bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2021‒08‒01
twelve papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. J Cell Sci. 2021 07 01. pii: jcs252197. [Epub ahead of print]134(13):
      The mitochondrial inner membrane is a protein-rich environment containing large multimeric complexes, including complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, mitochondrial translocases and quality control machineries. Although the inner membrane is highly proteinaceous, with 40-60% of all mitochondrial proteins localised to this compartment, little is known about the spatial distribution and organisation of complexes in this environment. We set out to survey the arrangement of inner membrane complexes using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). We reveal that subunits of the TIM23 complex, TIM23 and TIM44 (also known as TIMM23 and TIMM44, respectively), and the complex IV subunit COXIV, form organised clusters and show properties distinct from the outer membrane protein TOM20 (also known as TOMM20). Density based cluster analysis indicated a bimodal distribution of TIM44 that is distinct from TIM23, suggesting distinct TIM23 subcomplexes. COXIV is arranged in larger clusters that are disrupted upon disruption of complex IV assembly. Thus, STORM super-resolution microscopy is a powerful tool for examining the nanoscale distribution of mitochondrial inner membrane complexes, providing a 'visual' approach for obtaining pivotal information on how mitochondrial complexes exist in a cellular context.
    Keywords:  COXIV; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial complexes; Nanoscopy; Protein import; STORM; TIM23
  2. Stem Cells. 2021 Jul 26.
      Cell-based therapeutic approaches have been proven to be effective strategies for the treatment of acute liver injury (ALI). However, widespread application of these procedures is limited by several key issues, including rapid loss of stemness in vitro, aberrant differentiation into undesirable cell types and low engraftment in vivo. In this study, liver epithelial progenitor cells (LEPCs) were characterized and transfected with augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR). The results revealed that in ALI mice with CCl4 , the transplantation of ALR-bearing LEPCs into the liver markedly protected mice against ALI by decreasing the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), thus relieving hepatic tissue injury and attenuating inflammatory infiltration. Mechanistically, the knockdown of ALR in LEPCs activated the phosphorylation of dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1) at the S616 site and thereby enhanced mitochondrial fission. In contrast, the transfection of ALR into LEPCs significantly inhibited Drp1 phosphorylation, thereby favoring the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and the preservation of ATP contents in LEPCs. Consequently, the ALR-bearing LEPCs transplanted into ALI mice exhibited substantially greater homing ability to the injured liver via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis than that of LEPCs lacking ALR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the transplantation of ALR-transfected LEPCs protected mice against CCl4 -induced ALI, thus offering immense curative potential in the clinic. © AlphaMed Press 2021 SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is known to regulate mitochondrial dynamics in hepatocytes, thus offering protection against liver injury. However, whether ALR exerts a similar function in adult liver stem cells, thereby supporting cell transplantation in damaged liver with improved therapeutic efficacy, is not known. The results of the current study demonstrated that ALR was beneficial in LEPCs (liver epithelial progenitor cells), helping them combat liver injury after cell transplantation and offering immense curative potential in the clinic. The presented results aided in understanding the survival mechanism of liver stem cells regulated by ALR.
