bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2021‒06‒20
fourteen papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Jun 13.
      BACKGROUND: Cardioprotection by preventing or repairing mitochondrial damage is an unmet therapeutic need. To understand the role of cardiomyocyte mitochondria in physiopathology, the reliable characterization of the mitochondrial morphology and compartment is pivotal. Previous studies mostly relied on two-dimensional (2D) routine transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thereby neglecting the real three-dimensional (3D) mitochondrial organization. This study aimed to determine whether classical 2D TEM analysis of the cardiomyocyte ultrastructure is sufficient to comprehensively describe the mitochondrial compartment and to reflect mitochondrial number, size, dispersion, distribution, and morphology.METHODS: Spatial distribution of the complex mitochondrial network and morphology, number, and size heterogeneity of cardiac mitochondria in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes and adult wild-type left ventricular tissues (C57BL/6) were assessed using a comparative 3D imaging system based on focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) nanotomography. For comparison of 2D vs. 3D data sets, analytical strategies and mathematical comparative approaches were performed. To confirm the value of 3D data for mitochondrial changes, we compared the obtained values for number, coverage area, size heterogeneity, and complexity of wild-type cardiomyocyte mitochondria with data sets from mice lacking the cytosolic and mitochondrial protein BNIP3 (BCL-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3; Bnip3-/- ) using FIB-SEM. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed on isolated mitochondria using the Seahorse XF analyser. A cardiac biopsy was obtained from a male patient (48 years) suffering from myocarditis.
    RESULTS: The FIB-SEM nanotomographic analysis revealed that no linear relationship exists for mitochondrial number (r = 0.02; P = 0.9511), dispersion (r = -0.03; P = 0.9188), and shape (roundness: r = 0.15, P = 0.6397; elongation: r = -0.09, P = 0.7804) between 3D and 2D results. Cumulative frequency distribution analysis showed a diverse abundance of mitochondria with different sizes in 3D and 2D. Qualitatively, 2D data could not reflect mitochondrial distribution and dynamics existing in 3D tissue. 3D analyses enabled the discovery that BNIP3 deletion resulted in more smaller, less complex cardiomyocyte mitochondria (number: P < 0.01; heterogeneity: C.V. wild-type 89% vs. Bnip3-/- 68%; complexity: P < 0.001) forming large myofibril-distorting clusters, as seen in human myocarditis with disturbed mitochondrial dynamics. Bnip3-/- mice also show a higher respiration rate (P < 0.01).
    CONCLUSIONS: Here, we demonstrate the need of 3D analyses for the characterization of mitochondrial features in cardiac tissue samples. Hence, we observed that BNIP3 deletion physiologically acts as a molecular brake on mitochondrial number, suggesting a role in mitochondrial fusion/fission processes and thereby regulating the homeostasis of cardiac bioenergetics.
    Keywords:  3D morphometry; BNIP3; Cardiac mitochondria; Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy; Mitochondrial dynamics; Mitochondrial energetics
  2. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Jun 18. 12(7): 630
      Mitophagy alleviates neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia by selectively removing dysfunctional mitochondria. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is the most well-known type of mitophagy. However, little is known about the role of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in ischemic tolerance induced by hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) with 8% O2 against transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI). Hence, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HPC-mediated PINK1/Parkin-induced mitochondrial ubiquitination and promotes mitophagy, thus exerting neuroprotection in the hippocampal CA1 subregion against tGCI. We found that mitochondrial clearance was disturbed at the late phase of reperfusion after tGCI, which was reversed by HPC, as evidenced by the reduction of the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20 homologs (TOMM20), translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 23 (TIMM23) and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) in CA1 after HPC. In addition, HPC further increased the ratio of LC3II/I in mitochondrial fraction and promoted the formation of mitophagosomes in CA1 neurons after tGCI. The administration of lysosome inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) intraperitoneally or mitophagy inhibitor (Mdivi-1) intracerebroventricularly abrogated HPC-induced mitochondrial turnover and neuroprotection in CA1 after tGCI. We also found that HPC activated PINK1/Parkin pathway after tGCI, as shown by the augment of mitochondrial PINK1 and Parkin and the promotion of mitochondrial ubiquitination in CA1. In addition, PINK1 or Parkin knockdown with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed the activation of PINK1/Parkin pathway and hampered mitochondrial clearance and attenuated neuroprotection induced by HPC, whereas PINK1 overexpression promoted PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy and ameliorated neuronal damage in CA1 after tGCI. Taken together, the new finding in this study is that HPC-induced neuroprotection against tGCI through promoting mitophagy mediated by PINK1/Parkin-dependent pathway.
