bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2021‒08‒22
eleven papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. Cell Calcium. 2021 Aug 05. pii: S0143-4160(21)00107-X. [Epub ahead of print]98 102453
      Mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites (MERCS) are morpho-functional units, formed at the loci of close apposition of the ER-forming endomembrane and outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). These sites contribute to fundamental cellular processes including lipid biosynthesis, autophagy, apoptosis, ER-stress and calcium (Ca2+) signalling. At MERCS, Ca2+ ions are transferred from the ER directly to mitochondria through a core protein complex composed of inositol-1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R), voltage-gated anion channel 1 (VDAC1), mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and adaptor protein glucose-regulated protein 75 (Grp75); this complex is regulated by several associated proteins. Deregulation of ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer contributes to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and other diseases. The efficacy of Ca2+ transfer between ER and mitochondria depends on the protein composition of MERCS, which controls ER-mitochondria interaction regulating, for example, the transversal distance between ER membrane and OMM and the extension of the longitudinal interface between ER and mitochondria. These parameters are altered in neurodegeneration. Here we overview the ER and mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis, the composition of ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer machinery and alterations of the ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer in three major neurodegenerative diseases: motor neurone diseases, Parkinson disease and Alzheimer's disease.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Endoplasmic reticulum; Mitochondria; Mitochondria-ER contact sites; Motor neurone disease; Parkinson's disease
  2. Redox Biol. 2021 Jun 10. pii: S2213-2317(21)00197-X. [Epub ahead of print]46 102038
      Due to the high redox activity of the mitochondrion, this organelle can suffer oxidative stress. To manage energy demands while minimizing redox stress, mitochondrial homeostasis is maintained by the dynamic processes of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial network dynamics (fusion/fission), and mitochondrial clearance by mitophagy. Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is a mitochondrial disease resulting in a fatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to the deficiency of the mitochondrial protein, frataxin. Our previous studies identified defective mitochondrial iron metabolism and oxidative stress potentiating cardiac pathology in FA. However, how these factors alter mitochondrial homeostasis remains uncharacterized in FA cardiomyopathy. This investigation examined the muscle creatine kinase conditional frataxin knockout mouse, which closely mimics FA cardiomyopathy, to dissect the mechanisms of dysfunctional mitochondrial homeostasis. Dysfunction of key mitochondrial homeostatic mechanisms were elucidated in the knockout hearts relative to wild-type littermates, namely: (1) mitochondrial proliferation with condensed cristae; (2) impaired NAD+ metabolism due to perturbations in Sirt1 activity and NAD+ salvage; (3) increased mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion and fission; and (4) mitochondrial accumulation of Pink1/Parkin with increased autophagic/mitophagic flux. Immunohistochemistry of FA patients' heart confirmed significantly enhanced expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion/fission and autophagy. These novel findings demonstrate cardiac frataxin-deficiency results in significant changes to metabolic mechanisms critical for mitochondrial homeostasis. This mechanistic dissection provides critical insight, offering the potential for maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis in FA and potentially other cardio-degenerative diseases by implementing innovative treatments targeting mitochondrial homeostasis and NAD+ metabolism.
    Keywords:  Cardiomyopathy; Iron; Iron loading; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial homeostasis
  3. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Aug 17. 12(9): 796
      Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles with strict quality control processes that maintain cellular homeostasis. Within axons, coordinated cycles of fission-fusion mediated by dynamin related GTPase protein (DRP1) and mitofusins (MFN), together with regulated motility of healthy mitochondria anterogradely and damaged/oxidized mitochondria retrogradely, control mitochondrial shape, distribution and size. Disruption of this tight regulation has been linked to aberrant oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction causing mitochondrial disease and neurodegeneration. Although pharmacological induction of Parkinson's disease (PD) in humans/animals with toxins or in mice overexpressing α-synuclein (α-syn) exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, mice lacking α-syn showed resistance to mitochondrial toxins; yet, how α-syn influences mitochondrial dynamics and turnover is unclear. Here, we isolate the mechanistic role of α-syn in mitochondrial homeostasis in vivo in a humanized Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease (PD). We show that excess α-syn causes fragmented mitochondria, which persists with either truncation of the C-terminus (α-syn1-120) or deletion of the NAC region (α-synΔNAC). Using in vivo oxidation reporters Mito-roGFP2-ORP1/GRX1 and MitoTimer, we found that α-syn-mediated fragments were oxidized/damaged, but α-syn1-120-induced fragments were healthy, suggesting that the C-terminus is required for oxidation. α-syn-mediated oxidized fragments showed biased retrograde motility, but α-syn1-120-mediated healthy fragments did not, demonstrating that the C-terminus likely mediates the retrograde motility of oxidized mitochondria. Depletion/inhibition or excess DRP1-rescued α-syn-mediated fragmentation, oxidation, and the biased retrograde motility, indicating that DRP1-mediated fragmentation is likely upstream of oxidation and motility changes. Further, excess PINK/Parkin, two PD-associated proteins that function to coordinate mitochondrial turnover via induction of selective mitophagy, rescued α-syn-mediated membrane depolarization, oxidation and cell death in a C-terminus-dependent manner, suggesting a functional interaction between α-syn and PINK/Parkin. Taken together, our findings identify distinct roles for α-syn in mitochondrial homeostasis, highlighting a previously unknown pathogenic pathway for the initiation of PD.
