bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2021‒06‒06
fourteen papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto

  1. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2277 15-37
      Mitochondrial transplantation is a novel therapeutic intervention to treat ischemia-reperfusion-related disorders. This approach uses replacement of native mitochondria with viable, respiration-competent mitochondria isolated from non-ischemic tissue obtained from the patient's own body, to overcome the many deleterious effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury on native mitochondria. The safety and efficacy of this methodology has been demonstrated in cell culture, animal models and has been shown to be safe and efficacious in a phase I clinical trial in pediatric cardiac patients with ischemia-reperfusion injury. These studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial transplantation rescues myocardial cellular viability and significantly enhances postischemic myocardial function following ischemia-reperfusion injury. Herein, we describe methodologies for the delivery of isolated mitochondria.
    Keywords:  Direct injection; Intracoronary delivery; Ischemia-reperfusion; Mitochondrial isolation; Mitochondrial transplantation
  2. Autophagy. 2021 Jun 04.
      Cardiac function is highly reliant on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and quality control. The circadian Clock gene is critically linked to vital physiological processes including mitochondrial fission, fusion and bioenergetics; however, little is known of how the Clock gene regulates these vital processes in the heart. Herein, we identified a putative circadian CLOCK-mitochondrial interactome that gates an adaptive survival response during myocardial ischemia. We show by transcriptome and gene ontology mapping in CLOCK Δ19/Δ19 mouse that Clock transcriptionally coordinates the efficient removal of damaged mitochondria during myocardial ischemia by directly controlling transcription of genes required for mitochondrial fission, fusion and macroautophagy/autophagy. Loss of Clock gene activity impaired mitochondrial turnover resulting in the accumulation of damaged reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing mitochondria from impaired mitophagy. This coincided with ultrastructural defects to mitochondria and impaired cardiac function. Interestingly, wild type CLOCK but not mutations of CLOCK defective for E-Box binding or interaction with its cognate partner ARNTL/BMAL-1 suppressed mitochondrial damage and cell death during acute hypoxia. Interestingly, the autophagy defect and accumulation of damaged mitochondria in CLOCK-deficient cardiac myocytes were abrogated by restoring autophagy/mitophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by ATG7 knockdown abrogated the cytoprotective effects of CLOCK. Collectively, our results demonstrate that CLOCK regulates an adaptive stress response critical for cell survival by transcriptionally coordinating mitochondrial quality control mechanisms in cardiac myocytes. Interdictions that restore CLOCK activity may prove beneficial in reducing cardiac injury in individuals with disrupted circadian CLOCK.
    Keywords:  autophagy; clock; metabolism; mitochondrion; myocardial infarction
  3. Cells. 2021 May 17. pii: 1223. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      The cAMP analogue 8-Br-cAMP-AM (8-Br) confers marked protection against global ischaemia/reperfusion of isolated perfused heart. We tested the hypothesis that 8-Br is also protective under clinically relevant conditions (regional ischaemia) when applied either before ischemia or at the beginning of reperfusion, and this effect is associated with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). 8-Br (10 μM) was administered to Langendorff-perfused rat hearts for 5 min either before or at the end of 30 min regional ischaemia. Ca2+-induced mitochondria swelling (a measure of MPTP opening) and binding of hexokinase II (HKII) to mitochondria were assessed following the drug treatment at preischaemia. Haemodynamic function and ventricular arrhythmias were monitored during ischaemia and 2 h reperfusion. Infarct size was evaluated at the end of reperfusion. 8-Br administered before ischaemia attenuated ventricular arrhythmias, improved haemodynamic function, and reduced infarct size during ischaemia/reperfusion. Application of 8-Br at the end of ischaemia protected the heart during reperfusion. 8-Br promoted binding of HKII to the mitochondria and reduced Ca2+-induced mitochondria swelling. Thus, 8-Br protects the heart when administered before regional ischaemia or at the beginning of reperfusion. This effect is associated with inhibition of MPTP via binding of HKII to mitochondria, which may underlie the protective mechanism.