  3. Neurochem Int. 2021 Jun 08. pii: S0197-0186(21)00141-8. [Epub ahead of print]148 105095
      Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelle staging a crucial role in cellular stress response, energy metabolism and cell survival. Maintaining mitochondrial quality control is very important for its homeostasis. Pathological conditions such as oxidative stress and neurodegeneration, disrupt this quality control, and involvement of genetic and epigenetic materials in this disruption have been reported. These regulatory factors trigger mitochondrial imbalance, as seen in many neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. The dynamic regulatory pathways i.e. mitophagy, biogenesis, permeability pore transitioning, fusion-fission are affected as a consequence and have been reviewed in this article. Moreover, several epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modulation participating in such neurological disorders have also been discussed. Apart from it, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial quality control have been tremendously explored showing ameliorative effects for these diseases, and have been discussed here with a novel perspective.
    Keywords:  Biogenesis; DNA methylation; Histone acetylation; Mitochondrial quality control; Mitophagy; Neurodegeneration
  4. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Jun 15. 12(6): 614
      Among several leading cardiovascular disorders, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury causes severe manifestations including acute heart failure and systemic dysfunction. Recently, there has been increasing evidence suggesting that alterations in mitochondrial morphology and dysfunction also play an important role in the prognosis of cardiac disorders. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) form major regulatory networks altering gene transcription and translation. While the role of lncRNAs has been extensively studied in cancer and tumor biology, their implications on mitochondrial morphology and functions remain to be elucidated. In this study, the functional roles of Zinc finger protein 36-like 2 (ZFP36L2) and lncRNA PVT1 were determined in cardiomyocytes under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury in vitro and myocardial I/R injury in vivo. Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis were used to assess the levels of ZFP36L2, mitochondrial fission and fusion markers in the myocardial tissues and cardiomyocytes. Cardiac function was determined by immunohistochemistry, H&E staining, and echocardiogram. Ultrastructural analysis of mitochondrial fission was performed using transmission electron microscopy. The mechanistic model consisting of PVT1 with ZFP36L2 and microRNA miR-21-5p with E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 was assessed by subcellular fraction, RNA pull down, FISH, and luciferase reporter assays. These results identified a novel regulatory axis involving PVT1, miR-21-5p, and MARCH5 that alters mitochondrial morphology and function during myocardial I/R injury. Using an in vivo I/R injury mouse model and in vitro cardiomyocytes H/R model, we demonstrated that ZFP36L2 directly associates with PVT1 and alters mitochondrial fission and fusion. PVT1 also interactes with miR-21-5p and suppresses its expression and activity. Furthermore, we identified MARCH5 as a modifier of miR-21-5p, and its effect on mitochondrial fission and fusion are directly proportional to PVT1 expression during H/R injury. Our findings show that manipulation of PVT1-miR-21-5p-MARCH5-mediated mitochondrial fission and fusion via ZFP36L2 may be a novel therapeutic approach to regulate myocardial I/R injury.
  5. Transl Neurodegener. 2021 Jun 15. 10(1): 19
      BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and several genes linked to familial PD, including PINK1 (encoding PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 [PINK1]) and PARK2 (encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin), are directly involved in processes such as mitophagy that maintain mitochondrial health. The dominant p.D620N variant of vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (VPS35) gene is also associated with familial PD but has not been functionally connected to PINK1 and PARK2.METHODS: To better mimic and study the patient situation, we used CRISPR-Cas9 to generate heterozygous human SH-SY5Y cells carrying the PD-associated D620N variant of VPS35. These cells were treated with a protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to induce the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, which was assessed using biochemical and microscopy approaches.
    RESULTS: Mitochondria in the VPS35-D620N cells exhibited reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and appeared to already be damaged at steady state. As a result, the mitochondria of these cells were desensitized to the CCCP-induced collapse in mitochondrial potential, as they displayed altered fragmentation and were unable to accumulate PINK1 at their surface upon this insult. Consequently, Parkin recruitment to the cell surface was inhibited and initiation of the PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy was impaired.