  4. Mol Cell Biol. 2021 Aug 16. MCB0023321
      Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes are made up of dual genetic origin. Mechanisms regulating the expression of nuclear-encoded OXPHOS subunits in response to metabolic cues (glucose vs. glycerol), is significantly understood while regulation of mitochondrially encoded OXPHOS subunits is poorly defined. Here, we show that IRC3 a DEAD/H box helicase, previously implicated in mitochondrial DNA maintenance, is central to integrating metabolic cues with mitochondrial translation. Irc3 associates with mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit in cells consistent with its role in regulating translation elongation based on Arg8m reporter system. IRC3 deleted cells retained mitochondrial DNA despite growth defect on glycerol plates. Glucose grown Δirc3ρ+ and irc3 temperature-sensitive cells at 370C have reduced translation rates from majority of mRNAs. In contrast, when galactose was the carbon source, reduction in mitochondrial translation was observed predominantly from Cox1 mRNA in Δirc3ρ+ but no defect was observed in irc3 temperature-sensitive cells, at 370C. In support, of a model whereby IRC3 responds to metabolic cues to regulate mitochondrial translation, suppressors of Δirc3 isolated for restoration of growth on glycerol media restore mitochondrial protein synthesis differentially in presence of glucose vs. glycerol.
  5. Blood. 2021 Aug 19. pii: blood.2021011010. [Epub ahead of print]
      Neutrophils are predominantly glycolytic cells that derive little ATP from oxidative phosphorylation; however, they possess an extensive mitochondrial network and maintain a mitochondrial membrane potential. Although studies have shown neutrophils need their mitochondria to undergo apoptosis and regulate NETosis, the metabolic role of the respiratory chain in these highly glycolytic cells is still unclear. Recent studies have expanded on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from the mitochondria as intracellular signalling molecules. Our study shows that neutrophils can use their mitochondria to generate ROS and that mitochondrial ROS release is increased in hypoxic conditions. This is needed for the stabilisation of a high level of the critical hypoxic response factor and pro-survival protein HIF-1α in hypoxia. Further, we demonstrate that neutrophils use the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway as a way of directly regulating mitochondrial function through glycolysis, specifically to maintain polarised mitochondria and produce ROS. This illustrates an additional pathway by which neutrophils can regulate HIF-1α stability and will therefore be of important consideration when looking for treatments of chronic inflammatory conditions where HIF-1α activation and neutrophil persistence at the site of inflammation are linked to disease severity.
  6. Nat Methods. 2021 Aug 19.
      Mitochondria display complex morphology and movements, which complicates their segmentation and tracking in time-lapse images. Here, we introduce Mitometer, an algorithm for fast, unbiased, and automated segmentation and tracking of mitochondria in live-cell two-dimensional and three-dimensional time-lapse images. Mitometer requires only the pixel size and the time between frames to identify mitochondrial motion and morphology, including fusion and fission events. The segmentation algorithm isolates individual mitochondria via a shape- and size-preserving background removal process. The tracking algorithm links mitochondria via differences in morphological features and displacement, followed by a gap-closing scheme. Using Mitometer, we show that mitochondria of triple-negative breast cancer cells are faster, more directional, and more elongated than those in their receptor-positive counterparts. Furthermore, we show that mitochondrial motility and morphology in breast cancer, but not in normal breast epithelia, correlate with metabolic activity. Mitometer is an unbiased and user-friendly tool that will help resolve fundamental questions regarding mitochondrial form and function.
