgd1, respectively, whose phosphorylation states increase upon mitochondrial depolarization and whose suppression inhibits ADA. The depolarization-induced calcium increase is dependent on the mitochondrial sodium-calcium exchanger NCLX, suggesting initial mitochondrial calcium efflux. We also show that ADA inhibition results in enhanced mitochondrial shape changes upon mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting that ADA inhibits these shape changes. These depolarization-induced shape changes are not fragmentation but a circularization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is dependent on the inner mitochondrial membrane protease Oma1. ADA inhibition increases the proteolytic processing of an Oma1 substrate, the dynamin GTPase Opa1. These results show that ADA requires the combined action of the Arp2/3 complex and formin proteins to polymerize a network of actin filaments around mitochondria and that the ADA network inhibits the rapid mitochondrial shape changes that occur upon mitochondrial depolarization.
    Keywords:  AMPK; Arp2/3 complex; CCCP; FMNL formins; OMA1; OPA1; PKCβ; actin; calcium; mitochondrial depolarization
  2. J Biol Chem. 2022 Mar 15. pii: S0021-9258(22)00275-7. [Epub ahead of print] 101835
      In cells undergoing cell-intrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) typically marks an irreversible step in the cell death process. However, in some cases a subpopulation of treated cells can exhibit a sublethal response, termed "minority MOMP". In this phenomenon, the affected cells survive, despite a low level of caspase activation and subsequent limited activation of the endonuclease CAD (DFFB). Consequently, these cells can experience DNA damage, increasing the probability of oncogenesis. However, little is known about the minority MOMP response. To discover genes that affect the MOMP response in individual cells, we conducted an imaging-based phenotypic siRNA screen. We identified multiple candidate genes whose downregulation increased the heterogeneity of MOMP within single cells, among which were genes related to mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy that participate in the mitochondrial quality control (MQC) system. Furthermore, to test the hypothesis that functional MQC is important for reducing the frequency of minority MOMP, we developed an assay to measure the clonogenic survival of caspase-engaged cells. We found that cells deficient in various MQC genes were indeed prone to aberrant post-MOMP survival. Our data highlight the important role of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in preventing apoptotic dysregulation and oncogenesis.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; mitochondrial dynamics; mitochondrial heterogeneity; mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization; mitochondrial quality control; mitophagy; oncogenesis; siRNA screen
  3. Autophagy. 2022 Mar 16. 1-15
      Ethanol increases hepatic mitophagy driven by unknown mechanisms. Type 1 mitophagy sequesters polarized mitochondria for nutrient recovery and cytoplasmic remodeling. In Type 2, mitochondrial depolarization (mtDepo) initiates mitophagy to remove the damaged organelles. Previously, we showed that acute ethanol administration produces reversible hepatic mtDepo. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol-induced mtDepo initiates Type 2 mitophagy. GFP-LC3 transgenic mice were gavaged with ethanol (2-6 g/kg) with and without pre-treatment with agents that decrease or increase mtDepo-Alda-1, tacrolimus, or disulfiram. Without ethanol, virtually all hepatocytes contained polarized mitochondria with infrequent autophagic GFP-LC3 puncta visualized by intravital microscopy. At ~4 h after ethanol treatment, mtDepo occurred in an all-or-none fashion within individual hepatocytes, which increased dose dependently. GFP-LC3 puncta increased in parallel, predominantly in hepatocytes with mtDepo. Mitochondrial PINK1 and PRKN/parkin also increased. After covalent labeling of mitochondria with MitoTracker Red (MTR), GFP-LC3 puncta encircled MTR-labeled mitochondria after ethanol treatment, directly demonstrating mitophagy. GFP-LC3 puncta did not associate with fat droplets visualized with BODIPY558/568, indicating that increased autophagy was not due to lipophagy. Before ethanol administration, rhodamine-dextran (RhDex)-labeled lysosomes showed little association with GFP-LC3. After ethanol treatment, TFEB (transcription factor EB) translocated to nuclei, and lysosomal mass increased. Many GFP-LC3 puncta merged with RhDex-labeled lysosomes, showing autophagosomal processing into lysosomes. After ethanol treatment, disulfiram increased, whereas Alda-1 and tacrolimus decreased mtDepo, and mitophagy changed proportionately. In conclusion, mtDepo after acute ethanol treatment induces mitophagic sequestration and subsequent lysosomal processing.Abbreviations : AcAld, acetaldehyde; ADH, alcohol dehydrogenase; ALDH, aldehyde dehydrogenase; ALD, alcoholic liver disease; Alda-1, N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2,6-dichlorobenzamide; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GFP, green fluorescent protein; LAMP1, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LMNB1, lamin B1; MAA, malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts; MAP1LC3/LC3, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MPT, mitochondrial permeability transition; mtDAMPS, mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns; mtDepo, mitochondrial depolarization; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; MTR, MitoTracker Red; PI, propidium iodide; PINK1, PTEN induced putative kinase 1; PRKN, parkin; RhDex, rhodamine dextran; TFEB, transcription factor EB; Tg, transgenic; TMRM, tetramethylrhodamine methylester; TOMM20, translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; VDAC, voltage-dependent anion channel.