    Keywords:  cardioprotection; cyclic AMP; heart; hexokinase II; mitochondria permeability transition pore; regional ischaemia; reperfusion injury
  4. Stem Cells. 2021 Jun 05.
      Mitochondria are organelles with recognized key roles in cellular homeostasis, including bioenergetics, redox, calcium signaling, and cell death. Mitochondria are essential for neuronal function, given the high energy demands of the human brain. Consequently, mitochondrial diseases affecting oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) commonly exhibit neurological impairment. Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondria are important not only for mature postmitotic neurons but also for the regulation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) during the process of neurogenesis. These recent findings put mitochondria as central regulator of cell fate decisions during brain development. OXPHOS mutations may disrupt the function of NPCs and thereby impair the metabolic programming required for neural fate commitment. Promoting the mitochondrial function of NPCs could therefore represent a novel interventional approach against incurable mitochondrial diseases.
    Keywords:  NPCs; iPSCs; mitochondria; mitochondrial diseases; neurogenesis
  5. Cells. 2021 May 14. pii: 1202. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      In the heart, mitochondrial homeostasis is critical for sustaining normal function and optimal responses to metabolic and environmental stressors. Mitochondrial fusion and fission are thought to be necessary for maintaining a robust population of mitochondria, and disruptions in mitochondrial fission and/or fusion can lead to cellular dysfunction. The dynamin-related protein (DRP1) is an important mediator of mitochondrial fission. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of the micronutrient retinoid all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the mitochondrial structure in vivo and in vitro using Western blot, confocal, and transmission electron microscopy, as well as mitochondrial network quantification using stochastic modeling. Our results showed that ATRA increases DRP1 protein levels, increases the localization of DRP1 to mitochondria in isolated mitochondrial preparations. Our results also suggested that ATRA remodels the mitochondrial ultrastructure where the mitochondrial area and perimeter were decreased and the circularity was increased. Microscopically, mitochondrial network remodeling is driven by an increased rate of fission over fusion events in ATRA, as suggested by our numerical modeling. In conclusion, ATRA results in a pharmacologically mediated increase in the DRP1 protein. It also results in the modulation of cardiac mitochondria by promoting fission events, altering the mitochondrial network, and modifying the ultrastructure of mitochondria in the heart.
    Keywords:  DRP1; all-trans retinoic acid; mitochondrial fission; mitochondrial fusion; mitochondrial network
  6. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2277 277-287
      Isolation of mitochondria is a crucial method for examining molecular details of this organelle's manifold functions. Historically, mitochondrial isolations required large amounts of sample material which impeded their isolation from cultured cells. We have therefore developed a method allowing for controlled and reproducible isolation of intact and functional mitochondria from diverse cell types in culture. Here we provide a methodological update of this approach together with a protocol for the subsequent analysis of such isolated mitochondria by electron microscopy. Combining the isolation procedure with this powerful imaging method can reveal ultrastructural mitochondrial peculiarities in disease settings that might not be evident in intact cells and allows for assessment of mitochondrial membrane integrity and sample purity.
    Keywords:  Balch homogenizer; Cell culture; Electron microscopy; Image analysis; Mitochondria
  7. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2277 69-89
      The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU ) is an essential protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane that mediates the uptake of calcium into mitochondria of virtually all mammalian tissues, regulating cell metabolism, signaling, and death. MCU-mediated calcium uptake has been shown to play a pathophysiological role in diverse human disease contexts, which qualifies this channel as a druggable target for therapeutic intervention.Here, we present a protocol to perform drug screens to identify effective and specific MCU-targeting inhibitors. The methodology is based on the use of cryopreserved mitochondria that are isolated from a yeast strain engineered to express the human MCU and its essential regulator EMRE together with the luminescence calcium sensor aequorin. Yeast mitochondria with a functionally reconstituted MCU-mediated calcium uptake are then employed as a ready-to-use screening reagent. False discovery rate is further minimized by energizing mitochondria with D-lactate in a mannitol/sucrose-based medium, which provides a mean to discriminate between direct and secondary effects of drugs on mitochondrial calcium uptake. This screening assay is sensitive and robust and can be easily implemented in any laboratory.