    Keywords:  acute liver injury (ALI); augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR); cell transplantation; dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1); liver epithelial progenitor cells (LEPCs)
  3. FASEB J. 2021 Aug;35(8): e21796
      Polycystin-1 (PC1) is a transmembrane protein found in different cell types, including cardiomyocytes. Alterations in PC1 expression have been linked to mitochondrial damage in renal tubule cells and in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. However, to date, the regulatory role of PC1 in cardiomyocyte mitochondria is not well understood. The analysis of mitochondrial morphology from cardiomyocytes of heterozygous PC1 mice (PDK1+/- ) using transmission electron microscopy showed that cardiomyocyte mitochondria were smaller with increased mitochondria density and circularity. These parameters were consistent with mitochondrial fission. We knocked-down PC1 in cultured rat cardiomyocytes and human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes to evaluate mitochondrial function and morphology. The results showed that downregulation of PC1 expression results in reduced protein levels of sub-units of the OXPHOS complexes and less functional mitochondria (reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP production). This mitochondrial dysfunction activates the elimination of defective mitochondria by mitophagy, assessed by an increase of autophagosome adapter protein LC3B and the recruitment of the Parkin protein to the mitochondria. siRNA-mediated PC1 knockdown leads to a loss of the connectivity of the mitochondrial network and a greater number of mitochondria per cell, but of smaller sizes, which characterizes mitochondrial fission. PC1 silencing also deregulates the AKT-FoxO1 signaling pathway, which is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, mitochondrial morphology, and processes that are part of cell quality control, such as mitophagy. Together, these data provide new insights about the controls that PC1 exerts on mitochondrial morphology and function in cultured cardiomyocytes dependent on the AKT-FoxO1 signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  FoxO1; cardiomyocyte; mitochondrial dynamics; mitochondrial metabolism; mitophagy; polycystin-1
  4. Dev Cell. 2021 Jul 26. pii: S1534-5807(21)00529-3. [Epub ahead of print]56(14): 2010-2012
      Cancers are dependent on mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, and autophagy, the mechanism to preserve mitochondrial quality and function. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Towers et al. identify mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs) as a new adaptive mechanism enabling cancer cells to compensate for autophagy loss and to maintain mitochondrial function.
  5. FEBS J. 2021 Jul 26.
      Mitochondria form a branched tubular network in many types of cells, depending on a balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission. How mitochondrial fusion and fission are involved in regulating mitochondrial function and cell proliferation is not well understood. Here, we dissected the roles of mitochondrial fusion and fission in mitochondrial function and cell proliferation in fission yeast. We examined mitochondrial membrane potential by staining cells with DiOC6 and assessed mitochondrial respiration by directly measuring oxygen consumption of cells with a dissolved oxygen respirometer. We found that defects in mitochondrial fission or fusion reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and compromise mitochondrial respiration while the absence of both mitochondrial fusion and fission restores wild-type-like respiration, normal membrane potential, and tubular networks of mitochondria. Moreover, we found that the absence of either mitochondrial fission or fusion prolongs the cell cycle and that the absence of both mitochondrial fusion and fission significantly delays cell cycle progression after nitrogen replenishment. The prolonged/delayed cell cycle is likely due to the deregulation of Cdc2 activation. Hence, our work not only establishes an intimate link between mitochondrial morphology and function but also underscores the importance of mitochondrial dynamics in regulating the cell cycle.
    Keywords:  Cell cycle; Dnm1; Fzo1; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial dynamics
  6. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2021 07 28.
      Mitochondria are recognized as signaling organelles because, under stress, mitochondria can trigger various signaling pathways to coordinate the cell's response. The specific pathway(s) engaged by mitochondria in response to mitochondrial energy defects in vivo and in high-energy tissues like the heart are not fully understood. Here, we investigated cardiac pathways activated in response to mitochondrial energy dysfunction by studying mice with cardiomyocyte-specific loss of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier (SLC25A3), an established model that develops cardiomyopathy as a result of defective mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Mitochondrial energy dysfunction induced a striking pattern of acylome remodeling, with significantly increased post-translational acetylation and malonylation. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics further revealed that energy dysfunction-induced remodeling of the acetylome and malonylome preferentially impacts mitochondrial proteins. Acetylation and malonylation modified a highly interconnected interactome of mitochondrial proteins, and both modifications were present on the enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2). Intriguingly, IDH2 activity was enhanced in SLC25A3-deleted mitochondria, and further study of IDH2 sites targeted by both acetylation and malonylation revealed that these modifications can have site-specific and distinct functional effects. Finally, we uncovered a novel crosstalk between the two modifications, whereby mitochondrial energy dysfunction-induced acetylation of sirtuin 5 (SIRT5), inhibited its function. Because SIRT5 is a mitochondrial deacylase with demalonylase activity, this finding suggests that acetylation can modulate the malonylome. Together, our results position acylations as an arm of the mitochondrial response to energy dysfunction and suggest a mechanism by which focal disruption to the energy production machinery can have an expanded impact on global mitochondrial function.