    CONCLUSION: Our findings extend the pool of evidence that the p.D620N mutation of VPS35 causes mitochondrial dysfunction and suggest a converging pathogenic mechanism among VPS35, PINK1 and Parkin in PD.
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial membrane potential; Mitophagy; PINK1; Parkin; Parkinson’s disease; VPS35
  6. Mol Metab. 2021 Jun 14. pii: S2212-8778(21)00118-6. [Epub ahead of print] 101273
      OBJECTIVE: Retinal ischemic disease is a major cause of vision loss. Current treatment options are limited to late stage disease and the molecular mechanisms of the initial insult are not fully understood. We have previously shown that deletion of the mitochondrial arginase isoform, arginase 2 (A2), limits neurovascular injury in models of ischemic retinopathy. Here, we investigated the involvement of A2-mediated alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and function in the pathology.METHODS: We used wild type (WT), global A2 knockout (A2KO-) mice, cell-specific A2 knockout mice subjected to retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs) subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) insult. We used western blotting to measure levels of cell stress and death markers and the mitochondrial fragmentation protein, dynamin related protein 1(Drp1) along with live cell mitochondrial labelling and Seahorse XF analysis to evaluate mitochondrial fragmentation and function, respectively.
    RESULTS: We found that the global deletion of A2 limited I/R-induced disruption of retinal layers, fundus abnormalities and albumin extravasation. The specific deletion of A2 in endothelial cells was protective against I/R-induced neurodegeneration. The OGD/R insult in BRECs increased A2 expression and induced cell stress and cell death along with decreased mitochondrial respiration, increased Drp1 expression and mitochondrial fragmentation. The overexpression of A2 in BREC also decreased mitochondrial respiration, promoted increases in expression of Drp1, mitochondrial fragmentation, cell stress, and resulted in decreased cell survival. In contrast, overexpression of the cytosolic isoform, arginase 1 (A1), had no effect on these parameters.
    CONCLUSION: This study is the first to show that A2 in endothelial cells mediates retinal ischemic injury through a mechanism involving alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and function.
    Keywords:  Retina; arginase; endothelial cells; ischemia; mitochondria
  7. Int J Biol Sci. 2021 ;17(8): 2021-2033
      Today mitochondria are considered much more than a energy plant in cells. Mitochondrial transplantation therapy has been an active research area for treating mitochondria-associated diseases from animal studies to clinical trials. However, the specific mechanism involved in the anti-tumor activity of healthy mitochondria remain to be characterized. Here we investigate the signal mechanism and gender difference of mitochondrial transplantation therapy against malignant melanoma. In the study, we administrated intact mitochondria extracted from mouse livers respectively to the mice bearing malignantly subcutaneous and metastatic melanoma, and identified the signal mechanism responsible for the mitochondrial treatment through transcriptomic analysis. Meanwhile, the efficiency of female mitochondria and male mitochondria was compared in the cultured melanoma cells and transplanted melanoma in mice. The results suggested that the mitochondria significantly inhibited the tumor cell proliferation in vitro through cell cycle arrest and induction of cell apoptosis. In the melanoma-bearing mice, the mitochondria retard the tumor growth and lung migration, and the transcriptomic analysis indicated that general chromosome silencing was strongly associated with the mitochondria against melanoma after the mitochondrial transplantation on the metastasis melanoma. Moreover, the anti-tumor activity of mitochondria from female animals was more efficient in comparison to the males, and the female mitochondria could probably induce more persuasive mitochondria-nuclear communication than the mitochondria from male mice. The study identifies the anti-tumor mechanism of the mitochondrial transplantation therapy, and provides a novel insight into the effect of mitochondria from different gender.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; melanoma; mitochondrial transplantation therapy
  8. FASEB J. 2021 Jul;35(7): e21709
      Tissues undergo a process of degeneration as the body ages. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to have major potential in delaying the aging process in tissues and organs. However, the mechanism underlying the anti-aging effects of MSC is not clear which limits clinical applications. In this study, we used adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) to perform anti-aging treatments on senescent cells and progeroid animal models. Following intervention with ADSCs, replicative senescence was delayed and metabolic homeostasis was transformed from catabolism to anabolism. Metabolomic tests were used to analyze different metabolites. We found that ADSCs acted to accelerate mitophagy which eliminated intracellular ROS and improved the quality of mitochondria. These processes acted to regulate the cellular metabolic homeostasis and ultimately delayed the process of aging. Allogeneic stem cell therapy in a Progeria animal model (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG) knockin, mitochondrial dysfunction) also showed that ADSC therapy can improve alopecia and kyphosis by promoting mitophagy. Our research confirms for the first time that allogeneic stem cell therapy can improve aging-related symbols and phenotypes through mitochondrial quality control. These results are highly significant for the future applications of stem cells in aging-related diseases.