    Keywords:  Aequorin; Calcium; Drug screening; Luminescence assay; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial calcium uniporter; Yeast
  8. J Pineal Res. 2021 Jun 04. e12747
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered one of the hallmarks of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Mitochondria are plastic organelles that undergo continuous biogenesis, fusion and fission. They can be transferred between cells through tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), dynamic structures that allow the exchange of proteins, soluble molecules and organelles. Maintaining mitochondrial dynamics is crucial to cell function and survival. The present study aimed to assess the effects of melatonin on mitochondrial dynamics, TNT formation and mitochondria transfer in HT22 cells exposed to oxygen/glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R). The results showed that melatonin treatment during the reoxygenation phase reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, improved cell viability and increased the expression of PGC1α and SIRT3. Melatonin also preserved the expression of the membrane translocase proteins TOM20 and TIM23, and of the matrix protein HSP60, which are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Moreover, it promoted mitochondrial fusion and enhanced the expression of MFN2 and OPA1. Remarkably, melatonin also fostered mitochondrial transfer between injured HT22 cells through TNT connections. These results provide new insights into the effect of melatonin on mitochondrial network reshaping and cell survival. Fostering TNTs formation represents a novel mechanism mediating the protective effect of melatonin in ischemia/reperfusion injury.
    Keywords:  HT22; Melatonin; mitochondrial network; oxygen-glucose deprivation; tunneling nanotubes
  9. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2277 39-47
      Quantitative control of mitochondrial transfer is a promising approach for genetic manipulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) because it enables precise modulation of heteroplasmy. Furthermore, single mitochondrion transfer from a mtDNA mutation-accumulated cell to a mtDNA-less (ρ0) cell potentially achieves homoplasmy of mutated mtDNA. Here we describe the method for quantitative control of mitochondrial transfer including achieving single mitochondrion transfer between live single cells using a microfluidic device.
    Keywords:  Cell fusion; Heteroplasmy; Homoplasmy; Microfluidics; Microtunnel; Mitochondrial DNA; Mitochondrial transfer
  10. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2277 391-403
      Cellular metabolism contributes to cell fate decisions. Bioenergetic profiling can therefore provide considerable insights into cellular identity and specification. Given the current importance of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) for biomedical applications, assessing the bioenergetic properties of hPSCs and derivatives can unveil relevant mechanisms in the context of development biology and molecular disease modeling. Here, we describe a method to facilitate bioenergetic profiling of hPSCs in a reproducible and scalable manner. After simultaneous assessment of mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic capacity using Seahorse XFe96 Analyzer, we measure lactate concentration in the cellular media. Finally, we normalize the values based on DNA amount. We describe the procedures with specific requirements related to hPSCs . However, the same protocol can be easily adapted to other cell types, including differentiated progenies from hPSCs .
    Keywords:  Bioenergetic profiling; Mitochondria; Pluripotent stem cells; Seahorse; iPSCs
  11. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2276 1-29
      Until recently restricted to hereditary mitochondrial diseases, mitochondrial dysfunction is now recognized as a key player and strategic factor in the pathophysiological of many human diseases, ranging from the metabolism, vascular, cardiac, and neurodegenerative diseases to cancer. Because of their participation in a myriad of cellular functions and signaling pathways, precisely identifying the cause of mitochondrial "dysfunctions" can be challenging and requires robust and controlled techniques. Initially limited to the analysis of the respiratory chain functioning, these analytical techniques now enlarge to the analyses of mitochondrial and cellular metabolism, based on metabolomic approaches.Here, we address the methods used to assay mitochondrial dysfunction, with a highlight on the techniques used in diagnosis on tissues and cells derived from patients, the information they provide, and their strength and weakness.Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction by various strategies is a huge challenge, requires robust methods of evaluation, and should be able to take into consideration the mitochondria dynamics and localization. The future of mitochondrial medicine is strongly related to a perfect comprehension of its dysfunction.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Devices; Metabolomics; Mitochondria evaluation; Mitochondrial dysfunctions
  12. NPJ Syst Biol Appl. 2021 Jun 02. 7(1): 26