    Keywords:  acetylation; acylations; energy; heart; mitochondria
  7. Nat Commun. 2021 07 28. 12(1): 4578
      Mitochondria are transported along microtubules by opposing kinesin and dynein motors. Kinesin-1 and dynein-dynactin are linked to mitochondria by TRAK proteins, but it is unclear how TRAKs coordinate these motors. We used single-molecule imaging of cell lysates to show that TRAK2 robustly activates kinesin-1 for transport toward the microtubule plus-end. TRAK2 is also a novel dynein activating adaptor that utilizes a conserved coiled-coil motif to interact with dynein to promote motility toward the microtubule minus-end. However, dynein-mediated TRAK2 transport is minimal unless the dynein-binding protein LIS1 is present at a sufficient level. Using co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments, we demonstrate that TRAK2 forms a complex containing both kinesin-1 and dynein-dynactin. These motors are functionally linked by TRAK2 as knockdown of either kinesin-1 or dynein-dynactin reduces the initiation of TRAK2 transport toward either microtubule end. We propose that TRAK2 coordinates kinesin-1 and dynein-dynactin as an interdependent motor complex, providing integrated control of opposing motors for the proper transport of mitochondria.
  8. J Cell Biochem. 2021 Jul 28.
      Mitochondria and peroxisomes are metabolically interconnected and functionally active subcellular organelles. These two dynamic organelles, share a number of common biochemical functions such as β-oxidation of fatty acids and detoxification of peroxides. The biogenesis and morphology of both these organelles in the mammalian cells is controlled by common transcription factors like PGC1α, and by a common fission machinery comprising of fission proteins like DRP1, Mff, and hFis1, respectively. In addition, the outer membrane mitochondria-anchored protein ligase (MAPL), the first mitochondrial SUMO E3 ligase with a RING-finger domain, also regulates mitochondrial morphology inducing mitochondrial fragmentation upon its overexpression. This fragmentation is dependent on both the RING domain of MAPL and the presence of the mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP1). Earlier studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial-derived vesicles are formed independently of the known mitochondrial fission GTPase, DRP1 are enriched for MAPL and are targeted to peroxisomes. The current study shows that MAPL regulates morphology of peroxisomes in a cell-type specific manner. Fascinatingly, the peroxisome elongation caused either due to silencing of DRP1 or by addition of polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid was blocked by overexpressing MAPL in mammalian cell lines. Furthermore, the transfection and colocalisation studies of MAPL with peroxisome membrane marker, PMP70, in different cell lines clearly revealed a cell-type specificity of transport of MAPL to peroxisomes. Previous work has placed the Vps35 (retromer component) as vital for delivery of MAPL to peroxisomes, placing the retromer as critical for the formation of MAPL-positive mitochondrial-derived vesicles. The results of polyethylene glycol-based cell-cell fusion assay signified that the enrichment of MAPL in peroxisomes is through vesicles and a retromer dependent phenomenon. Thus, a novel function for MAPL in peroxisomes is established to regulate peroxisome elongation and morphology under growth conditions and thus possibly modulate peroxisome fission.
    Keywords:  Vps35; mitochondrial anchored protein ligase; mitochondrial-derived vesicles; peroxisome fission; retromer complex; vesicular transport
  9. Dev Cell. 2021 Jul 26. pii: S1534-5807(21)00546-3. [Epub ahead of print]56(14): 2014-2015
      Mechanisms by which cells remove damaged mitochondria extracellularly are unclear. Recent work by Jiao and colleagues in Cell shows that migrating cells expel dysfunctional mitochondria in membrane-bound structures called migrasomes to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis.