    Keywords:  Acetaldehyde; Alda-1; alcoholic liver disease; mitochondrial depolarization; mitophagy; tacrolimus
  4. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2022 Mar 16.
      Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remain closely tethered by contact sites to maintain unhindered biosynthetic, metabolic, and signalling functions. Apart from its constituent proteins, contact sites localize ER-unfolded protein response (UPR) sensors like Ire1 and PERK, indicating the importance of ER-mitochondria communication during stress. In the mitochondrial sub-compartment-specific proteotoxic model of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that an intact ER-UPR pathway is important in stress tolerance of mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) proteotoxic stress, while disrupting the pathway is beneficial during matrix stress. Deletion of IRE1 and HAC1 leads to accumulation of misfolding-prone proteins in mitochondrial IMS indicating the importance of intact ER-UPR pathway in enduring mitochondrial IMS proteotoxic stresses. Although localized proteotoxic stress within mitochondrial IMS does not induce ER-UPR, its artificial activation helps cells to better withstand the IMS proteotoxicity. Furthermore, overexpression of individual components of ER-mitochondria contact sites is found to be beneficial for general mitochondrial proteotoxic stress, in an Ire1-Hac1-independent manner.
    Keywords:  ER stress; ER-mitochondria contact sites; Mito-UPR; Protein homeostasis; Proteotoxic stress; Unfolded protein response
  5. Curr Opin Physiol. 2022 Feb;pii: 100486. [Epub ahead of print]25
      The opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) has been proposed to play a critical role in activating cell death in many settings, including cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Although the identity of pore forming unit of the PTP is still debated, it is generally agreed that cyclophilin D (CyPD) is a regulator of the PTP. This manuscript will focus on understanding how CyPD might regulate the PTP and how understanding CyPD might give insight about the identify and regulation of the PTP.
  6. Cell Biosci. 2022 Mar 15. 12(1): 32
      BACKGROUND: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a Th2-like cytokine involved in asthma pathogenesis. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production can lead to airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and remodeling. Mitophagy, followed by ROS production, is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy and often occurs in defective mitochondria. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of TSLP on ROS production and mitophagy in human monocytes and to investigate the underlying mechanisms, including epigenetic regulation.RESULTS: TSLP induced ROS generation, and the effects were reversed by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in THP-1 cells. Transmission electron microscopy images showed donut-shaped mitochondria that lost the cristae ultrastructure after TSLP stimulation. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased MTCO2 expression, and increased mitochondrial DNA release after TSLP stimulation were found. TSLP enhanced mitochondrial complex I and complex II/III activity and increased mitochondrial copy numbers and the expression of the complex II SHDA gene. TSLP-induced SHDA expression was inhibited by the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor anacardic acid (AA) and the histone methyltransferase inhibitor methylthioadenosine (MTA), and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that TSLP enhanced H3 acetylation, H4 acetylation, and H3K4 and H3K36 trimethylation in the SHDA promoter. Confocal laser microscopy showed that TSLP treatment increased the signals of the mitophagy-related proteins PINK1, LC3, phospho-parkin and phospho-ubiquitin, and pretreatment with AA and MTA reduced TSLP-induced PINK1 and LC3 accumulation in mitochondria. Western blot analysis showed that TSLP significantly increased phosphor-AMPK signal intensity, and the effects were inhibited by the antioxidant NAC. The increased signal intensities of the mitophagy-related proteins PINK1, Parkin and LC3 I/II were decreased by dorsomorphin, an AMPK inhibitor. TSLP decreased M1-related cytokine CXCL-10 production and increased M2-related cytokine CCL-1 and CCL-22 production, which was suppressed by the mitophagy inhibitor Mdivi-1 and PINK1 gene knockdown.
    CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial-derived TSLP regulates ROS production and mitophagy through AMPK activation and histone modification and alters M1/M2 chemokine expression in human monocytes.
    Keywords:  Chemokine; Histone modification; Mitophagy; Monocytes; Reactive oxygen species (ROS); TSLP
  7. Redox Biol. 2022 Mar 02. pii: S2213-2317(22)00049-0. [Epub ahead of print]51 102277
      Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) is a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates glutathionylation/de-glutathionylation of target proteins. The main variants of Grx2 are the mitochondrial Grx2a and the cytosolic Grx2c. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific role of mitochondrial Grx2 in vivo using a mitochondrial Grx2 depleted (mGD) mouse model. mGD mice displayed an altered mitochondrial morphology and functioning. Furthermore, the lack of Grx2 in the mitochondrial compartment is responsible for increased blood lipid levels under a normal diet, a metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) phenotype and a decreased glycogen storage capacity. In addition, depleting Grx2a leads to an alteration in abundance and in glutathionylation pattern of different mitochondrial enzymes, highlighting the selective role of Grx2 in the regulation of metabolic pathways. Overall, our findings identify the involvement of mitochondrial Grx2a in the regulation of cell metabolism and highlight a previously unknown association between Grx2 and MAFLD.
    Keywords:  Glutaredoxin 2; Lipid metabolism; MAFLD; Mitochondria; Mouse model; ROS production
  8. iScience. 2022 Mar 18. 25(3): 103957
      Babies are born young, largely independent of the age of their mothers. Mother-daughter age asymmetry in yeast is achieved, in part, by inheritance of higher-functioning mitochondria by buds and retention of some high-functioning mitochondria in mother cells. The mitochondrial F box protein, Mfb1p, tethers mitochondria at both poles in a cell cycle-regulated manner: it localizes to and anchors mitochondria at the mother cell tip throughout the cell cycle and at the bud tip before cytokinesis. Here, we report that cell polarity and polarized localization of Mfb1p decline with age in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, deletion of genes (BUD1, BUD2, and BUD5) that mediate symmetry breaking during establishment of cell polarity and asymmetric yeast cell division cause depolarized Mfb1p localization and defects in mitochondrial distribution and quality control. Our results support a role for the polarity machinery in lifespan through modulating Mfb1 function in asymmetric inheritance of mitochondria during yeast cell division.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Cell biology; Genetics; Molecular biology
  9. Int Immunopharmacol. 2022 Mar 10. pii: S1567-5769(22)00171-0. [Epub ahead of print]107 108687
      Our earlier studies indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The present study aimed to explore the role of mitochondria-derived ROS on renal cell ferroptosis during LPS-induced AKI. Male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (2.0 mg/kg). Renal MDA and 4HNE residue, two markers of lipid peroxidation, were increased in LPS-exposed mice. Oxidized lipids were detected in LPS-treated human HK-2 cells. In vivo, ferroptosis-characteristic ultrastructure changes, including cell volume reduction, nuclear pyknosis and smaller mitochondria, were shown in renal cortex. In vitro, abnormal alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed in LPS-treated human HK-2 cells. Ferrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of ferroptosis, attenuated LPS-evoked renal lipid peroxidation, ferroptosis-characteristic mitochondrial damage and renal cell death. Mechanistically, mitochondria-derived ROS were elevated in LPS-stimulated HK-2 cells. MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, almost completely scavenged LPS-stimulated mitochondrial ROS in human HK-2 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with MitoQ attenuated LPS-induced GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation in mouse kidney. Finally, pretreatment with MitoQ alleviated LPS-induced renal cell death and AKI. Taken together, these results suggest that mitochondria-derived ROS contribute, at least partially, to renal cell ferroptosis during LPS-induced AKI. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may be potential therapeutic agents for sepsis-induced AKI.
