bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2021‒12‒26
five papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. Cells. 2021 Nov 27. pii: 3330. [Epub ahead of print]10(12):
      Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death and global health problems worldwide, and ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of heart failure (HF). The heart is a high-energy demanding organ, and myocardial energy reserves are limited. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, but under stress conditions, they become damaged, release necrotic and apoptotic factors, and contribute to cell death. Loss of cardiomyocytes plays a significant role in ischemic heart disease. In response to stress, protective signaling pathways are activated to limit mitochondrial deterioration and protect the heart. To prevent mitochondrial death pathways, damaged mitochondria are removed by mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy). Mitochondrial quality control mediated by mitophagy is functionally linked to mitochondrial dynamics. This review provides a current understanding of the signaling mechanisms by which the integrity of mitochondria is preserved in the heart against ischemic stress.
    Keywords:  BCL-2 family proteins; cell death; heart; ischemia; mPTP; mitochondria; mitophagy; pro-survival signaling
  2. Cells. 2021 Dec 15. pii: 3541. [Epub ahead of print]10(12):
      Mitophagy, the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy, is one of the most important mechanisms of mitochondrial quality control, and its proper functioning is essential for cellular homeostasis. In this review, we describe the most important milestones achieved during almost 2 decades of research on yeasts, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms, regulation, and role of the Atg32 receptor in this process. We analyze the role of ROS in mitophagy and discuss the physiological roles of mitophagy in unicellular organisms, such as yeast; these roles are very different from those in mammals. Additionally, we discuss some of the different tools available for studying mitophagy.
    Keywords:  Atg32 protein; mitochondria; mitophagy; quality control; yeast
  3. Cell Rep. 2021 Dec 21. pii: S2211-1247(21)01637-5. [Epub ahead of print]37(12): 110141
      Neurons are highly polarized cells that display characteristic differences in the organization of their organelles in axons and dendrites. The kinases SadA and SadB (SadA/B) promote the formation of distinct axonal and dendritic extensions during the development of cortical and hippocampal neurons. Here, we show that SadA/B are required for the specific dynamics of axonal mitochondria. Ankyrin B (AnkB) stimulates the activity of SadA/B that function as regulators of mitochondrial dynamics through the phosphorylation of tau. Suppression of SadA/B or AnkB in cortical neurons induces the elongation of mitochondria by disrupting the balance of fission and fusion. SadA/B-deficient neurons show an accumulation of hyper-fused mitochondria and activation of the integrated stress response (ISR). The normal dynamics of axonal mitochondria could be restored by mild actin destabilization. Thus, the elongation after loss of SadA/B results from an excessive stabilization of actin filaments and reduction of Drp1 recruitment to mitochondria.
    Keywords:  Ankyrin; Brsk1; Brsk2; Drp1; F-actin; Mapt; hyperfusion; mitochondrial dynamics; mitochondrial fission; neuronal polarity
  4. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Dec 15. pii: S0891-5849(21)00852-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Myocardial infarction is the most common form of acute coronary syndrome. Blockage of a coronary artery due to blood clotting leads to ischemia and subsequent cell death in the form of necrosis, apoptosis, necroptosis and ferroptosis. Revascularization by coronary artery bypass graft surgery or non-surgical percutaneous coronary intervention combined with pharmacotherapy is effective in relieving symptoms and decreasing mortality. However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from damaged mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, xanthine oxidase, and inflammation. Impairment of mitochondria is shown as decreased metabolic activity, increased ROS production, membrane permeability transition, and release of mitochondrial proteins into the cytoplasm. Oxidative stress activates Nrf2 transcription factor, which in turn mediates the expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn 2) and proteasomal genes. Increased expression of Mfn2 and inhibition of mitochondrial fission due to decreased Drp1 protein by proteasomal degradation contribute to mitochondrial hyperfusion. Damaged mitochondria can be removed by mitophagy via Parkin or p62 mediated ubiquitination. Mitochondrial biogenesis compensates for the loss of mitochondria, but requires mitochondrial DNA replication and initiation of transcription or translation of mitochondrial genes. Experimental evidence supports a role of Nrf2 in mitophagy, via up-regulation of PINK1 or p62 gene expression; and in mitochondrial biogenesis, by influencing the expression of PGC-1α, NResF1, NResF2, TFAM and mitochondrial genes. Oxidative stress causes Nrf2 activation via Keap1 dissociation, de novo protein translation, and nuclear translocation related to inactivation of GSK3β. The mechanism of Keap 1 mediated Nrf2 activation has been hijacked for Nrf2 activation by small molecules derived from natural products, some of which have been shown capable of mitochondrial protection. Multiple lines of evidence support the importance of Nrf2 in protecting mitochondria and preserving or renewing energy metabolism following tissue injury.
  5. Cell Rep. 2021 Dec 21. pii: S2211-1247(21)01635-1. [Epub ahead of print]37(12): 110139
      The ATPase Family AAA Domain Containing 3A (ATAD3A), is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein conserved in metazoans. ATAD3A has been associated with several mitochondrial functions, including nucleoid organization, cholesterol metabolism, and mitochondrial translation. To address its primary role, we generated a neuronal-specific conditional knockout (Atad3 nKO) mouse model, which developed a severe encephalopathy by 5 months of age. Pre-symptomatic mice showed aberrant mitochondrial cristae morphogenesis in the cortex as early as 2 months. Using a multi-omics approach in the CNS of 2-to-3-month-old mice, we found early alterations in the organelle membrane structure. We also show that human ATAD3A associates with different components of the inner membrane, including OXPHOS complex I, Letm1, and prohibitin complexes. Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) shows that ATAD3A is regularly distributed along the inner mitochondrial membrane, suggesting a critical structural role in inner mitochondrial membrane and its organization, most likely in an ATPase-dependent manner.
    Keywords:  ATAD3; cardiolipin; cristae; inner membrane; mitochondria