bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2022‒03‒13
seven papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. J Cell Physiol. 2022 Mar 06.
      Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that regulate various intracellular signaling pathways, including the mechanisms of programmed cell death, differentiation, inflammation, and so on. Mitochondria may be extruded as membrane enveloped or as free organelles during developmental processes, inflammatory activation, and in the process of "garbage clearance" of damaged mitochondria in postmitotic cells. Extracellular mitochondria can be engulfed by immune and nonimmune cells and trigger intracellular signaling leading to an inflammatory response. At the same time, it was reported that the release of extracellular vesicles containing mitochondria from mesenchymal stem cells contributes to their therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects. Numerous studies claim that engulfed mitochondria improve cellular bioenergetics, but this assumption requires further investigation. This review aims at a critical discussion of the mechanisms of mitochondrial extrusion in mammals, the reception of mitochondrial components, and the responses of recipient cells to extracellular mitochondria.
    Keywords:  extracellular mitochondria; extracellular vesicles; mitochondria; mitophagy; quality control
  2. Autophagy. 2022 Mar 11. 1-3
      The selective clearance of mitochondria by mitophagy is an important quality control mechanism for maintaining mitochondrial and cellular health. Iron chelation, for example by the compound deferiprone (DFP), leads to a specific form of PINK1-PRKN/Parkin-independent mitophagy; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood. In our recent paper, we examined the role of the deSUMOylating enzyme SENP3 in DFP-induced mitophagy. We observed that SENP3 levels are enhanced by DFP treatment, and that SENP3 is essential for DFP-induced mitophagy. Furthermore, we identified the mitochondrial protein FIS1, which is also required for DFP-induced mitophagy, as a novel SUMO substrate. Our data demonstrate that SENP3-dependent deSUMOylation of FIS1 enhances FIS1 mitochondrial targeting, to promote mitophagy in response to DFP treatment. These findings offer new insight into the mechanisms underlying mitophagy upon iron chelation, and have relevance to the therapeutic potential of DFP in a number of disorders, including Parkinson disease. Abbreviations DFP: deferiprone; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane. PD: Parkinson disease; SUMO: small ubiquitin like modifier.
    Keywords:  FIS1; SENP3; SUMO; iron chelation; mitophagy
  3. RNA. 2022 Mar 07. pii: rna.079097.122. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria possess their own genome that encodes components of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes, and mitochondrial ribosomes within the organelle translate the mRNAs expressed from the mitochondrial genome. Given the differential OXPHOS activity observed in diverse cell types, cell growth conditions, and other circumstances, cellular heterogeneity in mitochondrial translation can be expected. Although individual protein products translated in mitochondria have been monitored, the lack of techniques that address the variation in overall mitochondrial protein synthesis in cell populations poses analytic challenges. Here, we adapted mitochondrial-specific fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging (FUNCAT) for use with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and developed mito-FUNCAT-FACS. The click chemistry-compatible methionine analog L-homopropargylglycine (HPG) enabled the metabolic labeling of newly synthesized proteins. In the presence of cytosolic translation inhibitors, HPG was selectively incorporated into mitochondrial nascent proteins and conjugated to fluorophores via the click reaction (mito-FUNCAT). The application of in situ mito-FUNCAT to flow cytometry allowed us to separate changes in net mitochondrial translation activity from those of the organelle mass and detect variations in mitochondrial translation in cancer cells. Our approach provides a useful methodology for examining mitochondrial protein synthesis in individual cells.
    Keywords:  FACS; FUNCAT; HPG; Mitochondria; Translation
  4. Biochem J. 2022 Mar 09. pii: BCJ20210741. [Epub ahead of print]
      The RBR E3 ligase parkin is recruited to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) during oxidative stress where it becomes activated and ubiquitinates numerous proteins. Parkin activation involves binding of a phosphorylated ubiquitin (pUb), followed by phosphorylation of the Ubl domain in parkin, both mediated by the OMM kinase, PINK1. How an OMM protein is selected for ubiquitination is unclear. Parkin targeted OMM proteins have little structural or sequence similarity, with the commonality between substrates being proximity to the OMM. Here, we used chimeric proteins, tagged with ubiquitin (Ub), to evaluate parkin ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. We find that pUb tethered to the mitochondrial target proteins, Miro1 or CISD1, is necessary for parkin recruitment and essential for target protein ubiquitination. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of parkin is not necessary for the ubiquitination of either Miro1 or CISD1. Thus, parkin lacking its Ubl domain efficiently ubiquitinates a substrate tethered to pUb. Instead, phosphorylated parkin appears to stimulate free Ub-chain formation. We also demonstrate that parkin ubiquitination of pUb-tethered substrates occurs on the substrate, rather than the pUb modification. We propose divergent parkin mechanisms whereby parkin-mediated ubiquitination of acceptor proteins is driven by binding to pre-existing pUb on the OMM protein and subsequent parkin phosphorylation triggers free Ub chain formation. This finding accounts for the broad spectrum of OMM proteins ubiquitinated by parkin and has implications on target design for therapeutics.