      Spatiotemporal compartmentation of calcium dynamics is critical for neuronal function, particularly in postsynaptic spines. This exquisite level of Ca2+ compartmentalization is achieved through the storage and release of Ca2+ from various intracellular organelles particularly the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria. Mitochondria and ER are established storage organelles controlling Ca2+ dynamics in neurons. Mitochondria also generate a majority of energy used within postsynaptic spines to support the downstream events associated with neuronal stimulus. Recently, high resolution microscopy has unveiled direct contact sites between the ER and the mitochondria (MERCs), which directly channel Ca2+ release from the ER into the mitochondrial membrane. In this study, we develop a computational 3D reaction-diffusion model to investigate the role of MERCs in regulating Ca2+ and ATP dynamics. This spatiotemporal model accounts for Ca2+ oscillations initiated by glutamate stimulus of metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors and Ca2+ changes in four different compartments: cytosol, ER, mitochondria, and the MERC microdomain. Our simulations predict that the organization of these organelles and inter-organellar contact sites play a key role in modulating Ca2+ and ATP dynamics.We further show that the crosstalk between geometry (mitochondria and MERC) and metabolic parameters (cytosolic ATP hydrolysis, ATP generation) influences the neuronal energy state. Our findings shed light on the importance of organelle interactions in predicting Ca2+ dynamics in synaptic signaling. Overall, our model predicts that a combination of MERC linkage and mitochondria size is necessary for optimal ATP production in the cytosol.
  13. Life Sci. 2021 May 31. pii: S0024-3205(21)00655-X. [Epub ahead of print] 119669
      AIMS: Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is one of the leading causes of acute liver injury-related death and liver failure worldwide. In many studies, mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as an important cause of damage in APAP toxicity. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the possible effects of mitochondrial transplantation on liver damage due to APAP toxicity.MAIN METHODS: APAP toxicity model was implemented by administering a toxic dose of APAP. To demonstrate the efficiency of mitochondria transplantation, it was compared with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) application, which is now clinically accepted. Mitochondrial transplantation was carried out by delivering mitochondria to the liver via the portal circulation, which was injected into the spleen. In our study, the rats were randomly divided into 6 groups as Sham, APAP, Control 1, APAP+mito, Control 2, and APAP+NAC. In the end of the experiment, histological and biochemical analysis were performed and the biodistribution of the transplanted mitochondria to target cells were also shown.
    KEY FINDINGS: Successful mitochondrial transplantation was confirmed and mitochondrial transplantation improved the liver histological structure to a similar level with healthy rats. Moreover, plasma ALT levels, apoptotic cells, and total oxidant levels were decreased. It was also observed that NAC treatment increased GSH levels to the highest level among the groups. However, mitochondrial transplantation was more effective than NAC application in terms of histological and functional improvement.
    SIGNIFICANCE: It has been evaluated that mitochondrial transplantation can be used as an important alternative or adjunctive treatment method in liver damage caused by toxic dose APAP intake.
    Keywords:  Acetaminophen; Liver toxicity; Mitochondrial transplantation; N-acetylcysteine
  14. Biomolecules. 2021 May 10. pii: 711. [Epub ahead of print]11(5):
      Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, constantly undergoing shape changes, which are controlled by mitochondrial movement, fusion, and fission. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in various cellular processes under physiological and pathological conditions, including metabolism, superoxide generation, calcium homeostasis, and apoptosis. Abnormal mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial protein expression are always closely related to the health status of cells. Analysis of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial protein expression in situ is widely used to reflect the abnormality of cell function in the chemical fixed sample. Paraformaldehyde (PFA), the most commonly used fixative in cellular immunostaining, still has disadvantages, including loss of antigenicity and disruption of morphology during fixation. We tested the effect of ethanol (ETHO), PFA, and glutaraldehyde (GA) fixation on cellular mitochondria. The results showed that 3% PFA and 1.5% GA (PFA-GA) combination reserved mitochondrial morphology better than them alone in situ in cells. Mitochondrial network and protein antigenicity were well maintained, indicated by preserved MitoTracker and mitochondrial immunostaining after PFA-GA fixation. Our results suggest that the PFA-GA combination is a valuable fixative for the study of mitochondria in situ.
    Keywords:  fixative; glutaraldehyde; mitochondria; mitochondrial morphology; paraformaldehyde