    Keywords:  adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells; aging; metabolism; mitophagy; stem cell transplantation
  9. FASEB J. 2021 Jul;35(7): e21678
      Hypertension is associated with excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vascular cells. Mitochondria undergo fusion and fission, a process playing a role in mitochondrial function. OPA1 is essential for mitochondrial fusion. Loss of OPA1 is associated with ROS production and cell dysfunction. We hypothesized that mitochondria fusion could reduce oxidative stress that defect in fusion would exacerbate hypertension. Using (a) Opa1 haploinsufficiency in isolated resistance arteries from Opa1+/- mice, (b) primary vascular cells from Opa1+/- mice, and (c) RNA interference experiments with siRNA against Opa1 in vascular cells, we investigated the role of mitochondria fusion in hypertension. In hypertension, Opa1 haploinsufficiency induced altered mitochondrial cristae structure both in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells but did not modify protein level of long and short forms of OPA1. In addition, we demonstrated an increase of mitochondrial ROS production, associated with a decrease of superoxide dismutase 1 protein expression. We also observed an increase of apoptosis in vascular cells and a decreased VSMCs proliferation. Blood pressure, vascular contractility, as well as endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation were similar in Opa1+/- , WT, L-NAME-treated Opa1+/- and WT mice. Nevertheless, chronic NO-synthase inhibition with L-NAME induced a greater hypertension in Opa1+/- than in WT mice without compensatory arterial wall hypertrophy. This was associated with a stronger reduction in endothelium-dependent relaxation due to excessive ROS production. Our results highlight the protective role of mitochondria fusion in the vasculature during hypertension by limiting mitochondria ROS production.
    Keywords:  Opa1; hypertension; mitochondria; oxidative stress; vascular function
  10. iScience. 2021 Jun 25. 24(6): 102498
      Mitochondria regulate the immune response after dengue virus (DENV) infection. Microarray analysis of genes identified the upregulation of mitochondrial cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 2 (CMPK2) by DENV infection. We used small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown (KD) and CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (KO) approaches, to investigate the role of CMPK2 in mouse and human cells. The results showed that CMPK2 was critical in DENV-induced antiviral cytokine release and mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA release to the cytosol. The DENV-induced activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9, inflammasome pathway, and cell migration was suppressed by CMPK2 depletion; however, viral production increased under CMPK2 deficiency. Examining mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from interferon-alpha (IFN-α) receptor-KO mice and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-KO mice, we confirmed that CMPK2-mediated antiviral activity occurred in IFN-dependent and IFN-independent manners. In sum, CMPK2 is a critical factor in DENV-induced immune responses to determine innate immunity.
    Keywords:  Immunology; Molecular biology; Virology
  11. mSphere. 2021 Jun 16. e0032721
      Mitochondrial cristae are polymorphic invaginations of the inner membrane that are the fabric of cellular respiration. Both the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organization system (MICOS) and the F1FO-ATP synthase are vital for sculpting cristae by opposing membrane-bending forces. While MICOS promotes negative curvature at crista junctions, dimeric F1FO-ATP synthase is crucial for positive curvature at crista rims. Crosstalk between these two complexes has been observed in baker's yeast, the model organism of the Opisthokonta supergroup. Here, we report that this property is conserved in Trypanosoma brucei, a member of the Discoba clade that separated from the Opisthokonta ∼2 billion years ago. Specifically, one of the paralogs of the core MICOS subunit Mic10 interacts with dimeric F1FO-ATP synthase, whereas the other core Mic60 subunit has a counteractive effect on F1FO-ATP synthase oligomerization. This is evocative of the nature of MICOS-F1FO-ATP synthase crosstalk in yeast, which is remarkable given the diversification that these two complexes have undergone during almost 2 eons of independent evolution. Furthermore, we identified a highly diverged, putative homolog of subunit e, which is essential for the stability of F1FO-ATP synthase dimers in yeast. Just like subunit e, it is preferentially associated with dimers and interacts with Mic10, and its silencing results in severe defects to cristae and the disintegration of F1FO-ATP synthase dimers. Our findings indicate that crosstalk between MICOS and dimeric F1FO-ATP synthase is a fundamental property impacting crista shape throughout eukaryotes. IMPORTANCE Mitochondria have undergone profound diversification in separate lineages that have radiated since the last common ancestor of eukaryotes some eons ago. Most eukaryotes are unicellular protists, including etiological agents of infectious diseases, like Trypanosoma brucei. Thus, the study of a broad range of protists can reveal fundamental features shared by all eukaryotes and lineage-specific innovations. Here, we report that two different protein complexes, MICOS and F1FO-ATP synthase, known to affect mitochondrial architecture, undergo crosstalk in T. brucei, just as in baker's yeast. This is remarkable considering that these complexes have otherwise undergone many changes during their almost 2 billion years of independent evolution. Thus, this crosstalk is a fundamental property needed to maintain proper mitochondrial structure even if the constituent players considerably diverged.