  10. J Biol Chem. 2021 Jul 24. pii: S0021-9258(21)00807-3. [Epub ahead of print] 101005
      Barth syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked disorder of mitochondrial phospholipid metabolism caused by pathogenic variants in the gene TAFFAZIN (TAZ), which results in abnormal cardiolipin (CL) content in the inner mitochondrial membrane. To identify unappreciated pathways of mitochondrial dysfunction in BTHS, we utilized an unbiased proteomics strategy and identified that complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the mitochondrial quality control protease PARL are altered in a new HEK293-based TAZ-deficiency model. Follow-up studies confirmed decreased steady state levels of specific complex I subunits and an assembly factor in the absence of TAZ; this decrease is in part based on decreased transcription, and results in reduced complex I assembly and function. PARL, a rhomboid protease associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane with a role in the mitochondrial response to stress such as mitochondrial membrane depolarization, is increased in TAZ-deficient cells. The increased abundance of PARL correlates with augmented processing of a downstream target, PGAM5, both at baseline and in response to mitochondrial depolarization. To clarify the relationship between abnormal CL content, complex I levels, and increased PARL expression that occurs when TAZ is missing, we used blue-native page and gene expression analysis to determine that these defects are remediated by SS-31 and bromoenol lactone, pharmacologic agents that bind CL or inhibit CL deacylation, respectively. These findings have the potential to enhance our understanding of the cardiac pathology of BTHS, where defective mitochondrial quality control and complex I dysfunction have well-recognized roles in the pathology of diverse forms of cardiac dysfunction.
    Keywords:  Barth Syndrome; Cardiolipin; Mitochondrial metabolism
  11. mBio. 2021 Jul 27. e0124721
      Monocytes play an important role in the host defense against Plasmodium vivax as the main source of inflammatory cytokines and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS). Here, we show that monocyte metabolism is altered during human P. vivax malaria, with mitochondria playing a major function in this switch. The process involves a reprograming in which the cells increase glucose uptake and produce ATP via glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation. P. vivax infection results in dysregulated mitochondrial gene expression and in altered membrane potential leading to mROS increase rather than ATP production. When monocytes were incubated with P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, mitochondria colocalized with phagolysosomes containing parasites representing an important source mROS. Importantly, the mitochondrial enzyme superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is simultaneously induced in monocytes from malaria patients. Taken together, the monocyte metabolic reprograming with an increased mROS production may contribute to protective responses against P. vivax while triggering immunomodulatory mechanisms to circumvent tissue damage. IMPORTANCE Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed causative agent of human malaria. To achieve parasite control, the human immune system develops a substantial inflammatory response that is also responsible for the symptoms of the disease. Among the cells involved in this response, monocytes play an important role. Here, we show that monocyte metabolism is altered during malaria, with its mitochondria playing a major function in this switch. This change involves a reprograming process in which the cells increase glucose uptake and produce ATP via glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation. The resulting altered mitochondrial membrane potential leads to an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species rather than ATP. These data suggest that agents that change metabolism should be investigated and used with caution during malaria.
    Keywords:  P. vivax; malaria; metabolism; mitochondria; mitochondrial metabolism; monocytes; reactive oxygen species
  12. Mitochondrion. 2021 Jul 21. pii: S1567-7249(21)00099-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria possess transport mechanisms for import of RNA and DNA. Based on import into isolated Solanum tuberosum mitochondria in the presence of competitors, inhibitors or effectors, we show that DNA fragments of different size classes are taken up into plant organelles through distinct channels. Alternative channels can also be activated according to the amount of DNA substrate of a given size class. Analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana knockout lines pointed out a differential involvement of individual voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) isoforms in the formation of alternative channels. We propose several outer and inner membrane proteins as VDAC partners in these pathways.
    Keywords:  Arabidopsis thaliana; DNA import; Solanum tuberosum; adenine nucleotide translocase; plant mitochondria; protoplasts; voltage-dependent anion channel isoforms