    Keywords:  fluorescence; phosphorylation; protein structure; protein-protein interactions; ubiquitin; ubiquitin ligases
  5. J Invest Surg. 2022 Mar 06. 1-6
      BACKGROUND: Dynamin related protein-1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission relates to ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, and its association with necroptosis is implied. We hypothesized that receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a key kinase in necroptosis, acted as an upstream of Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission during skeletal muscle IR.METHODS: Thirty rats were randomized into the SM, IR, NI, MI, and DI group (n = 6). The rats in the SM group were shamly operated, and those in the IR group were subjected to 4-hour ischemia of the right hindlimb that was followed by 4-hour reperfusion. Intraperitoneal administration of Nec-1 1 mg/kg, Mdivi-1 1.2 mg/kg and same volume of DMSO were given before ischemia in the NI, MI and DI groups, respectively. Upon reperfusion, the soleus muscles were harvested to determine morphological changes and the expression of RIP1, total Drp1 and p-Drp1 (Ser616). Moreover, the muscular oxidative stress indicators and plasma muscle damage biomarkers were detected.
    RESULTS: IR led to impaired histopathological structures and mitochondrial fragmentation in the soleus muscle tissue, accompanied with increased muscular oxidative stress and muscle injury biomarkers, which could be similarly alleviated by Mdivi-1 and Nec-1 (p < 0.05). RIP1 and p-Drp1 (Ser616) protein levels were significantly upregulated in the soleus muscle subjected to IR injury, this upregulation was attenuated in the NI group, and Mdivi-1 downregulated the protein expression of p-Drp1 (Ser616) but not of RIP1 (p < 0.05).
    CONCLUSION: RIP1 functions as an upstream of Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission in the execution of necroptosis during skeletal muscle IR.
    Keywords:  Reperfusion injury; dynamin related protein-1; mitochondrial fission; necroptosis; receptor-interacting protein 1; skeletal muscle
  6. Redox Biol. 2022 Feb 28. pii: S2213-2317(22)00047-7. [Epub ahead of print]51 102275
      Mitochondrial quality control (MQC) consists of multiple processes: the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative damage, the elimination of damaged mitochondria via mitophagy and mitochondrial fusion and fission. Several studies proved that MQC impairment causes a plethora of pathological conditions including cardiovascular diseases. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which MQC reverses mitochondrial dysfunction, especially in the heart, is unclear. The mitochondria-specific peroxidase Peroxiredoxin 3 (Prdx3) plays a protective role against mitochondrial dysfunction by removing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Therefore, we investigated whether Prdx3-deficiency directly leads to heart failure via mitochondrial dysfunction. Fifty-two-week-old Prdx3-deficient mice exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction with giant and damaged mitochondria. Mitophagy was markedly suppressed in the hearts of Prdx3-deficient mice compared to the findings in wild-type and Pink1-deficient mice despite the increased mitochondrial damage induced by Prdx3 deficiency. Under conditions inducing mitophagy, we identified that the damaged mitochondrial accumulation of PINK1 was completely inhibited by the ablation of Prdx3. We propose that Prdx3 interacts with the N-terminus of PINK1, thereby protecting PINK1 from proteolytic cleavage in damaged mitochondria undergoing mitophagy. Our results provide evidence of a direct association between MQC dysfunction and cardiac function. The dual function of Prdx3 in mitophagy regulation and mitochondrial oxidative stress elimination further clarifies the mechanism of MQC in vivo and thereby provides new insights into developing a therapeutic strategy for mitochondria-related cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure.
    Keywords:  Damaged mitochondria; Heart failure; Mitochondrial quality control; Mitophagy; PINK1; Peroxiredoxin 3
  7. Autophagy. 2022 Mar 08. 1-18
      Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) generates ATP, but OXPHOS also supports biosynthesis during proliferation. In contrast, the role of OXPHOS during quiescence, beyond ATP production, is not well understood. Using mouse models of inducible OXPHOS deficiency in all cell types or specifically in the vascular endothelium that negligibly relies on OXPHOS-derived ATP, we show that selectively during quiescence OXPHOS provides oxidative stress resistance by supporting macroautophagy/autophagy. Mechanistically, OXPHOS constitutively generates low levels of endogenous ROS that induce autophagy via attenuation of ATG4B activity, which provides protection from ROS insult. Physiologically, the OXPHOS-autophagy system (i) protects healthy tissue from toxicity of ROS-based anticancer therapy, and (ii) provides ROS resistance in the endothelium, ameliorating systemic LPS-induced inflammation as well as inflammatory bowel disease. Hence, cells acquired mitochondria during evolution to profit from oxidative metabolism, but also built in an autophagy-based ROS-induced protective mechanism to guard against oxidative stress associated with OXPHOS function during quiescence.Abbreviations: AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; AOX: alternative oxidase; Baf A: bafilomycin A1; CI, respiratory complexes I; DCF-DA: 2',7'-dichlordihydrofluorescein diacetate; DHE: dihydroethidium; DSS: dextran sodium sulfate; ΔΨmi: mitochondrial inner membrane potential; EdU: 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine; ETC: electron transport chain; FA: formaldehyde; HUVEC; human umbilical cord endothelial cells; IBD: inflammatory bowel disease; LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MEFs: mouse embryonic fibroblasts; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA; NAC: N-acetyl cysteine; OXPHOS: oxidative phosphorylation; PCs: proliferating cells; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; PEITC: phenethyl isothiocyanate; QCs: quiescent cells; ROS: reactive oxygen species; PLA2: phospholipase A2, WB: western blot.
    Keywords:  ATG4B; biosynthesis; cell death; electron transport chain; endothelial cells; mitochondria; oxidative phosphorylation; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species