    Keywords:  ATP synthase; MICOS; Trypanosoma; evolution; mitochondria
  12. Nat Commun. 2021 06 14. 12(1): 3607
      Ribosomes are recycled for a new round of translation initiation by dissociation of ribosomal subunits, messenger RNA and transfer RNA from their translational post-termination complex. Here we present cryo-EM structures of the human 55S mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) and the mitoribosomal large 39S subunit in complex with mitoribosome recycling factor (RRFmt) and a recycling-specific homolog of elongation factor G (EF-G2mt). These structures clarify an unusual role of a mitochondria-specific segment of RRFmt, identify the structural distinctions that confer functional specificity to EF-G2mt, and show that the deacylated tRNA remains with the dissociated 39S subunit, suggesting a distinct sequence of events in mitoribosome recycling. Furthermore, biochemical and structural analyses reveal that the molecular mechanism of antibiotic fusidic acid resistance for EF-G2mt is markedly different from that of mitochondrial elongation factor EF-G1mt, suggesting that the two human EF-Gmts have evolved diversely to negate the effect of a bacterial antibiotic.
  13. Nat Commun. 2021 06 16. 12(1): 3673
      Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) synthesize a critical set of proteins essential for oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, mitoribosomal function is vital to the cellular energy supply. Mitoribosome biogenesis follows distinct molecular pathways that remain poorly understood. Here, we determine the cryo-EM structures of mitoribosomes isolated from human cell lines with either depleted or overexpressed mitoribosome assembly factor GTPBP5, allowing us to capture consecutive steps during mitoribosomal large subunit (mt-LSU) biogenesis. Our structures provide essential insights into the last steps of 16S rRNA folding, methylation and peptidyl transferase centre (PTC) completion, which require the coordinated action of nine assembly factors. We show that mammalian-specific MTERF4 contributes to the folding of 16S rRNA, allowing 16 S rRNA methylation by MRM2, while GTPBP5 and NSUN4 promote fine-tuning rRNA rearrangements leading to PTC formation. Moreover, our data reveal an unexpected involvement of the elongation factor mtEF-Tu in mt-LSU assembly, where mtEF-Tu interacts with GTPBP5, similar to its interaction with tRNA during translational elongation.
  14. J Biol Chem. 2021 Jun 15. pii: S0021-9258(21)00680-3. [Epub ahead of print] 100880
      More than half a century ago, reversible protein phosphorylation was first linked to mitochondrial metabolism through the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Since this discovery, the number of identified mitochondrial protein phosphorylation sites has increased by orders of magnitude, driven largely by technological advances in mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics. However, the majority of these modifications remain uncharacterized, rendering their function and relevance unclear. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown that disruption of resident mitochondrial protein phosphatases causes substantial metabolic dysfunction across organisms, suggesting that proper management of mitochondrial phosphorylation is vital for organellar and organismal homeostasis. While these data suggest that phosphorylation within mitochondria is of critical importance, significant gaps remain in our knowledge of how these modifications influence organellar function. Here, we curate publicly available datasets to map the extent of protein phosphorylation within mammalian mitochondria and to highlight the known functions of mitochondrial-resident phosphatases. We further propose models by which phosphorylation may affect mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein import and processing, and overall organellar homeostasis.
    Keywords:  mitochondria; phosphoproteomics; protein kinase; protein phosphatase; protein phosphorylation