    Keywords:  Acute kidney injury; Ferroptosis; Mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species; Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants
  10. Sci Adv. 2022 Mar 18. 8(11): eabj4716
      Dysregulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is mediated via the calcium uniporter complex that is primarily regulated by MICU1, a Ca2+-sensing gatekeeper. Recently, human patients with MICU1 loss-of-function mutations were diagnosed with neuromuscular and cognitive impairments. While studies in patient-derived cells revealed altered mitochondrial calcium signaling, the neuronal pathogenesis was difficult to study. To fill this void, we created a neuron-specific MICU1-KO mouse model. These animals show progressive, abnormal motor and cognitive phenotypes likely caused by the degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and the cortex. We found increased susceptibility to mitochondrial Ca2+ overload-induced excitotoxic insults and cell death in MICU1-KO neurons and MICU1-deficient patient-derived cells, which can be blunted by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Thus, our study identifies altered neuronal mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis as causative in the clinical symptoms of MICU1-deficient patients and highlights potential therapeutic targets.
  11. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022 ;2022 9911167
      Iron-dependent lipid peroxidation causes ferroptosis. This study was aimed at verifying that irisin postconditioning can inhibit ferroptosis and minimize lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage via activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signal axis. We constructed a murine model of I/R lung damage. At the onset of reperfusion, irisin, ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1, and ferroptosis inducer Fe-citrate were all administered. We discovered that irisin could reduce lung I/R injury, consistent with ferrostatin-1's action. Furthermore, irisin suppressed ferroptosis in lung I/R damage, as evidenced by lower ROS, MDA, and Fe2+, as well as alterations in critical protein expression (GPX4 and ACSL4). However, Fe-citrate abolished the protective effects of irisin. Transcriptome research found that irisin increased the mRNA levels of Nrf2 and HO-1. Thus, we used siRNA to investigate the role of the Nrf2/HO-1 axis in irisin-mediated protection against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) damage in MLE-12 cells. Irisin consistently reduced ferroptosis and improved mitochondrial dysfunction caused by H/R. Irisin's cytoprotective function was eliminated when Nrf2 was silenced. As a result, irisin postconditioning may protect against lung I/R damage by suppressing ferroptosis via the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling axis.
  12. J Biol Chem. 2022 Mar 09. pii: S0021-9258(22)00255-1. [Epub ahead of print] 101815
      Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) plays important roles in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compaction, transcription initiation, and in the regulation of processes like transcription and replication processivity. It is possible that TFAM is locally regulated within the mitochondrial matrix via such mechanisms like phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) and non-enzymatic acetylation by acetyl-CoA. Here we demonstrate that DNA-bound TFAM is less susceptible to these modifications. We confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays that phosphorylated or acetylated TFAM compacted circular double-stranded DNA just as well as unmodified TFAM and provide an in-depth analysis of acetylated sites on TFAM. We show that both modifications of TFAM increase the processivity of mitochondrial RNA polymerase during transcription through TFAM-imposed barriers on DNA, but that TFAM bearing either modification retains its full activity in transcription initiation. We conclude that TFAM phosphorylation by PKA and non-enzymatic acetylation by acetyl-CoA are unlikely to occur at the mtDNA and that modified free TFAM retains its vital functionalities like compaction and transcription initiation while enhancing transcription processivity.
    Keywords:  Acetylation; DNA compaction; Mitochondrial transcription; Phosphorylation