  7. JCI Insight. 2021 Aug 17. pii: 151981. [Epub ahead of print]
      Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children. Murine and human data suggest that the NLRP3-IL-1β pathway is the main driver of KD pathophysiology. NLRP3 can be activated during defective autophagy/mitophagy. We used the Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE) murine model of KD vasculitis, to examine the role of autophagy/mitophagy on cardiovascular lesion development. LCWE-injected mice had impaired autophagy/mitophagy and increased levels of ROS in cardiovascular lesions, together with increased systemic 8-OHdG release. Enhanced autophagic flux significantly reduced cardiovascular lesions in LCWE-injected mice, whereas autophagy blockade increased inflammation. Vascular smooth muscle cell specific deletion of Atg16l1 and global Parkin-/- significantly increased disease formation, supporting the importance of autophagy/mitophagy in this model. Ogg1-/- mice had significantly increased lesions with increased NLRP3 activity, whereas treatment with MitoQ, reduced vascular tissue inflammation, ROS production and systemic 8-OHdG release. Treatment with MN58b or Metformin (increasing AMPK and reducing ROS), resulted in decreased disease formation. Our results demonstrate that impaired autophagy/mitophagy and ROS-dependent damage exacerbate the development of murine KD vasculitis. This pathway can be efficiently targeted to reduce disease severity. These findings enhance our understanding of KD pathogenesis and identify novel therapeutic avenues for KD treatment.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; Innate immunity; Vascular Biology; Vasculitis
  8. Curr Res Physiol. 2021 ;4 163-176
      Folding of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) into cristae greatly increases the ATP-generating surface area, S IM, per unit volume but also creates diffusional bottlenecks that could limit reaction rates inside mitochondria. This study explores possible effects of inner membrane folding on mitochondrial ATP output, using a mathematical model for energy metabolism developed by the Jafri group and two- and three-dimensional spatial models for mitochondria, implemented on the Virtual Cell platform. Simulations demonstrate that cristae are micro-compartments functionally distinct from the cytosol. At physiological steady states, standing gradients of ADP form inside cristae that depend on the size and shape of the compartments, and reduce local flux (rate per unit area) of the adenine nucleotide translocase. This causes matrix ADP levels to drop, which in turn reduces the flux of ATP synthase. The adverse effects of membrane folding on reaction fluxes increase with crista length and are greater for lamellar than tubular crista. However, total ATP output per mitochondrion is the product of flux of ATP synthase and S IM which can be two-fold greater for mitochondria with lamellar than tubular cristae, resulting in greater ATP output for the former. The simulations also demonstrate the crucial role played by intracristal kinases (adenylate kinase, creatine kinase) in maintaining the energy advantage of IM folding.
    Keywords:  ATP synthesis; Computational modeling; Cristae; Energy metabolism; Kinases; Mitochondria
  9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Aug 24. pii: e2101674118. [Epub ahead of print]118(34):
      The inability of adult mammalian cardiomyocytes to proliferate underpins the development of heart failure following myocardial injury. Although the newborn mammalian heart can spontaneously regenerate for a short period of time after birth, this ability is lost within the first week after birth in mice, partly due to increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which results in oxidative DNA damage and activation of DNA damage response. This increase in ROS levels coincides with a postnatal switch from anaerobic glycolysis to fatty acid (FA) oxidation by cardiac mitochondria. However, to date, a direct link between mitochondrial substrate utilization and oxidative DNA damage is lacking. Here, we generated ROS-sensitive fluorescent sensors targeted to different subnuclear compartments (chromatin, heterochromatin, telomeres, and nuclear lamin) in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, which allowed us to determine the spatial localization of ROS in cardiomyocyte nuclei upon manipulation of mitochondrial respiration. Our results demonstrate that FA utilization by the mitochondria induces a significant increase in ROS detection at the chromatin level compared to other nuclear compartments. These results indicate that mitochondrial metabolic perturbations directly alter the nuclear redox status and that the chromatin appears to be particularly sensitive to the prooxidant effect of FA utilization by the mitochondria.
    Keywords:  metabolism; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species
  10. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021 ;2021 9993240
      Mitochondrial dynamics plays an important role in maintaining normal endothelial cell function and in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. It is not identified whether high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a representative damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, could influence mitochondrial dynamics in endothelial cells. The objective of this study is to clarify the effect of HMGB1 on mitochondrial dynamics in endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were incubated with recombinant HMGB1 (rHMGB1); mitochondrial morphology was observed with a confocal microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), Optic atrophy 1 (Opa1), phosphatase and tensin homolog- (PTEN-) induced kinase 1 (PINK1), NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3), caspase 1, cleaved caspase 1, 20S proteasome subunit beta 5 (PSMB5), and antioxidative master nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and the concentration of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were determined. Specific inhibitors C29, TAK-242, FPS-ZM1, AMD3100, and epoxomicin were used to block toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), C-X-C-chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), and PSMB5, respectively. siRNAs were used to silence the expression of NRF2. rHMGB1 promoted mitochondrial fusion in endothelial cells, while no significant proinflammatory effects were found. The expression of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and phosphorylated subtypes p-Drp1-S616 and p-Drp1-S637 were all downregulated; no significant expression changes of PINK1 and Mfn1, Mfn2, and Opa1 were found. Inhibition of CXCR4 but not TLR4, RAGE, or TLR2 reversed rHMGB1-induced Drp1 downregulation and mitochondrial fusion. Interestingly, inhibition of TLR4 with TAK-242 promoted Drp1 downregulation and mitochondrial fusion. rHMGB1 increased the expression of NRF2 and PSMB5; inhibition of PSMB5 but not silencing NRF2 abolished rHMGB1-induced Drp1 downregulation and mitochondrial fusion. These results indicate that rHMGB1 promotes NRF2 independent mitochondrial fusion via CXCR4/PSMB5 pathway-mediated Drp1 proteolysis. rHMGB1 may influence mitochondrial and endothelial function through this effect on mitochondrial dynamics.
  11. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2021 Aug 11. pii: S0022-2828(21)00159-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      MITOL/MARCH5 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a crucial role in the control of mitochondrial quality and function. However, the significance of MITOL in cardiomyocytes under physiological and pathological conditions remains unclear. First, to determine the significance of MITOL in unstressed hearts, we assessed the cellular changes with the reduction of MITOL expression by siRNA in neonatal rat primary ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVMs). MITOL knockdown in NRVMs induced cell death via ferroptosis, a newly defined non-apoptotic programmed cell death, even under no stress conditions. This phenomenon was observed only in NRVMs, not in other cell types. MITOL knockdown markedly reduced mitochondria-localized GPX4, a key enzyme associated with ferroptosis, promoting accumulation of lipid peroxides in mitochondria. In contrast, the activation of GPX4 in MITOL knockdown cells suppressed lipid peroxidation and cell death. MITOL knockdown reduced the glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio that regulated GPX4 expression. Indeed, the administration of GSH or N-acetylcysteine improved the expression of GPX4 and viability in MITOL-knockdown NRVMs. MITOL-knockdown increased the expression of the glutathione-degrading enzyme, ChaC glutathione-specific γ-glutamylcyclotransferase 1 (Chac1). The knockdown of Chac1 restored the GSH/GSSG ratio, GPX4 expression, and viability in MITOL-knockdown NRVMs. Further, in cultured cardiomyocytes stressed with DOX, both MITOL and GPX4 were reduced, whereas forced-expression of MITOL suppressed DOX-induced ferroptosis by maintaining GPX4 content. Additionally, MITOL knockdown worsened vulnerability to DOX, which was almost completely rescued by treatment with ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis inhibitor. In vivo, cardiac-specific depletion of MITOL did not produce obvious abnormality, but enhanced susceptibility to DOX toxicity. Finally, administration of ferrostatin-1 suppressed exacerbation of DOX-induced myocardial damage in MITOL-knockout hearts. The present study demonstrates that MITOL determines the cell fate of cardiomyocytes via the ferroptosis process and plays a key role in regulating vulnerability to DOX treatment. (288/300).
    Keywords:  Chac1; Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy; Ferroptosis; GPX4; Lipid peroxidation; MITOL/March5